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Table of Contents. 

General Observations. 

Compass of the book : 

(i) A grammar, p. xvii. 

(a) of Latin, p. xviii. 

(3) of the classical period, p. xix. 

Treatment of the matter of Book I. p. xxii. 

Book II. p. xxiv. 

Book III. p. xxvi. 

Observations on Book I.; particularly on Pronun- 
ciation, p. XXX. 

On 7 consonant, p. xxxiii. 
On f, p. xlvi. 

On before 89, e, 1, &€., p. xlvii. 
On g before 89, e and 1, p. Iv. 
On dentals: especially ti before a vowel, p. Ivi. 
On bs, z, bt, &c., p. Ivii. 
On n before gutturals, gn, p. Ivii. 
On 8, p. Iviii. 
Origin of 88, p. Ixii. 

On the vowels, especially and e, p. Ixix. 
On the diphthongs al, ae, oi, oe, ul, p. Ixxv. 
On a supposed sound like ii, p. Ixxvi. 
Miscellaneous: chiefly on vowel pronunciation, p. Ixxviii. 
Division of words into syllables, p. Ixxxiii. 
. Summary of Roman pronunciation, p. Ixxxvii. 

a 2 

iv Table of Contents. Book I. 

Observations on Book II. 

On noun-stems ending in e, p. xci. 

On noun-stems ending in 1, and in a consonant, p. xciii. 

On verbs w^ith vowel stems, p. xcvi. 

Concluding Remarks. 

Acknowledgment of obligations, p. c. 
Editions used, p. ciL 
Conclusion, p. ciii. 

Preface to Second Edition, p. civ. 

Book I. Sounds. 

Chap. I. Elements of Speech; and particularly Con- 
sonants, p. 3. 

II. Combination of Consonants, p. 6. 

III. Vowels and Combinations of Vowels, p. 8. 

IV. Laws of Phonetic change, p. 11. 

Sudden phonetic change, p. 11. 
Gradual phonetic change, p. 16. 

V. Latin Alphabet in general, p. ai. 

VI. Latin Alphabet in detail: 

Labials and Labiodentals, p. 24. 

P, p. 24', B, p. a6; M, p. ay; V as consonant, 

p. a9 ; F, p. 32. 

VII. Gutturals and Palatals, p. 34. 

K, C, p. 34 ; X, p. 36 ; Q, p. 37 ; G, p. 38 ; H, 

p. 40 ; J, p. 4a. 

VIII. Dentals and Linguals, p. 44. 

T, p. 44 ; D, p. 47 ; N, p. 50; L, p. 52 ; R, p. 54 ; 

s, p. 57; z, p. 61. 

IX. Vowels, p. 62, 

A, p. 62 ; 0, p. 65 ; IT, p. 69 ; E, p. 72 ; I, p. 77. 

Table of Contents. Book II. 

X. Diphthongs, p. 8i. 

AIT, p. 8i ; on, p. 8i ; EU, p. 8z ; AI, p. 82; AE, 
p. 8a ; 01, OE, p. 83 ; EI, p. 84. 

XI. Of Latin Words and Syllables, p. 86. • 

§§ a 69 — a 7 1. Of the commencement and ending 

of Latin words, p. 86. 

§§ a 7a — 274. Of the division of syllables in Latin 

words, p. 87. 

XII. Quantity of Syllables, p. 89. 

i. Quantity of vowels not in last syllable, p. 90. 

ii. Quantity of vowels in last syllable, p. 90. 

iii. Quantity of syllables by position in the same 
word, p. 93. 

iv. Effect of initial soimds on preceding final syl- 
lables, p. 94. 

V. Peculiarities in early dramatic verse, p. 97. 

XIIL Accentuation, p. 98. 

Book II. Inflexions. 
Chap. I. Of inflexions in general, p. 103. 

II. Of noun' INFLEXIONS, and particularly of Gen- 
der, p. 104. 

III. Of noun inflexions of Number, p. 109. 

IV. Of Case inflexions in general, p. 112. 
V. Nouns of Class I., p. 113. 

I. Gender, p. 113. 

II. Inflexions of Case, p. 115. 

I. Declension of stems in -a and -e, p. 115. 
a. Ordinary declension of -o stems, p. 116. 

3. Declension of stems in -ro, p. 117. 

4. Prae-Augustan declension of stems in -uo, 
p. 118. 

5. Augustan and prac- Augustan declension of 
stems in -io, p. 119. 

vi Table of Contents. Book II. 

VI. Old and exceptional forms of cases (Class I.), 

p. IZQ. 

I. Singular Number, p. lao. 
a. Plural Number, p. 123. 
§ 369. Defective or redundant words (Class I.), 
p. 125. 

VII. Peculiar declension of certain Pronouns and Adjec- 
tives (Class I.), p. 126. 

1. unus, qUua, nuUns, solus, totus, alter, uter, 

&c.. Ipse, p. 126. 

2. Ule, iste, alius, p. 127; lllio, Istlo, p. 128. 
3« Mo, p. 128. 

4. is, p. 129 ; idem, p. 130. 

5. qui, p. 130; quls, p. 131; compounds of 

qui, quis, p. 131. 

VIII. Personal Pronouns, p. 132. 

IX. Nouns of Class II., p. 133. 

i. Declension of -u stems, p. 133. 
(Use of genitive in -i, p. 135.) 

X. ii. Declension of -i stems, p. 136. 

1. Stems with labial before i, p. 138. 

2. Stems with guttural before i, p. 140. 

3. Stems with dental before i, p. 142. 

4. Stems in -ni, p. 145 ; -li, p. 145 ; -ri, p. 147 ; 

-si, p. 148. 

XI. iii. Declension of consonant stems, p. 149. 

1. Stems ending in mutes and -m, p. 150. 

(a) Labial stems, p. 150 ; (h) Guttural stems, 
p. 151 ; (f) Dental stems, p. 152. 

2. Stems ending in -n, p. 154. 

3. Stems ending in -1, -r, -s, p. 156. 

XII. Old or exceptional forms of Cases (Class II ), 
- p. 160. 

Singular number, p. 160. 
Plural number, p. 162. 

Table of CoNrENTS. Book II. 


XIII. Greek Nouns, Glass I., p. i6a. 

i. Stems in -a, p. 163. 
ii. Stems in -0, p. 164. 

XIV. Greek Nouns, Class II., p. 166. 

1. Stems in -0, -eu, -y, p. 166. 

2. Stems in -e and -1, p. 167. 

3. Consonant stems, p. 168. 

(a) Labial stems, p. 169; (b) Guttural stems, 
p. 169; (c) Dental stems, p. 169; QT) Stems in 
-n, p. 171; (e) Stems in -s or -r, p. 17a. 

XV. Adverbs and Conjunctions, p. 173. 

Ending in -a, p. 173 ; in -», p. 173 ; in -0, p. 173 ; 
in -u, p. 175; in -e, p. 175; in -1, p. 176 ; in -b, 
p. 177; in -m, p. 177; in -t, -d, p. 179; in -n, 
p. 179; in -1, p. 180; in -r, p. 180; in -s, p. 181. 

XVI. Inflexions of Verb. Introduction, p. i8a. 

Purpose of inflexions, p. 18 a. 
English equivalents, p. 183. 

XVII. Inflexions of Person and Number, p. 185. 

First Person, p. 186. 
Second Person, p. 187. 
Third Person, p. 188. 

XVIII. Inflexions of Mood, p. 189. 

1. Indicative Mood, p. 189. 

2. Imperative Mood, p. 189. 

3. Subjunctive Mood, p. 191. 

XIX. Classification of inflexions of Tense, p. 192. 

XX. Tenses formed from the Present Stem. 

Present, p. 194; Future, p. 194; Imperfect in- 
dicative, p. 195; Imperfect subjunctive, p. 195; 
Present Infinitive active, p. 196; Infinitive passive, 
p. 196; Gerund and gerundive, p. 197. 
Old Futures in -so, -slxn, p. 197. 


Table of Contents. Book II. 

XXI. Of Verb Stems; especially the Present Stem, 
p. zoo. 
i. Consonant verbs, p. aoo. 

(Inchoative forms, p. aoi.) 
ii. Vowel verbs 

1. with stems in -a, p. 203 ; 

2. with stems in -0, p. 204 ; 

3. with stems in -ii, p. 204; 

4. with stems in -e, p. 204 ; 

5. with stems in -1, p. 205. 

XXII. Tenses formed from the Perfect Stem, p. 206. 

XXIII. Of the Perfect Stem, p. 209. 

Perfect Stems formed 

1. by reduplication, p. 209; 

2. by lengthening the stem vowel, p. 210; 

3. by suffixing -b, p. 210 ; 

4. by suffixing -u, p. 212; -v, p. 213; 

5. Perfect stem same as present stem, p. 214. 
Verbs (non-derivative) which have no perfect active, 

p. 215- 

XXIV. Of the Supine Stem, p. 216. 

i. Verbs vnth a vowel preceding supine suffix, p. 2 1 6. 
ii. Verbs vdth a consonant preceding supine suffix, 

1. Verbs which retain t, p. 218; 

2. Verbs which soften t to b, p. 220. 
Nature of supines, p. 221. 

Forms derived from supine stem, p. 222. 

XXV. Of the Traditional Classification of Verbs, p. 223. 

XXVI. Examples of the Complete Inflexions of Verbs, 

p. 225. 
Present stem. Consonant conjugation, p. 226. 

Principal vowel conjugation, p. 227. 
Other vowel conjugations, p. 228. 
Perfect stem, p. 230. 
Supine stem, p. 231. 

Table of Contents. Book III. 






Inflexions of the Verb sum, and compounds, p. 232. 
(poBBum, p. 223,) 

Inflexions of some Irregular Verbs, 

do; YOlo, nolo, malo; eo; fio; edo; fero, feror, 
pp. »34, 22s ; <ni00i P» ^36. 

Alphabetical List of Deponent Verbs, p. 236. 
List of deponent past participles, p. 238. 

Alphabetical List of Verbs, with their peifects, 
supines, &c., p. 239. • 
Additional verbs with no perfect or supine. 
-e verbs, p. 264 ; -i verbs, p. 264. 

Book III. Word-Formation. 

Chap. I. 


Elements of Word-formation, p. 267. 

i. Reduplication, p. 267. 

ii. Internal change, p. 268. 

iii. Suflixes: (a) Suffixes of inflexion (see Book II.); 
(h) Stem suffixes, p. a68; (c) Derivative suf- 
fixes (see Chap. II.). 

iv. Composition (see Chap. XL). 

Interjections (see Chap. XII.). 

Derivative Suffixes, p. 270. 

Labial Noun-stems; ending in 

i. -po, p. 272; -pho, p. 273; -pi, -p, p. 273. 

ii. -bo, p. 273; -W, -i), p. 274. 

iii. -mo, p. 274; -tbno (-Imo), -iBs-ttmo, p. 275; 

-1-tbno, -r-tUno, -t-tUno, p. 276 ; -68-tlmo, 

p. 277; -ml, -m, p. 277. 
iv. -vo, p. 277 ; -uo, p. 278; -i-vo, -t-Ivo, p. 279 ; 

-7i, -ul, p. 280. 
V. -fo, p. 280. 

Table br Contents. Book III. 

IV. Guttural Noun-stems; ending in 

i. -co, -qvo, p. a 80; -Ico, p. a8i. 

-tl-co, -&tX-co, -U-oo (-Ico), ri-co (-rco), p. 28a. 

-in-qvo, -I-<ivo, p. a8». 

-ft-co, p. a8a ; -tl-co, -I-co, p. 283 ; I-&-C0, p. 283. 

-en, -d, -c, p. 283 ; -6c (Xc), p. 283 ; -Ic, p. 284. 

-a-d, -5-ci, -S-c, -I-d, -Ic, p. 284 ; -t-r-Ici (-trie), 
p. 285. 
ii. -go, -gvo, pp. 285, 286; -gi, -g, gvl, p. 286. 

iii. -ho, -M, p. 286. 


V. Dental Noun-stems; ending in 

i. -to, p. 286.; -to (-BO), p. 287 ; -U8-tO, -OB-tO, 

p. 289. 
-en-to, -xn-en-to, p. 289 ; -fll-en-to, p. 290. 
-gln-tft, -glnti, p. 290; -cen-to, -gen-to, p. 291. 
-&-to, p. 291; -5-to, -fl-to, -e-to, p. 292 ; -I-to, 

p. »93- 
ii. -tu (-Bu), p. 293 ; -Txl-tn, -a-tu, p. 294. 

-tl (-81), p. 295; -ftt, p. 295 ; -6t, -tit (It), p. 296. 

-«-ti (Iti), -6t, -et (It), -m-6t (-mit), p. 296. 

-en-ti, -1-en-ti, -s-ti, pp. 296, 297. 

-ft-tl, -ftt, -t-ftt, p. 297; -es-t-ftt, p. 298. 

-0-ti, -6t, -tit, -ttl-t, -S-ti, p. 298; -I-tl, p. 299. 
iii. -0-80, p. 299; -C5-B0, -10-80, 1-cH-lO-BO, p. 300. 

-u-0-80, 1-0-BO, p. 300. 

-en-Bl, -1-en-Bl, p. 300. 
iv. -do, p. 301; -Ob-Tin-do, -Ib-nn-do, -2Ll>-im-do, 

p. 302; -c-un-do, p. 303. 
V. -du, -di, -tld, -6d (Id), p. 303; -6d, -5d, -d, 

p. 303- 

VI. Dental Noun-stems (continued); ending in 

vi. -no, -I-no, p. 304; -ml-no (-xnno)» p. 305; -gl- 

no (-gno), p. 306. 
-tl-no, p. 306 ; -nr-no, -er-no, -t-er-no, p. 306. 
-9.-no, -l-Sr-no, -It-i-no, pp. 307, 308 ; -O-no, 

-c8-no, -U-no, p. 308. 

Table of Contents. Book III. xi 

-8B-no, -6-no, -l-S-no, -Il-6-no, p. 309. 

-I-no, p. 309 ; -ol-ne, -tl-no, -U-no, -t-rl-no, 

p. 311. 
vii. -nl, p. 311; -dn (In), p. 31a. 

-g-On (-gin), -Sg-On, -U-Sg-On, -Ikg-On, -Ur-On, 

p. 31a. 
-d-On, -fLd-dn, -t-{Lcl-(ki,-9d-6n, -Id-5n, pp. 3 1 a, 3 1 3 . 

-6n, p. 313 ; -fia (-^)» -m-«a. P- 314. 

-On, p. 315 ; -l-5n, p. 316 ; -cl-5n, -tl-On, p. 317. 

VII. Lingual Noun-stems; ending in 

i. -lo, -d-lo, p. 319 ; -ft-lo, p. 320; -pft-lo, -btl-lo, 

-ctt-lo (-do), p. 323 ; -nn-ott-lo, p. 325 ; -ua-cft-lo, 

p. 3*6. 
-6-dtl-lo, p. 326. 
-ul-ltl-lo, -el-m-lo, p. 326; -11-lft-lo, p. 327; 

-I-lo, p. 327. 
-al-lo, -aul-lo, -ol-lo, -nl-lo, -el-lo, p. 327 ; 

ll-lo^ p. 329. 
-ft-lo, -au-lo, -O-lo, -fl-lo, -86-10^ -S-lo (-eilo), 

-I-lo, p. 330. 
ii. -U, -1, pp. 330, 331; -8ftl,p. 331, 
-I-U, -M-11, p. 331; -sI-M-U, p. 332. 
-tl-U (-BlU), -ft-tl-U, pp. 33^, 333' 
-a-li, p. 333; -tl-U, -641, -I-ll, p. 335* 

VIII. Lingual Noun-stems (continued); ending in 

iii. -ro, -ft-ro, -6-ro, -tl-ro, pp. 336, 337. 

-S-ro, -M-ro(-liro), p. 337 ; -c6-ro (-cro), p. 338. 
-te-ro (-tro), p. 338 ; -as-tS-ro (-aatro), p. 339; 

-d-ro, -1-ro, p. 339. 
-9,-ro, -au-ro, p. 339 ; -5-ro, -tl-ro, -tll-ro (-stlro), 

p. 340. 
-5-ro, -I-ro, p. 341. 
iv. -ru, -rl, p. 341 ; -r, -fir, -6r, -ilr, p. 342. 
-S-rl, -Sr, -b«-rl (-tori), p. 342; -l)«r, p. 343. 
-cS-ri (-cri), -tru, -tS-xl (-trl), -es-td-rl (-estrl), 
p. 343 ; -tfir («tr), -In-6r, p. 343. 

xii Table of Contents. Book III. 

-a-rl, p. 343; ^r, -t-0r(Hi6r), p. 345; -fl-ri, 
p. 348. 
V. -ds (-6r), -n-6s (-nfir), -Us (fir), -n-ils (-nCr), 
p. 348. 
-6b (-6r), -to (-«r), p. 348. 
-68 (-6r), -l-Os (-Wr), p. 349; -lis (-to), p. 350. 

IX. Vowel Noun-stems; ending in 

(-U0, see p. 378.) 
i. -e-o, p. 350; -a-ce-o, -fl-ce-o, -te-o, p. 351. 

-ne-o, -g-ne-o, p. 35 1 ; -&-ne-o, -t&-ne-o, -0-ne-o, 
-le-o, p. 3S2. 
ii. -i-o, p. ss^i -d-o, -I-d-o, p. 356; -I-d-o, 

-tl-d-o (-sldo), p. 357. 
: -tl-o, p. 357; -en-tl-o, p. 358; -n-dl-o, p. 359. 

-ni-o, -m-nl-o, -mO-nl-o, -d-nl-o, p. 359. 

-11-0, -ft-li-o, -6-11-0, -11-11-0 (-SII0), p. 359. 

-rl-o, -l)-rl-o, -Sr-xl>o, p. 360 ; -tO-rl-o (-sflrlo), 

p. 36a. 
-eio, p. 363. 

iii. Proper names ending in 

-pl-o, -bl-o, -ml-o, -Tl-o, p. 363; -fl-o, p. 364. 
-cl-o, -gi-o, -tl-o, -dl-o, p. 364. 
-nl-o, p. 364; -11-0, -rl-o, -sl-o, p. 365. 
-al-o, -el-o, p. s6s» 

X. Verb-stems, p. 367. 

i. Verbs with stems ending in ft 

(i) from substantives with -a stems, p. 367 ; 
(z) from substantives with -e stems, p. 368; 

(3) from nouns with -0 stems, p. 368; 

(4) from substantives with -u stems, p. 370 ; 

(5) from nouns with -1 stems, p. 370; 

(6) from nouns with consonant stems, p. 370, 

Verbs ending in 

-Ic-ft, -t-ig-ft, p. 371. 

-t-ft (-sft), p. 371 ; -It-ft, p. 37a ; -t-It-ft (-sltft), 

p. 373' 

Table of Contents. Book III. xiii 

-cin-a, p. 373. 

-61-a, -m-a, -n-a, -u*ia, p. 373. 

Verbs formed from, or parallel to, other verbs, 

Miscellaneous, p. 374. 
ii. Verbs with -u stems, p. 375. 
iii. Verbs with -e stems, p. 375. 
iv. Verbs with -1 stems, p. 375. 

-flti, p. 376. 

-tlrl, p. 377. 

-on, p. 377. 
V. Inchoative yerbs, p. 377. 

Verbs with stems ending in -ss, -ssl (see p*i99). 

XI. Composition, p. 378. 

i. Spurious compounds, p. 379. 
ii. Compounds of prepositions used absolutely, or 
of inseparable particles, p. 380. 

1. Verbs, p. 380. 

2. Nouns, (a) containing a verbal stem, p. 381 ; 

(jb) containing a nominal stem, p. 3 82. 
iii. Compounds of words in regular syntactical re- 
lation to one another, p. 385 ; 

A. Attribute + substantive: 

(a) niuneral+ substantive, p. 385, 

(b) ordinary adjective + substantive, p. 3 8 7 . 

B. Preposition + substantive, p. 388. 

C. Nouns collateral to one another, p. 390. 

D. Object + verb, p. 390. 

E. Oblique predicate -1- verb, p. 394. 

F. Subject+verb, p. 395. 

G. Oblique case or adjective used adverbially 

+verb, p. 395. 
Adverb + Participle, p. 396. 

XII. Interjections: 

I. Imitations of sounds, p. 396. 
a. Abbreviated sentences or mutilated words, 
p. 398.. 

xlv Table of Contents. Appendices. 


App. A. Quotations from M. Bell, A. J. Ellis, &c., p. 401. 
i. Introduction, p. 401. 
ii — iv. On Nasals, p. 401. 

V. On held or sustained Consonants, p. 40a. 
vi. On the length of Consonants, p. 403. 
vii. On sharp and flat Consonants, p. 403. 
viii. — X. On the imperfect vocality of Consonants, p. 404. 
xi., xii. On diphthongs, p. 405. 
xiii. — ^xvii. On English r, p. 407. 

xviii. Connexion of u, w, v, b, qu, &c., p. 409, 
xix. Roman preference of vo to vu, p. 411. 
XX. — xxii. On Labialisation, p. 411. 
xxiii. On k, c, q, p. 41 z. 
xxiv. Close affinity of 1 and J, p. 413. 
XXV. On Palatalisation, p. 413. 
xxvi., xxvii. On the change oft to b, p. 413. 
xxviii. On the change of b to r, p. 414. 
xxix. Omission of t before 1 and n, p. 414. 
XXX. Interchange of 1 and r, p. 415. 
xxxi. Correspondence of Latin f to Greek ^, p. 415. 

App. B. Selection of Republican Inscriptions, arrang- 
ed chronologically, p. 416. 

i. — ^v. Before end of 5th century, u.c, p. 416. 

vi. Cir. 500 u.c. On L. Scipio, son of Barbatus, p. 41 7. 

vii. Of C. Placentius, p. 418. 

viii. 520 u.c. On L. Com. Scipio Barbatus, p. 418. 

ix. 565 u.c. Decree of L. .Sjnilius, p. 419. 

X. 568 u.c. S. C. de Bacanalibus, p. 419. 

xi. End of 6th cent. On son of P. Afr. Scipio major, 

p. 422. 

xii. Before 6ao u.c. At Sora, p. 422. 
xiii. Beginning of7th cent. u.c. On L. Com. Scipio, p. 423. 
xiv. ib. On Cn. Com. Scipio, p. 423. 

Table of Contents. Appendices. xv' 


XV. 608 — 6ao u.c. Of Muminius, p. 414. 
xvi. After 6ao u. c. At Aletrium, p. 424. 
xvii. 622 u.c. Popillius' milestone, p. 415. 
xviii., xix. 6az — 62s U.c. Boundary stones of the Gracchi, 
p. 426. 
XX. S. C. de Tiburtibus, p. 426. 
xxi. 646 U.c. At Capua, p. 427. 
xxii. Cir. 664 U.c. At ^clanum, p. 428. 
xxiii. 674 u. c. Part of ' Lex Cornelia de xv. Quaestoribus,' 

p. 428. 
xxiv. On M. Caecilius, p. 429. 

XXV. End of republic. Imprecation on Rhodine, p. 429. 
xxvi. 709 U.c. Part of 'Lex Julia municipalis,' p. 430. 
xxvii. End of republic. On Eucharis, p. 431. 

App. C. Degrees of Nouns Adjective, p. 432. 

i., ii. Formation of comparative and superlative, p. 432. 
iii. Irregular or Defective adjectives, p. 434. 
iv. Adjectives used only in the positive, p. 435. 
v. Participles w^hich have comparatives and superla- 
tives, p. 437. 

App. D. Numerals, Measures, Weights, &c. 

i. List of Numerals, p, 438. 
ii. Signs for Numerals, p. 441. 
iii. Inflexions of Numerals, p. 442. 
iv. Order in compounding Numerals, p. 442. 
V. Use of classes of Numerals, p. 443. 
vi. Expression of Fractions, p. 444. 
vii. Money coinage, p. 444. 
viii. Expression of sums of money, p. 446. 
Diviaon and multiples of the as, p. 447. 
Expression of 'odd pence* (as ezcurrens), pp. 448, 

ix. Expression of Interest of Money, p. 450. 

X. Measures of Weight, p. 451. 

xi. Measures of Length, p. 451. 

xii. Measures of Surface, p. 452. 

xvi Table of Contents. Appendices. 

xiii. Measures of Capacity, p. 452. 
xiv. Division of Time, p. 453. 
XV. Expression of the Date, p. 453. 

App. E. Names of Family Relations. 

i. Relationsby blood, p. 456. 
ii. Relations by marriage, p. 457. 
iii. Remarks. 

App. F. Tabular arrangement of certain Pronouns, 
i. Correlative (pronominal) adjectives, p. 458; 
ii. Correlative (pronominal) adverbs, p. 459 ; 
iii. Chief (pronominal) adverbs of place, p. 459 ; 
iv. Chief (pronominal) adverbs of time, p. 460. 

App. G. Abbreviations, p. 461. 

Select Index, p. 465. 

General Observations. 

f As the present work differs in many respects from other 

V grammars in use, it may be desirable that I should briefly note 
some of the more important changes which I have made, and in 
some cases discuss the grounds of the change. In the work itself 
I have refrained from dissertation, and aimed at giving the facts 
of the language in as few words as possible. If facts are stated 
with their real limitations, they either explain themselves, or at least 
afford a soimd basis for theory to work on. If they are grouped 
according to their natural affinities and arranged on natural prin- 
ciples, the briefest statement is the most illustrative. 

I have called the book, ui Grammar of the Latin Language from 
Plautus to Suetonius, Now first, by Grammar^ I mean an orderly 
arrangement of the facts which concern iht form of a language, as a 
Lexicon gives those which concern its matter. The ordinary divi- 
sion into four parts seems to me right and convenient. The first 
three Books on Sounds, Inflexions, and Word-formation, are often 
comprehended under the general term Formenlehre, The fourth 
Book, on Syntax, contains the use of the inflexions and of the several 
classes of words. I have given much greater extension than is 
usual to the treatment of Sounds and Word-formation, and on the 
other hand, have cut away from the 2nd and 4th Books several 
matters which do not properly belong to them. For instance, 
numerals and pronouns are often included in Book II. in a way 
which conceals the feet, that it is only so far as their inflexions are 
peculiar, that they demand specific notice. Again, the use of pre- 
positions and conjunctions is often discussed in the Syntax ; whereas, 
so £ur as the use depends not on the class to which a word belongs, 
but on the meaning of the individual, the discussion belongs to lexi- 
cography. The error lies in thinking, that because certaitv -wot^^ 

xviii Preface: General Observations. 

are more general than others in their application, they are therefore 
formal. However, there is no doubt a convenience in including 
some of these matters in a Grammar, and accordingly I have put 
them, or some of them, in the Appendices to this or the second 
volume. Further, I have not attempted to twist the natural' arrange- 
ment of the facts so as to make it suitable for persons who are first 
learning the language and cannot be trusted to find their own way. 
There are plenty of other books for that purpose. 

Secondly, it is a Grammar of the Latin language. It is not a 
Universal Granmiar illustrated from Latin, nor the Latin section of 
a Comparative Grammar of the Indo-European languages, nor a 
Grammar of the group of Italian dialects, of which Latin is one. 
I have not therefore cared to examine whether the definitions or 
arrangement which I have given are suited to other languages of 
a different character. A language in which, like Latin, the Verb is 
a complete sentence, or in which e.g. magnus can be made to de- 
note great men by a change in the final syllable, may obviously 
require very different treatment from one in which, like English, 
the verb requires the subject to be separately expressed, or the 
adjective great requires, in order to gain the same meaning as 
magnl, the prefix of the definite article, or the addition of the 
word men, I have confined myself, with rare exceptions, strictly 
to Latin, and this for two reasons. First, Latin is the only 
language which I have studied with sufficient care to enable me to 
speak with any confidence about its Grammar, and I have learnt 
in the process how little trustworthy are the results of an incom- 
plete examination. Greek I have referred to in Books I. and III. 
because of its close connexion with Latin, and I could rely, for the 
purposes for which I have used it, on Curtius' GriechUche Etymologie, 
The Italian dialects, other than Latin, I have studied but little. 
Such results, as can be drawn from the scanty remains which we 
have, will probably be found in Corssen's pages, but I hesitate tp 
regard them as sufficiently solid to allow one to rest any theories of 
Latin Grammar upon them. My second reason for declining frequent 
reference to other languages, is the belief that such reference is in- 
compatible with a natural treatment of my own proper subject. Each 
language has its own individuality, and this is distorted or disguised 
by being subjected to a set of general categories, even though 

Compass of the book, xix 

guarantied by Comparative Philology. It is no doubt true that pro- 
gress in the knowledge of language is to be attained only, as in other 
sciences, by the constant action and reaction of theory and observa- 
tion ; of the comparison of phenomena in different languages with the 
special investigation of each for itself. I have chosen the latter part 
of the work, without supposing that all the secrets of Latin etymo- 
logy could be discovered by so limited a view. But it is true all 
the same, that if one's eyes are but armed or practised (and some 
study of Comparative Philology alone can arm them), a closer and 
longer gaze detects something which might otherwise be overlooked. 
Lastly, this is a Grammar of Latin /ro^w Plautus to Suetonius, 
That is to say, I have confined my statements of facts and lists of 
words or forms (except with distinct mention) to the period from 
the commencement of Latin literature to the end of the silver age, 
i.e., roughly speaking, to the three centuries from cir. 200 B.C. to cir. 
lao A.D. There are but few inscriptions before 200 B.C. What there 
are I have of course taken into account. On the other hand, the 
imperial inscriptions which come within this period are not yet con- 
veniently accessible in trustworthy texts. The silver age I take to 
end at latest with Tacitus and Suetonius^, and I am convinced that 
this is as real a division with the line drawn at the right place, as 
Jiterature admits of. It is quite remarkable how many forms and 
words are wholly confined to later writers or are used in common 
with only one or two rare instances in Pliny the elder, Suetonius, 
&c. Nor can any subsequent writer be fairly regarded as within the 
pale. The literature of the second century p. Chr. is but small. Aulus 
Gellius and Fronto are near in time, being indeed contemporaries of 
Suetonius' later life, but their claims are vitiated by so much of their 
language being conscious antiquarianism. The lawyers Javolenus, 
Julianus, Pomponius, Gains, &c. have perhaps the strongest claim, 
for they naturally, as lawyers, use a somewhat older style than 
their age would imply. Their inclusion however would not notice- 
ably aiflfect the statements. But it is intolerable to find frequently 
given in modern Grammars, without a word of warning, forms 
and words which owe their existence to Apuleius or Tertullian — 
imaginative antiquarian Africans, far removed indeed from insig- 

^ Suetonius* Lives of ike Ccesars date about 120 A.D., though he 
lived to cir. 160 a.d, Teuffel, Gesch, Rom, Lit, § 324. 

XX Preface: General Observations. 

^ — ^ — ( 

nificance, and not at all wanting in interest, but certainly not 
representative of the ordinary or normal language of the Romans. 
Some other writers, e.g. Justin, Florus, &c. are of too uncertain 
an age, and too unimportant, to be worth considering. Writers of 
the third and fourth century, however good, are quite inadmissible. 
Nor am I at all disposed to attach weight to a mention of a word 
or form in Priscian or other Granmiarians, unless accompanied by 
a clearly intelligible quotation from an author before 120 A.D., or 
thereabouts. I do not mean that distinct proof can or need be 
alleged e.g*. for every person of every tense of an ordinary verb; 
but any typical form not shewn to have been used in the period 
here taken, ought to be excluded from a Grammar of Classical 
Latin, or mentioned only with the authority affixed. E.g. Indultum 
is usually given as the supine of indulgere, but neither it nor its kin 
(indultor, &c.) are found before TertuUian ; and this fact is seen to 
be important when it is observed that they deviate from the regular 
analogy of stems in -Ig (§ 191, 3), and that their occurrence is in 
fact contemporaneous with the use of indulgerl as a personal passive. 
Again, I have said in § 395 that quercus has no dative singular or 
dat. abl. plural. But Servius uses (and the form seems right enough) 
quercubuB (Neue, i. p. 376). It should be understood therefore that 
a statement in the following pages that a form or word is not found, 
does not necessarily mean more than that it is not found within the 
classical period. A form or word first found in subsequent writers 
may be legitimate enough, and the absence of authority for it may be 
only accidental, but in such cases the subsequent use does not 
appear to me to add anything to the evidence for its legitimacy; 
i.e. it does not make it more probable that Cicero or Livy, or 
Horace, or Quintilian, or even Plautus might have used it. The 
character of the formation and the probability that, if no objections 
had been felt to lie against it, it would have been used by some now 
extant author, who wrote before izo A.D., form the real turning-points 
of such a discussion. And to gain a firm basis for the discussion 
we must have the facts of the normal Latin usage clear from later 
and inferential accretions. Corssen has made his wonderful col- 
lection of facts much less useful than it might have been, by not 
distinguishing always between later and earlier forms. Of course 
an exclusion of the later forms from a book like his is not at all 

Compass of the book. xxi 

to be desired; but it is thoroughly misleading to put together 
words first found in the 4th century of the Christian Era, along with 
well-known words belonging to the ordinary language of the Ro* 
mans. To take one instance — (hundreds might be given); he adduces 
(Beitr, p. 107; Ausspr, i. § 77) nine substantives in -Sdln (eddn, 
as I call it), which he says are from verbs with -e stems, and 
stand beside six adjectives in -Ido, from six of the same verbs. 
Now the six adjectives are all well accredited. But of the nine sub- 
stantives, two only (torpedo, gravedo) are well accredited; one 
more (pingvedo) occurs once in Pliny the elder, and then not again 
till the 4th century: one other (frigedo) is quoted by Nonius from 
Varro; three others are first found in Apuleius, two more not 
until the 4th century p. Chr. Now these last five words are pro- 
bably mere creations of a later age in conscious imitation of the 
earlier words, and, it may be, imitating them, because they were 
rare. But as soon as we get to conscious imitation by literary 
speculators, the value of the words as evidence of the proper de- 
velopment of the language is gone. 

[Another instance may be taken. Gustav Meyer, in an in- 
teresting essay on Composition in Greek and Latin in Curtius 
Studien V. i. p. 4a, quotes from Corssen ii^. 318, as proofs "that 
the weakening of a, 0, u to 1 in compounds was not always the 
rule" (nicht von je her liberwiegend liblich), the examples sacro- 
sanctus, Sacrovlr, Ahenobarbue, prlmogenltus, mulomedlous, albo- 
galems, albogilvus, merobiba, sociofraudus, vlcomaglster, and says 
that "these justify the supposition that originally the o-stems entered 
unaltered into composition." I take these words in order. 

Sacrosanctus is not an ordinary compound, but its precise compo- 
nents are not clear. I have suggested (§998) that it is possibly a spu- 
rious compound. For in Pliny 7. § 143 we have reslBtendi sacroque 
sanctum repellendl Jus non esset. Probably eacro is an ablative, by a 
sacrifice ; or victim ; or curse, Sacrovlr is only known as the name 
of a Haeduan in Tacitus. The origin of the name is obscure. Is it 
Roman at all ? The first Abenobarbus of whom we have any his- 
torical account held office about 200 years B.C., though the family 
traditions carried the origin of the name to the battle of Lake 
Regillus. Prlmogenltus appears to be first found in Palladius: (in 
PUny II. § 234, I find (in Detlefeen and Jan's editiowi^ w^X-^ 

xxii Preface: General Observations. 

primlB genitis). Mulomedicus is in Vegetius; albogalerus in the 
extracts of Paulus from Festus. Merobiba and sociofraudus are 
each found once only in Plautus. They are evidently compounds 
framed on the spur of the moment and not part of the ordinary 
stock of the language. Moreover sociofraudus must retain the o 
after i. Vicomaglster appears to be found only in the barbarous 
Coriosum urbis Roiiisb regimen, which is referred to the end of the 
4th century p. Chr. 

Of the whole number often words, one only (Ahenobarbns) can 
be taken as an instance of some weight for the matter in question.] 

My authorities then are the writers of the classical period as 
above defined ; and I have not knowingly admitted, without distinct 
mention, any word which they have not used, or made any state- 
ment which their writings critically examined do not justify. But 
Donat and Priscian have so long reigned over Latin Grammar, 
and Latin Grammar has so impregnated literary speculation, that 
it is next to impossible, if it were desirable, to emancipate oneself 
from their influence. Still it is important to decline to recognize 
them as authorities for the grammatical usage of classical Latin, 
except where they may be taken to be witnesses to facts. They no 
doubt had access to some writings which are now lost, and they 
often transmit the theories of older grammarians; but they no 
doubt also sometimes misunderstood them, they avowedly regarded 
Greeks as their supreme authorities, they lived when Latin had long 
ceased to be pure, and they probably would have regarded a state- 
ment by Caesar or Pliny of what ought to be said, as of more im- 
portance than the actual fact of what Caesar or Pliny did say. But 
it is to the usage, not to the grammatical theories, of good vmters 
that we should look for our standard of right. And for my part, 
if canons of grammar are to be laid down, I prefer Madvig to any 
xxii Roman whatever, and believe Ritschl and Mommsen know a great 
deal more about the Duellian inscription (§ 467) than Quintilian did. 

The arrangement adopted requires a few words. 

In Book L I have thought it important to give a sketch, how- 
ever slight, of the analysis of vocal sound and of the laws of 
phonetic change. The special Latin phenomena are treated at some 
length; but I have been desirous rather that the instances given 

Treatment of the matter of Book L xxiij 

should be tolerably certain, than that all possible instances should 
be included. In most grammars these phenomena are collected and 
arranged under the heads of Omission^ Contraction^ &c. If any one 
desires such an arrangement, he can make it for himself, by simply 
turning to those heads under each letter. But as the primary divi- 
sion of the matter it seems to me much more natural and fruitful 
to make each particular letter the centre of discussion. Whether it 
be changed or inserted or absorbed must ultimately depend on 
the sound it represents and on the relations of this sound to others.. 
The ordinary procedure is the same as if a treatise on chemistry 
arranged all the phenomena of chemical action under such heads 
as Explosion^ Solution, Combination, &c. Schweizer-Sidler's arrange- 
ment by the affections of groups of letters is rational enough, but 
not, I think, very convenient. ' 

I have distinguished with some care between instances of corre- 
spondence and representation (see note on p. 24). The distinction of 
these two classes of phenomena is ignored in many of the earlier 
granunars, and is still not unfrequently forgotten. Yet the distinc- 
tion is of great moment. In questions of pronunciation representa* 
tion gives very important evidence, while correspondence witnesses 
at most to the pronunciation^f primaeval or at least prae-historical 
times. On the other hand, in discussing the affinities of language, 
correspondence bears the whole weight of the argument, and repre-^ 
sentation can only mislead. 

The arrangement of the letters has been adopted as the one 
which best brings into connexion allied sounds. Guttiu^ls hav^ a 
tendency to pass into dentals, and dentals into linguals; and these 
classes should therefore come in this order. Labials form a class 
somewhat apart from the rest, and I have therefore put them first, 
out of the way. The relations of the nasals are on the whole 
more vnth the labials, gutturals, and dentals respectively than with xxiii 
one another. The order of the vowels is that given by Ritschl, and 
is the same to a great extent as that given by Corssen. It is without 
doubt, so far at least as it is common to these two authors, the 
order of development in the history of the language. Any one re- 
ferring to Bell's Visible Speech (p. 73), will see that the order has a 
physiological side also, in so fer that the vocal cavity of the mouth 
is progressively diminished from a in this order to t 

xxiv Preface: General Observations. 

I have not followed Schleicher and others in the treatment of 
Latin vocalization according to what for brevity I may call Sanskrit 
principles. This method applied to Latin seems to me to fail both in 
basis and result. Corssen's elaborate treatment of vowel-intensifica- 
tion in the first volume of his new edition is not more satisfactory ; 
and on this point I can refer toCurtius (Studien, i. a, p. 194) who, 
commenting on Corssen's sanguine view of the result of his medley 
collection of long vowels in root-syllables, suffixes and endings, 
points out that vowel-intensification is " after all only a name for 
the fact that we often meet with a long vowel, when we expect a 
short one." The parts of my Grammar which deal with contrac- 
tion, hiatus, change of *vo<wel quantity, &c., are far from being what 
I should like; but there is a great difficulty in arriving at any satis- 
factory conclusions, owing to our ignorance of the precise quality 
and quantity of the vowels, which were, or may be regarded as 
having been, the components of the long vowel or diphthong, at the 
time when the long vowel or diphthong first arose. Our knowledge 
of the language begins at a later period, when this process was 
already over, and we have therefore not facts enough for the histori- 
cal method. I have little ri^ht to speak on such a matter, but I 
venture to think that the greatest light upon this branch of philology 
is now to be expected from strengthening the theoretical side of this 
investigation, but strengthening it not so much by the study of litera- 
ture and grammar as in Sanskrit, but by a more accurate study of 
the physiological conditions, and by a closer contact with nature 
as exhibited in groups of dialects of living tongues. But the appli- 
cation to Latin must in any case be difficult. 

In Book IL I have regarded the main division as twofold only, 
Nouns and Verbs. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, have place 
xxiv here only as being originally parts of nouns or verbs. Numerals, 
as I have said before, have no right to a separate place at all*; they 
are either adjectives or substantives or adverbs, and should be 
classed accordingly. (For convenience they are also given, in the 
ordinary arrangement, in Appendix D.) Pronouns are similarly 
referable to the other classes. 

Understanding by a declension a mode of forming the cases by 

Treatment of the matter of Book II, xxv 

a separate set of inflexions, 1 have made two declensions only 
instead of five. The distinction of the stem is subordinate to 
this. At the same time it did not appear worth while to separate 
such forms as filiabus from the more usual forms, and put them 
under the head of the second class, to which they strictly belong. 
Pronouns are in their main features clearly words of the first dass ; 
but, as the genitive singular is differently formed throughout, they 
are here kept together in a separate chapter. Qvis of course belongs 
to the second class, but here again convenience seemed to forbid 
its separation from qvi. 

The ordinary separation of substantives from adjectives, and the 
gradually growing tendency to confine the term noun to substantives, 
seem to me, in Latin at any rate, thoroughly wrong and misleading. 
The difference between substantives and adjectives is almost entirely 
syntactical, and, even as such, not so great as is generally assumed. 
What slight inflexional differences there are, will be found noted (cf. 
§§35 a, 403). The modification of adjectives to express degree in a 
comparison has clearly as little right to be put in Book II., 
instead of Book III., as the formation of diminutives, or any other 
common derivatives, which the language allowed to be formed 
very much at pleasure from any stem, because it retained a consci- 
ousness of the meaning of the suffix. (In Appendix G I have for 
convenience sake treated the matter more in the ordinary way.) 

The formation of participles, &c. ought no doubt to be put in 
Book III.; but they have so much bearing on the inquiry into the 
nature of the verbal stem, that I have preferred to leave them as 
usual in Book II. The formation of the several parts of verbs has 
been treated under the appropriate heads. The endeavour to form 
the verbs into classes by combined consideration of their present 
and perfect and supine stems, as is done in Vani5ek's Grammar, 
after the analogy of Curtius' Greek Grammar, seems to me to lead 
to inconvenience without much compensatory advantage. Chapter xxv 
XXX. contains a list of so-called irregular verbs in alphabetical order, 
as being that which is fer the most useful for ordinary reference. 

I have followed the Public Schools Primer in putting generally 
the future instead of the imperfect next to the present tense. 

It is very common, perhaps invariable, to prefix to Book II. 
a classification of the Parts of Speech. So far as this bears on 

xxvi Preface: General Observations. 

Book II. I have briefly touched it. But in the main it is of a syn-» 
tactical nature, and in Book IV. it will therefore be found. 

It may surprise some readers to see so imperfect an explanation 
of the meaning and origin of the inflexions of nouns and verbs. 
VVTiere I have seen my way tolerably clearly, I have briefly stated 
the view which appeared most probable, but in many cases I have' 
preferred merely to mention views entertained by others; in some 
cases I have stopped short at the facts, and left the origin un- 
touched. This indeed seems to me, at any rate at present, the proper 
position of a Latin grammarian. What can be deduced from the 
facts of the historical language comes fairly within his province, but 
more than this cah only be done by the light derived from other 
languages. And greater agreement among philologers is necessary 
before any theory of the precise origin and meaning of these in- 
flexions can claim more than a very subordinate place in a grammar 
of historical Latin. 

In Book III. will be found fuller lists of Latin words, arranged 
under their endings, than I have seen in any other granunar, except 
Leo Meyer's (which has too the advantage of containing lists of 
Greek words as well as of Latin). My lists are distinguished from 
his in two ways. His embrace a great many words, often without 
notice, which are only found in writers after the silver age; and 
the arrangement is more subjective and consequently less convenient 
than that which I have adopted. There is no doubt that almost 
any arrangement made on some principle brings together words 
which have a claim for common consideration and thereby may 
give rise to useful result. The ordinary arrangement, when of an 
etymological character, has been to class compound endings under 
*3cvi the fii*st part of the suffix, not the last^ This seems to me 
wrong both as matter of convenience and theory. A word is not 
so easy to find, because the analysis is more uncertain: and the 
practice contradicts the essential character of a (Latin) suffix, that 

^ Key's Grammar is an exception. See his tables in pp. 26, 28, 
8, 39. 

Treatment of the matter of Book III, xxvii 

k is applied at the efid of a word. Of course if we were quite cer- 
tain what is suffix, what is root, either arrangement (i.e. by the first 
part of the suffix or by the last) would be in some sort natural. 
But when to the uncertainty, which in many words there is on 
this point, is added the fact, that though some compound suffixes 
are apparently used as if they were simple, and are appended at once 
to a root or simple stem, yet in the majority of cases the last 
part only of the suffix is to be regarded as truly suffixal in the 
feeling and apprehension of the people, the safest plan seems to 
be that followed in the present volume ; viz. giving all the words 
of any importance and certainty, and arranging them under the final 
suffix, or that final part which, if anything, would be the suffix, 
or which is at least parallel to what is suffixed in other stems. 

There are other principles of division which are followed in 
some grammars either with or without the above. One is the 
separation of substantives from adjectives and enumeration of the 
suffi;ces imder these supreme heads. Besides the general objection 
to such a division, which I have spoken of before, the lists will 
rfiew, that in far the majority of instances the suffixes or endings 
belong to both classes, and the separation of them is cumbrous and 

Another division is according to the part of speech from which 
the derivatives are formed. This again is liable to the same ob- 
jections. Many substantives are not so different from adjectives 
as to render it desirable to establish any sharp distinction between 
their respective progenies. And though some suffixes are parti- 
cularly or exclusively applied in derivatives from verbs, others in 
derivatives from nouns, or, subordinately, from substantives or 
adjectives, many have no such particular or exclusive attachment. 

To treat the * derivation of adverbs ' as coordinate to the deriva- 
tion of nouns and verbs, is the same as it would be to treat so the 
derivation of the several persons of a verb or cases of a noun. So xxvii 
far as an adverb is formed with derivative suffixes &c., of the same 
kind as adjectives, they may belong here, but most adverbs are 
merely cases of nouns. 

Many words formed, so far as we know, directly from a root 
are, as I have implied (see also § 748), included in these lists. Where 
any tolerably certain indication of the meaning of thesf^ tooils v^^a 

Xxviii Preface: General Observations. 

known to me, it has been given ; but to add either Sanskrit homo- 
nyms or investigations into doubtful etymologies would have been 
unsuited to my plan. 

I have also added to the lists a considerable number of proper 
names, chiefly of persons. No attempt has been made to be ex- 
haustive in this matter, those only as a rule being given, which are 
either clearly intelligible and therefore instructive derivatives, or 
which are names of well-known or at least not merely private 
persons. There is however probably somewhat more vacillation 
in the extent to which this enumeration has been carried, than there 
is in the case of appellatives. 

The list of derivative verbs is fuller than I have hitherto seen, 
though in no way exhaustive as regards stems in a. Still here as 
in nouns it brings into strong light the comparative prevalence of 
different classes. And this is a matter which is commonly left with 
little notice. 

The Chapter on Composition deviates considerably from ordi- 
nary treatment. In the first place, the lists are tolerably complete, 
except in the case (i) of veiy conunon classes, e.g. words com- 
pounded with numerals or with -f^ro, and the like; and (2) of some 
momentary formations found in Plautus or Petronius or the like. 
The result is to shew that, except with prepositions, there was no 
great development of Composition in Latin, — certainly nothing 
approaching the Greek. Secondly, I have ventured to lay down 
(§ 979) more broadly than is usual, at least in Latin Grammars, 
the principle that Composition is simply welding together in one 
word two words conceived as standing in ordinary syntactical 
relation with each other. The welding however is a welding of 
stems, and the changes of letters are simply in accordance with the 
xxviii general habits of the language and require no separate treatment. 
Thirdly, the form of the compound word is given by the necessity 
which produced it. If an adjective was wanted, an adjective was 
formed ; if a verb, a verb ; and a suitable derivative or stem suffix 
was appended, which might or might not be like that possessed by 
the simple words. No doubt much of this view is identical with 
the ordinary division into composita determinativa, constructa^ pos-' 

Treatment of the matter of Book III, xxix 

sessiva^; but it seems in the ordinary treatment to be regarded 
rather as a special and adventitious characteristic of some particular 
classes than as the natural result of the determining cause of all 
Composition. The compounds with prepositions used absolutely 
may however, at least with our present notions of prepositions, 
be a separate class. 

Many will doubtless think the lists of words, derivative or 
compound, needlessly fiill. But I do not fear the charge from 
those who desire to study as a whole the formation of Latin words, 
or to ascertain the meaning or use of particular suffixes, or the 
laws of combination and change of the several vowels and con- 
sonants, or the etymology of particular words. I have indeed 
found these lists of much use in testing various etymological and 
phonetic theories which I have seen in other writers or which have 
occurred to myself. I have especially borne the possibility of this 
use in mind when the multitude of instances forced me to make a 
selection only. Indeed many of the instances inserted have been in 
fact the answers I have found to various doubts which occurred to 
me respecting the possibility or the behaviour of certain groups 
of sounds or of certain elements of composition. Nonconformists 
have a special right to a place in such a representative assembly. 

The interjections I have tried to identify with inarticulate 
sounds of emotion. But a greater knowledge of phonetics and 
more acquaintance with the habits of peoples of southern Europe 
than I possess is required to do this clearly and fiilly. 

^ I worked the matter out for myself with the hint given by this 
division. But L. Tobler*s book {^er die Wortzusammensetzung^ Berlin, 
1868) is well worth reading. 

Observations* on Book I.; 

particularly on 


xxix The account which I have given of the several letters took its 
origin in the desire of finding a tolerably firm basis for forming 
a judgment of the real sound of , each. But any inquiry of 
this kind presupposes some acquaintance with at least the leading 
divisions of articulate sound, so far as they are actually heard 
from the lips of Europeans and Western Asiatics. For this 
reason I have prefixed to the discussion of Latin sounds, a 
brief account of articulate sound in general, omitting, however, 
many of the finer distinctions, and many of the sounds (chiefly 
' Asiatic and Slavonic) which there seems little room for sup- 
posing were known to, or at least represented by, Greeks or 
Romans. Etymology becomes a science only when its physiological 
conditions are understood and applied, and I believe no greater 
service could be rendered to Comparative Grammar, than the pub- 
lication of a brief and clear Grammar of Phonetic, with illustrations 
(a) from misformations of sounds, such as are now heard from in- 
dividuals ; (^) from varieties of sound in living languages and dia- 
lects; and (f) from well-ascertained facts in the history of words. 
To write such a book would require, besides knowledge and caution, 
an acute and trained' ear, as well as sensitive and flexible oi^ans. 
Few possess these qualifications. I cannot pretend to any of them. 
At present, the only book which can be named as combining these 
different parts of the discussion in relation to the ancient languages 
is Max Mailer's Lectures, Vol. ii. But it is not nearly full enough. 

^ A few copies of these Observations and of Book I. were privately 
distributed in April 1871. Some verbal corrections, and one addition 
(p. xli.), have been since made. 

On Pronunciation, xxxi 

Some other books which I have used are named in the note to xxx 
p. i^. But to these must be added Alex. J. Ellis' elaborate 
work (not yet finished) on Early English Pronunciation — a work 
with which I did not become acquainted till after Book I. was 
stereotyped, and of which I have consequently made hardly any 
use in that book (except in the list of vowels). When I see 
the admirable mode in which English pronunciation is there dis- 
cussed, I feel how very imperfect, nay almost perfunctory, by the 
ade of it is any inquiry into Latin pronunciation, which has yet been 
made. And yet Mr Ellis' inquiry is into the pronunciation of a 
language, still living, and familiar, and only five or six centuries old. 
An inquiry into classical Latin is into a pronunciation which has 
not been uttered by any accredited representative within the last 
seventeen hundred years. Still, I persuade myself, that the pronun- 
ciation which I have given, may be taken to be one which would 
at least have been intelligible to Cicero or Caesar, and which would 
not have differed from his own, more than the pronunciation of 
^ucated men in one part of England would differ from that heard 
in other parts. 

I have assigned little weight to the accounts of pronunciation 
given by Roman grammarians, except so far as they imply the 
non-existence, at the time, of sounds which the letters might on some 
other groimds be supposed to have had. Some isolated state- 
ments made by Cicero and Quintilian are worth careful notice; but 
to describe sounds properly requires a large acquaintance with 
possible and actual sounds, and who in the ancient world had that? 
It is absurd to see loose statements of writers of uncertain age, 
but probably between A.D. aoo and 600, and often nearer the 
latter than the former, taken as authenticated evidence of the pro- 
nunciation of Cicero and Caesar, and conclusions deduced from 
them by writers who have themselves a loose knowledge of sounds, 
and that derived only from books, not from close study of the human 
voice itself. Assuming that the Roman spelling was in the mam 
phonetic, i.e. that it varied with the sound, (though doubtless the 
change in the spelling lagged behind the change of sound,) I am 

1 On the pronunciation of Greek a pamphlet by Friedrich Blass, 
iiber die Atissprache des Griechischen (1870), has lately come to me. It 
will be found well worth reading. 

xxxii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

xxxi sure that the only safe guide is the actual history of the letters, 
aided by a knowledge of their possible and likely sounds. 

I have thought it would be convenient if I put together here 
some of the facts and arguments upon which my view of the 
Roman pronunciation is based, instead of leaving them to be col- 
lected from the accounts of the several letters in Book I. Some 
points I have treated at greater length than others, because there is 
not that general agreement which would permit of my using more 
dogmatic brevity. Prof. Max Mailer has recently {Academy^ 15 Feb. 
1 871) thrown doubt on what he fairly states to be the conclusion 
almost all scholars have come to with respect to the Latin c. [He 
has since (^Academy, 15 Dec. 1871) explained that his alignments 
were only intended to shew that the evidence for ce=ke, &c. was 
weaker than that for ca=ka, &c., and that he himself is in favour 
of pronouncing c always as k.] Prof. Munro has in a privately cir- 
culated pamphlet 1 replied to his arguments on this question, besides 
expressing his own opinion on most other points of Latin pronun- 
ciation. My own argument was written before I saw Mr Munro's 
remarks, but I have since taken one or two hints from them. I 
am glad to find my views on the pronunciation of Latin generally 
accord closely with those of one whose fine taste and many-sided 
scholarship need no commendation from me. I have mentioned 
candidly my difference on some points, though I am well aware 
how probable it is that I am wrong. 

The question, What was the Roman pronunciation? is quite 
distinct from the question. Shall we adopt it ? Prof. Mailer's 
argument has a tendency to confuse them. I quite admit that a 
change in our pronunciation of Latin is inconvenient, but the in- 
convenience is greater in imagination than in reality, and will be 
soon overcome, whilst the benefit to any student of philology will be 
very great. With our English pronunciation of the vowels, of j, 
V, c, g, r and others, the development of the language becomes an 
inextricable riddle, and the student naturally gets into the fatal 
habit of dissociating letters from sounds. Nor can it be said that we 

^ The reply to Prof. Muller's arguments is now reprinted in Aca- 
demVf March 15, 187 1. [Mr Munro has since (Oct. 187 1) published this 
pamphlet under the title A few remarks on the pronunciation of Latin ^ 
and added a Postscript.^ 

On ▼ Consonant X3cxiii 

shall not be approaching to the pronunciation of continental nations. 
We shall approach them considerably at once, and if, as seems to nie 
probable, they change their pronunciation eventually, wfe shall be 
coincident with them in proportion as we and they respectively 
have succeeded in ascertaining the truth. Nothing short of that 
can or ought to be the common goal and place of meeting. Argu- 
ment from some supposed superiority of one sound, as sound, to xxxii 
another, seems to me worthless : the question is one of historical 
fact, not of aesthetical selection * ; and we shall do better in speaking 
Latin as the Romans spoke it, if we can but discover how, than in 
either indulging fancy or being swayed by associations, which are 
none the less delusive because they are habitual. 

I assume throughout, until the contrary be proved, that a 
letter has but one sound, except so far as it is necessarily altered 
by its position as initial or medial or final. The phenomenon pre- 
sented by most letters in English of sound and sign having but a 
fortuitous connexion is, I believe, nearly unique. 

On ▼ consonant. 

The following are the reasons for the pronunciation of ▼ con- 
sonant as Eng. w, or perhaps sometimes as French ou (in o«/), and 
not as the labio-dental v. 

I. The same letter was used without any distinction for the 
Towel and the consonant soimd. There is no doubt that the 
vowel sound was English oo. ' By a slight appulse of the lips 
the vowel oo becomes the consonant w' (Bell, p. 151). *W is 
often considered to be a vowel, but is not so' (Ellis, p. 580). At 
the sanie time the Romans were quite alive to the distinction. 
The emperor Claudius proposed a new letter, and Quintilian 
thought it would have been desirable to have one. For (he says) 
neither no, as his teachers wrote, nor uu, as was written in his 
own time, expressed the sound actually heard ; which he compares 
to the diganuna (i. 27. 26; xii. 10. 29, quoted in Book i. p. 29). 

* If the matter were really one of taste, I should not be afraid of 
patting the questions : Is a sibilant or buzz a finer sound than a mute or 
semivowel? Are seas and cheese pleasanter sounds than keys, sin and 
chin than kin ; or veal and vain more expressive than weal and wane? 

xxxiv Preface: Observations on Book I. 

The later grammarians, e.g. Terentianus Maurus, dwell at greater 
length on this difference. This makes it probable that the sound 
was rather w than French on. Comp. Gell. xix. 14 with id. x. 4. 

2. A sound practically identical with w is generally consi- 
dered to be the sound of u when following q. It is probable, 
indeed, as Mr Ellis says, that qu in Latin represents only a 

xxxiii labialised guttural, not a clearly pronounced kw, for it never 
lengthened the preceding syllable: but then the nearest approach 
to such a labialised k is kw, certainly not kr. (Comp. Quint, xii. 
10, § 29.) 

3. The vowel o, when following v (consonant or vowel), was 
retained till the Augustan age and later, though after other letters 
it had usually changed to u ; e.g. servoB, later servos ; quom, later 
(in 4th century) quum. Compare this feet with Bell's statement : 
' When w is before 00, the combination is rather difficult from the 

* little scope the organs have for their articulative (i.e. consonantal) 

* action : the w is in consequence often omitted by careless speak- 
*ers, cm;W being pronounced 00/, «woman, ooman, &c.' (Bell, p. 171). 
It is worth notice, that in English the pure Italian a was retained 
after w in several words (water, &c.), and in the 17th or i8th 
century gave way to its present usual sound of a,w (Ellis, 187-8). 

4. u and ▼ were frequently passing into one another : compare 
miluus and mllyns, reUcftum and reUqyum; genua sounded as 
genva, pltnlta as pltvlta, tenuia as tenvla (§92). 

Again ▼ is vocalised in soluo for aolYO, acua (Lucr.) for aqa», 
silua for Bilvsa, &c. (§ 94. 2). So boIyo has soltltus, yoIyo, voltltaB, 
just as acuo has actltas. 

5. V between two vowels constantly falls away, not sapped by 
a slow decay, but as it were melted before the eye and ear of 
the people. Compare amayeram, axnaram; audiyeram, audleram; 
cayitnm, cautnm; savltas, satas; Juyexiior, Junior; reyenram, mr- 
sum; proyldens, prudens, &c. (§ 94). This phenomenon, repeat- 
edly occurring, seems hardly explicable, except on the assumption of 
the y being a vowel, or the closest approach to a voweL 

6. V in Latin never (except in nivls, and the compounds M- 
ylum, trl-yium, &c.) follows short 1. Now there is no difficulty 

On ▼ Consonant, xxxv 

in pronouncing Engl. Iv, but Iw is very far from easy. Indeed 
▼ after any short vowel is not common in Latin. I have only 
noticed the following instances: avlB, ayns, Bavlus, bovis, brevlB, 
oaTns, exuTia, Induvla, favus, fluvlus, gravis, Jovis, Juvenis, levis, 
ne-vis (§ 728), novem, novas, ovem, ovis, pluvla, pover ( = puer), sim- 
puvinm; and the verbs caveo, faveo, Juvo, lavo (also luo), moveo, 
paveo. (The syllable preceding ▼ is in all accented.) The cause of 
this rarity is the great tendency to fusion of two vowels when xxxit 
only separated by a ▼. (See preceding paragraph, and comp. 
Schleicher, Deutsche Spracbe, p. 159, ed. a.) 

7. Consonantal ▼ is never found before a consonant (Prise, i. 
13) or final; but always before a vowel. This is quite as it would 
be if V be equal to w; for w scarcely gains any consonantal power, 
if indeed it be not absolutely unpronounceable ^^ except before a vowel ; 
but ▼ is as pronounceable after as before a vowel. Thus sive (older 
seive), neve when they drop the final e become sen, neu, not siv, 
nev*. Compare this with Italian, where (the labio*dental) ▼ is fre- 
quent before a consonant in the middle of a word^ e.g. avro 
(lialMbo), covrire (cooperlre), &Ck 

8. The English name of the labio-dental voiced fricative is vee. 
This name is derived from vau, the term applied to the digamma, 
with which the Latin f, on accoilnt of its symbol f , and the Latin 
consonantal u, on account of its soUnd, were identified (cf Quint. 
XII. 10. § 29). But in classical times, at any rate, ▼ consonant 
and ▼ vowel (like 1 consonant and 1 vowel) were not distinguished 
either in symbol or name. Nor were they by Terentianus Maurus. 
Priscian (i. ao) speaks of the name vau being given it from its resem* 
blance to the digamma. But had the sound of English ▼ belonged 
to it, at the time when the other letters received their name, it 
would have been called ev. For it is the law of Roman nomencla- 
ture' to denote vowels by their sounds, mute consonants by sound- 

^ [Mr Ellis says (Acad, 15 Jan. 1872), that w after a vowel, and 
without a vowel following it, can be pronounced after some practice.] 

• Marius Victorinus (p. 2465) stands alone, I believe, in thinking 
that obverto, obvius should be owerto, owlus. 

• The names of all the letters are given in Pompei. Comm. ad 
Donat, Vol. v. p. ici, Keil. Cf. also Serg. iv. p. 478. I cannot bring 
myself to believe that Mr C. B. Cayley, Philol, Soc. Trans, for 1870, 

C 2 

xxxvi Preface: Observations on Book I. 

ing a vowel after them, Ije, ce, de, ge, &c.; continuous consonants 
by a vowel before 'them (e.g. ef, el, em, en^ er, ea), probably 
because in this way each consonant gets its fullest and most charac- 
teristic sound' (Prise, i. 8) ; the explosives being chiefly distin- 
guishable when they precede a vowel (§ 274), the continuous 
consonants having when final an opportunity of being prolonged 
at pleasure. Varro is said to have given va as the name and sound 
30WV of the diganuna. , If the Romans had named their consonantal use 
of u, they would have denoted it similarly by va or ve (pronounced 
wa, we), as w like li only obtains its full sound before a vowel, 

9. The labio-dental f differs from the labio-dental ▼ only as p 
from b, t from d, 8 from », tli (in tJbin) from tli (in then), &c.; 
i.e. the former is whispered, the latter is voiced. The Saxons and 
(formerly at least) Welshmen do not make this difference, or rather 
they sound the voiced consonants nearly as the voiceless (e. g. pet for 
bed) ; we give to each of the symbols, s and th, both the sounds. With 
so great similarity between f and ▼ is it likely that the Romans, if 
their ▼ was a labio-dental, would not have confused them or noticed 
the resemblance? Yet (a) no inscription substitutes F for v 
(Gorssen, Ausspr, I. p. 136); and (b) the Roman writers (at any 
rate before the 4th century^) seem not to have noticed this close 
resemblance, although (as was said before) the symbol F was the 
ordinary symbol of f, and was borrowed from the digamma to 
which the Roman v corresponded, Quintilian's description (xii. 
10, § 29) of the Roman f indicates strongly its dental and voiceless 
character. I am inclined to think that no more is meant by his 
words than * blown out between the intervals of the teeth with no 
sound of the voice 2.' In the next sentence he speaks of the *iColic 
letter which we utter in seruum, ceruuxu,^ but seems in no way 

pp. 5 — 16 (the only paper which I have ever seen on the question of 
the names of the letters), is right in thinking that the Latin names have 
not been assigned on phonetic principles. Comp. App. A. xxiii. 

^ Marius Victorinus (p. 2464) speaks of the * cognate letters 1), f, 
m, p, u,' which is of course in some sort correct on any supposition. 

* Some think that a still harsher articulation than the ordinary Eng- 
lish f is here meant, and no doubt this is possible enough, but, con- 
sidering that Quintilian regards it as quite peculiar, some emphasis of 
expression is not unnatural. Even in English f and v are different 
enough from any other consonants. 

On ▼ Cmsofkavi. xxxvii 

conscious of any close similarity of it to 1 Terentianus Mau- 
rus (v. aay) describes f quite correctly as uttered * with a gentle 
breathing while the under lip is pressed against the upper teeth,' 
and speaks of ▼ consonant at considerable length, but never suggests 
any resemblance to f. 

lo. The ordinary and regular mode of expressing the Latin ▼ 
in Greek is by ou^, and no distinction is made whether it be a vowel 
or consonant. On the other hand, Latin ▼ is never used in the xxxW 
transcription of a Greek word, except as a vowel, usually for 
o or ov (cf. § 90. ii.). 

But Latin ▼ consonant is sometimes expressed in Greek by o, 
and sometimes by /3. Now o was ah occasional descendant from 
a digamma (cf. § 91, and Curt, Gr, Etym, 11. 145 = 500, ed. a), and 
is certainly, next to ov, the nearest vowel sound to the Latin u. This 
use of o therefore tends to confirm the inference which may be 
drawn from the use of ov, viz. that Latin v consonant was the 
consonantal sound nearest to the vowel u ; and that is Kngl. w. 

The expression of the Latin ▼ consonant by fi is one of the 
main ai^uments upon which the theory, which makes Latin v~ 
English ▼, rests. The argument proceeds, as I understand, thus: 

* Greek fi either had the sound of Engl, v, or, if not, it had a 
' sound, say b, nearer to v than to w. And it is probable that Greek 
*jS had the sound of Engl, v, for it has this sound in modem 

* Greek. [As Greek )8 is constantly used to represent Latin ▼, it is 

* probable therefore that Latin ▼ had the sound of English v].' 

Now the extent to which )3 was used to represent Latin vis 
commonly taken to have been much greater than it really was. 
Noliiing but an undoubting acquiescence in an accredited belief could 
have caused so vigilant and industrious a philologer as Corssen to 
treat the question in the superficial way which he has done (^Aus^ 
ipracbe^ \* lii^ ed. a). He gives no authority for the instances in 
which ▼ in proper names is represented by )3, and he quotes, as in- 
stances of the same in words which are not proper names, two only 
fixwn inscriptions (date not specified : they are from Lycia), three 

* The sign 8 (originally a T put wiA its foot in the middle of the o) 
is not found in inscriptions or coins till the end of the second century 
p. Chr. (Franz, Elern, Epigraph. Grac. p. 246). 

'jcxxviii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

from Suidas, and four from Lydus. Lydus was a Byzantine, and 
not bom before a.d. 490; Suidas is later, and indeed is often put as 
late as the nth or lath century p. Chr. Both therefore are wit- 
nesses of little weight in such a question ; and when we remember 
that in the 4th century p. Chr. there was a frequent confusion 
between Latin v and Latin b (which began as early as the and 
century but not before^), we see that the use by any writers later 
xxxvii than the 4th century of a )3 fokr ▼ is no evidence whatever of the 
sound of V in the age of Cicero or of Quintilian. 

The Greek writers of most importance for this matter are 
Polybius (and cent. B.C.), Diodorus Siculus (ist cent. B.C.), Diony- 
sius of Halicamassus and Strabo (Augustan age), Josephus and 
Plutarch (latter half of ist cent. p. Chr.), Appian (middle of and 
cent. p. Chr.), Dio Cassius (end of and or beginning of 3rd cent, 
p. Chr.). I have examined these attentively, though not ex- 
haustively, and collected a large number of instances of transcrip- 
tion of Latin words, principally proper names. I have since 
examined Benseler's most painstaking dictionary of Greek proper 
names, and the result is in both cases the same ^ viz. that, except in 
one writer, the instances of v consonant being represented by jS are 
few absolutely, and very few relatively to the instances of its being 
represented by ov. The one exception is Plutarch, and, so far as I 
have noticed, most instances commonly quoted have or might have 
been taken from him. He has p for ▼ frequently, though not as 
often as he has ov. The same name appears with )3 in some of his 
Lives, in others with ou. Other names are always written one way. 
But this matter has been so little noticed that some details may be 
interesting. I have looked particularly through (i) all Plutarch's lives 
of Romans, and that of Pyrrhus (in Sintenis' edit., Teubner series) ; 
(a) the first five books of Polybius (Hultsch's edit.), i.e. all that is 
preserved in a continuous narrative ; and (3) Books i v. — vi. of Diony- 
sius of Halicamassus (in Kiessling's edit., which in these books rests 
on a better collation of the most important MS. than in the first three). 

^ See § 72. Corssen, Aussprache^ I. 131 sq. ; Schuchardt, I. 131; 
Gbschen's Pref. to Gaiusy p. xxxxii. ed. Lachmann ; and Naber's edit, 
of FrontOi passim. So Piiscian (Fart, 23-— ill. 465, Keil) makes the 
strange statement, that * all words beginning with vl are written with v, 
* except bitumen, bills and the compounds of bis.' 

On V Consonant: xxxix 

The result is as follows, the numbers being possibly not strictly 
accurate, but at any rate accurate enough for the present purpose^. 

(i) In Plutarch there are of names of persons (almost all 
Romans), or places, or peoples, 50 written with ou, and 43 with ^; 
and the occurrences of these names are, in all, 2>'^}, with ov, 180 with 
/3. Of these Valerias, Valeria, Valens, VenUdius, Verginius, Ves- 
pasiaaoB, T^bins, Vindicius, Vinlus, Vitellius, Volsci occur at least 
5 times each (Valerius and Volsci nearly 50 times each), and always 
with ov; Fnlvius, Fulvia, Varro, Verres occur at least 8 times each, xxxviil 
and always with )3. Others, e.g. Veli, occur both with ov and )3 ; 
VOlimmias (in Brutus) always with )3, Volunmla (in Coriolanus) 
always with ov; Octavius 16 times (chiefly in Crassus and Pom- 
peius) with ov, 30 times (chiefly in Gracchi and Marcellus) with )3 ; 
but Octavia (in Antony) %% times with ov, and only twice (in Mar- 
cellus) with )3; ServHius 9 times with ov, twice wifti )3; Servilia 
once with ov, 14 times with )3. Yet other writers hgve ov in the 
names which Plutarch writes with )3 only. For instance, no one else 
(according to Benseler's Lex^ writes Bappa>i/ (except once Dionys. 
Hal. I. 14) or Bepprjs- 

(a) In the first three books of Polybius I find 10 names, 
making in all ao occurrences, all with ov ; not a single instance of 
/3. In the 4th and 5th books I find no instance of either. On 
turning to the extracts from Polybius' lost books I find nothing 
in those from the 6th and 7th; but in the 8 th OvaXepios once, 
AiPios four times. 

(3) In Books IV. to vi. of Dionysius I find ai names written 
with ov (besides Avevrivos), and the occurrences are 184, Valerius, 
Volsci, and Seryllius being exceedingly frequent There are 5 names . 
only in which v is represented by )3; Nssyius, Flavus (written in 
the two best MSS. 0Xa/3ior), Servius, FulvlUus, and Elva, the last 
only occurring twice, the others once. 

How much of this comparative frequency of ^ in Plutarch is 
due to the author, how much to his copyists, how much to his 
editors, I do not know. The text of Polybius and Dionysius may, 

^ I have not included instances where neither ov nor j8 are used, 
e.g. in Plutarch, ^acavios, No^/x/S/otos, ^xaUXas : nor instances of u after 
tl (of. f 90, 2); though both these speak for a light value being given to v. 

xl Preface: Observations on Book L 

I ■ 1 1 .... ■ ■ ■ - .. II 

1 suppose, be fairly trusted as far as tlie eclitors are concerned. Avd 
it may be noted that the most tnistwortby part of tbe text of the 
most trustworthy author (Polybius) gives no instance of )3. 

Now in this representation of ▼ by /3 something doubtless is due 
to the source of the Greek writer's narrative in each case. Some- 
thing also to the instinctive desire of assimilating a word to Greek 
forms; hence the frequent use of /3 before -tor, e.g. Ai/Stoy (in 
Plutarch once only Aiovioj), ^XcSiQs^ '0/crai3tor, ^ouX^tos, &c. 
Something again is due to phonetic reasons. Thus while ov is (in 
Plutarch) initial in 34 names and medial in j6, )3 is initial in J7 and 
medial in a 6. In 15 of these a6 /3 follows X or p, and m the 
rest it is between vowels; which are exactly the positions in which 
xxxix a German .b is pronounced like Qerm. wK It will be seen that 
the instances from Dionysius are all thus disposed of. As regards 
Plutarch it i^ perhaps not inappropriate to remark that he expressly 
tells us he was not a good Latin scholar (Fit. Demojth, a, 
p. 846), ancf secondly, that he w*^s.a Boeotian; and the relations of 
the Boeotian dialect to the digamma were such as to make it pos- 
sible that his native pronunciation or habits may have had something 
to do with this peculiarity. But all the MSS. of these authors are, 
I suppose, posterior by many centuries to the time of confusion of 
▼ and 1); and this fact, while not at all impairing their testimony 
when they represent ▼ by ov, is .strong against its trjustworthiness 
when writing /3. For there is no apparent reason why a copyist, if 
he found j8 written, should have changed it to ov, while the chaqge 
of ov (for consonantal v) into /3 would be in accordance with the 
tendencies either of pronunciation itself or of its expression. A 
reference to Benseler's lexicon will shew at once a number of words, 
written earlier with ov, which in Byzantine writers received a j8. 
Or look to the names of consuls, &c. given from various authorities 
side by side in the Corpus Inscrift, Latin, I. 483 sqq., and it will be 
seen how persistently the Chromcon Pascbale of the 7 th century 

^ Schleicher (Deutsche Sprincfie^ p. "*tji, ed. ») says: *l) and ff we 

* write in accordance with the old language, but pronounce these sounds, 

* when medial;, between vowels, as w and [voiced] di, consequently as 
jfl * spirants not as momentary sounds... e.g. graben, sa^en, as grdwen, 

^.iMen...1h& I) .also in the combinations lb, rto Is pronounced as w; 

* e.g. in gelber, farbe, but not when the 1 and l) belong to different 
\ • wprds, .e.g. stulbein^ hArbeidd^ 



On V Conso7iani, xli 

writes /3 where Dionysius or Diodorus or Dio has ov, and how 
often the v of the Inscriptions gives place in the Latin of the 4th 
century to t>; e.g. Calyns to Calbos, &c. 

Again, the MSS. of the New Testanient, are, J believe, the 
earliest MSS. existing (except some papyri and the Herculaneum 
rolls), and the following facts may therefore be of use. The name 
SUvaniu occurs four times (a Cor. i. 19 ; i Thess. i. i ; a Thess. 
i. i; I Pet. V. I a). In St Peter Vat. alone (against Sinait. Alex.) 
has StXjSavor. In St Paul Vat. like the rest (and Ephr. in a Cor.,, 
being lost in x, a Thess.) has SiXovowr : two bilingual MSS. Clar. 
Boem. (cent. 6 and 9) with the transcripts Sang. Aug. and (once) the 
second hand of No. 67, are the only MSS. late or early, as Mr Hort 
informs me, which are known to spell the word with /3. The xl 
Latin version of Clar. (though not of Boem.) has Sllbaims. The 
solitary instance of StXjSayor in the Vatican is probably (as Mr Hort 
suggests) only one of several indications of the Vatican scribe being 
familiar with Latin ; the confusion of ▼ and 1> being common in 
early as well as late Latin biblical MSS.; e.g. the Codex Vercel- 
lensis of the Gospels (middle of 4lii cent,; i.e. same date as the 

[Dittenberger, who has written two interesting papers on the 
•representations of Roman names in Greek inscriptions, says on this 
•point (Hermes VI. 303) *ov is older' than ^ bssl representative of v 
'and in republican times is found almost exclusively, whereas ff 
* comes most into use later, without however ever getting completely 
*the upper hand; for even in Constantine's time there are inscriptions 
*in which Latin ▼ is represented by ov.' The only instances of j8 
which he mentions are BaKepios (Attic, and cent B.C.) ; Btfiia for 
VHiiA (at Delphi); ^vkfiios (Naples, 71 B.c.) once, against two in- 
stances of initial and three of medial ov in the sanne inscription ; 
Aat/3cXXo£ (Ephesus, not before Hadrian's time) with Ovcifiiop and 
Ovapov in same inscriptions. The name of Varus, he adds, is com- 
monly Ovrjpos, much less frequently Bjj^or. On the other hand, in 
Italian inscriptions not uncommonly, but in those only, occurs 
SfouaoTOff for Sc/Saoror. j 

What then was the value of )3? Not, I think, that of the labio- 
dental V. For the only argument that is brought for this value is 
that it has this value in modem Greek. I do not doubt that somfi 

xlii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

Greek speakers give it this sound, but I am not disposed to admit 
that all those who think they hear this sound are right. The truth 
is there is a labial t and v, as well as a labio-dental f and v, and by 
those who are not familiar with the labial the sound is often taken 
for that of the labio-dental. Mr Ellis (p. 518) says of an eminent 
modem Greek, * The letters j3, seem to be naturally pronounced 

* by Prof. Valetta as a labial v and f , but when he became particularly 

* emphatic he made them the labio-dental v andf.' Mr Geldart 
(youm, of Philology for 1869, II. p. 159) says, * j3 is pronounced in 
' Greece not like our v but like the German w, only much more 

* strongly and explosively, if one may use the word. It is not 

* sounded by bringing together the lower lip and the upper teeth, 

* but by compressing the two lips together. So too 0, and the con- 
^sonantal sound of v, are pure lip-letters, and very different in 

* point of formation from f or v.* (See also Appendix A. xviii.) 
It is obvious that a sound like this stands in at least as close a rela- 
tion to the English w as to the English v. 

Here then we meet with a solution of the difficulties presented 
by the confusion of Latin v with b, by the occasional representation 
of Latin v by j3, and by the historical substitution of the labio- 
dental V in the Romance languages for the Latin v. The phonetic 
pedigree of the Romance v might be at once stated as : i. u vowel ; 
2. French ou, pronounced as in oul; 3. English w; 4. Labial v; 
5. Labio-dental v. But I do not assert that this represents an 
historical succession in a single line. It is very probable that the 
labial v existed dialectically in Italy (and probably in Greece) in 
classical times, and that this accounts for such instances of the tran- 
xli scription of Latin v by j3, as may be really the writing of Polybius, 
Dionysius of Halicamassus, and others^ (e.g. Bctr^iop apog for 
Vesuvius 2), and such vacillation in names of places as may be really 
due to the ancient authors (e. g. Labtei, Cic. jigr. a. 35 ; so also Greek 
writers generally ; but Lavicl, Liv. a, 3^9 ; 3, a5 ; 4, 45). In and after 

^ Some few instances in inscriptions between the battle of Actium 
and the end of the 4th century p. Chr. are mentioned by Franz {Eletti. 
Epigraph, Grac, p. 248). I have not the means now for further 
inquiry. [See above, p. xli.] 

* [The Neapolitan dialect of modem Italian is characterised among 
other things by * its extremely frequent interchange of l) and v.* (Diez, 
Gram, i. 83.)] 

On ▼ Consonant xliii 

the 3rd century this sound encroached upon the domain of the w [and 
b] , and rendered e.g. Terba indistinguishable from berba. But because 
the Greek /3 may very possibly have had this sound, and may have 
been used for Latin v, it does not follow that Latin v had this 
sound, but only that in the want of an exact representative /3 came 
near enough to be used. I see no reason whatever for supposing 
that in classical times educated persons pronounced the letter v (u) 
(except in certain positions) otherwise than as the vowel 00, either 
with a pause after it, or running on to a succeeding vowel, (as in 
French oui,) or as English w. The first of these modes was the 
usual sound of v when called a vowel, the third when called a con- 
sonant. After q it may have been a mere sign of the labialisation 
of the guttural, an effect which most people would not distinguish 
from ir. And posably the same may be its purport sometimes 
after g, 1, r, a. (See §§ 89 ; 94, 2, and Append. A. xx. — ^xxii.) With 
a short 1 following, qv made a sound which the Greeks represented 
by jcu, i.e. k followed by the lath vowel (see below). The rise of 
b out of V in a few cases is noted in § 76, and this was probably 
negotiated by a labial v, which perished in the transaction. 

Corssen appears to think such a sound as the Engl, w to be too 
weak for v generally, and points to its having expelled the preceding 
consonant in some words. But the words in which this took place, 
leaving evidence in historical Latin behind it, are very few^, vlgintl 
from duo (§ 76), nlvis from nlgr-ls, shown by ninguit and nix, vixl 
compared with vivo (§ 129), possibly reduvla with ungvls. Others 
are evidenced only by comparison with Greek or Sanskrit stems. 
That these changes may have been,produced by the mediation of a 
labial v is likely enough, but they seem to me to be part or rem- xlii 
nants of the changes which constituted the separation of the Latin 
language from its common stock, and to prove nothing for the 
pronunciation of v in the days of Cicero and Quintilian, unless 
indeed g^mrd (once, I suppose, pronounced g«ward) compared with 
tward^ &c. shews that w is in English pronounced as v. That Cors- 
sen should also consider (Aussprache^ I. 315) the omission of ▼ in 
such words as bob for suos, sayium compared with svavium, &c., 

* Corssen does not mention such words as eSvoco, eeylrl ; and they 
are only instances of the usual habit of sed, sex ; see §§ 93, 2 ; 11 3. 

xliv Preface: Observations on Book L 

or the absorption of v in fautor for fkyitor, noper for noyuni per, 
as proofs that v had not a *' weak vowel sound like the English ir,' 
but a consonantal tone like the Germ, w^, is to me very surprising. 
I draw the precisely opposite inference. (See above, 5, p. xKxiv.) 

[Mr A. J. Ellis has written in the Accidemy for 15 Jan. 187a* a 
very interesting paper on the letter v, to which I am desirous Oif 
directing my readers* attention, as containing a great deal of 
authentic information and the results of an almost imrivalled power 
of phonetic discrimination in reference to this subject He points 
out that, whereas, when 00 is followed by another vowel, English 
speakers naturally pronounce a w, other nations do not; Italian 
uomo^ uopo^ and French ouaU^ ouate^ otsesty out being distinguishable 
by an attentive hearer from English *iva(r)m, <iva(r)p, ivay, ivatth^ 
twejty «ive. The case of 00 before a vowel is parallel to that of ee. 
^The initial short and stresskss elements ee, 00 do not occur at the 
^ commencement of diphthongs in English, as to my ears they do in 

* Welsh', and as they may once have done in Latin. Those nations 

* who use short ee, 00 habitually give them consonantal syllabic value.' 
He objects to the notion, that Latin v was equivalent to English w, 
mainly on the ground that it is, so far as he knows, not familiar to 
the lips of any European people except the English. * The final 

* inference would seem to be that I, V (in Latin) should be considered 

* as vowels capable of becoming the stressless elements of diphthongs, 

* so long as II, W initial are not found; that after these were found 

* (and probably some time before they crept into writing, which 

* always lags after speech) y and labial v were employed, when I, V 

* were the initial (not the ^al) stressless elements of diphthongs; 

^ Corssen means by the Germ, w the labio-dental English v. The 
sou^A Germ, w is, according to Mr Ellis, the labial v (see App. A. xviii.).. 
But this is not known to all Germans, though Rumpelt {Deutsch. 
Gram. i. 322 — 327 note) seems groping for it. See also p. 319, where 
he argues for the old high German w or uu having had the sound of 
English w. 

^ Prof. M. Miiller's remarks in Acad, 15 Dec. 187 1, and the reply of 
Prof. Munro in Acad, i Jan. 1872, should also be read. 

^ * In la, le, lo initiad, Welshmen conceive that they pronounce 3ra, 
*ye, yo, and similarly in wl, wy they believe they say (Engl.) we, wy. 

* This is doubtful to me, because of the difficulty all Welshmen expe- 

* rience at first in saying ye, woo, which they generally reduce to e, 00.' 
Ellis^ Engl, Pron. p. 746 n. 

On ▼ Consonants xlv 

*and that later. in some words, especially in provincial pronuncia- 

* tion, y passed into dsh (English J) in Gaul (subsequently French J) 
*and parts of Italy, and gh (Spanish J) in Spain; that ▼ either 
' remained provincially as labial v, or became dentalised into labio- 
' dental v as being the firmer form and corresponding to the fa- 

* miliar f. But there seems to be no time during which English w 

* can be interpolated. As a matter of practical convenience, English 
' speakers should abstain from w in Latin, because no continental 

* nation can adopt a sound they cannot pronounce. As a question 
' of date, if the spelling w is used, the pronunciation of labial v or 

* labio-dental v at pleasure may be employed, most of the Germans 
' taking labial v, and the rest of the wprld dental v.' {Acad, pp. 
36, 39 somewhat abridged.) 

I cannot say that the fact of w being a difficult and now rare or 
non-existent sound in Southern Europe is to my mind decisive against 
its having been the sound of Latin v in the time of Cicero, For 
that sound, whatever it was, did (as Mr Ellis agrees in thinking) 
historically give place to other sounds, and is not now the sound of 
the character v either in Italy or in France at least. And I can 
detect nothing in English inconsistent with Roman phenomena, and 
a great deal wonderfully identical. At the same time such a pro- 
nunciation as ou in French out does apparently correspond equally 
well with the early Roman phenomena; and it has existing Southern 
usage in its favour as against English w. And I am quite content 
to think that a labial v was provincially contemporary and in the 
end generally superseded it. (This really differs little from what I 
have said before; see §§ 61, 88 and supr. pp. xlii. xliii.) But "as a 
matter of practical convenience," I venture to give a different 
reconmiendation from Mr Ellis. I am confident that the labio- 
dental V is a very misleading pronunciation of Latin v, and wholly 
inconsistent with the Roman phenomena until some late periods 
English people will practically be very near the truth, if they pro- 
nounce V in Latin for some centuries after Christ as w. If the 
French pronounce it as ou (in oui)^ the Italians as u (in uomo)^ and the 

^ Comp. Prof. Munro, Acad, i Jan. 1872, p. 17: *Let Latin v be 
'^ English or South-German w, or the French ou in oul, only not English 
*or Romance v.* 

xlvi Preface: Observations on Book I. 

Germans as labial v, there will probably be no greater difference 
than was often heard in the streets of Rome in the days of Cicero. 
The close resemblance of English w to these French and Italian 
sounds is shewn most strongly by the existing doubt as to whether 
Welsh w is a vowel or a consonant, and by the uncertainty of 
English orthoepists to which class to refer English w (Ellis, Eng, 
Pron, p. 185). Its close resemblance to labial v will not be 
doubted by those who hear a South German pronounce English 
words. If the English hearer expects a v, he thinks he hears a w; 
if he expects a w, there is difference enough to make him think he 
hears a v.] 

On F. 

On the sound of f I have already spoken (p. xxxvi). 
The facts adduced in this first book and in § 766 of the third 
book would be almost enough to shew that t was not a sound of 
the Indo-European original alphabet, but of a much later and more 
special source. The number of words, in which it occurs as 
initial, is not very large, but the number in which it occurs, as 
initial of a suffix or after a vowel, is exceedingly small — four or five 
only. (Of course compounds must for such a purpose be separated 
into their members; e.g. in sestifer t is initial,) A few more are 
named by Corssen (Krit, Nachtr, p. 193 sqq. Aussprache^ I. 140 
sqq. ed. 2), e.g. Alllus, Orflus, Ufens, Aufldiis, but these are proper 
names and probably not Latin. Certainly such a rare occurrence of 
f in suffixes goes far to shew that the soiind did not exist at the time 
when these suffixes first assumed shape and use. It may well be that 
-bro is of the same stock as ferre to beaf^ but, if so, they are col- 
lateral relatives, and -liro is the earlier of the two. Similarly the 
verbal tense-suffixes -bam, -bo, &c., the derivative noun-suffixes 
-bulo, -bin, -bo, the case-suffix -bi in tlbl, -bis in nobis, yobls, -bus 
xliii in nouns, may very possibly have correspondents in Latin (or 
Umbrian or Oscan*) beginning with f, but I should be inclined to 

^ Is it certain that the signs in Umbrian, Oscan, &c., for which we 
write f, had the sound which we ascribe to the Latin f, and not rather 
a labial sound? [Compare what Mr Ellis says (Acad. 15 Jan. 1872): 

* After some recent experience I feel doubtful of all assertions respecting 

* f as well as v. Certainly f is a comparatively rare sound, and labial f 

* may prove more common than is generally supposed.'] 

On C before 8b, e, 1, &c. xlvii 

regard such words with f as in a collateral not a parental relation 
to those with t>. And thus amavi would not be for ama-ftil, but 
it may contain a suffix from the same root as fat 

On C before 8B, e, 1, &c. 

That c before © or l«was in Latin not pronounced as dther 
Engl, ch, i.e. tsh (so in Italian), nor as 8 (so in French and English), 
nor as ts (so in German), nor in fact noticeably diiferent from k, 
may be inferred from the following arguments. 

I. Closely connected forms exhibit perpetual alterations of the 
letter following e, without any sign of a variance in the sound of c 
when followed by e or i. Can Vergil in writing replictus, instead 
of the usual repUcltus, have made so great a change as hardening s 
or ah or ch into k ? If a final e be omitted, could the effect have 
been to harden these dentals or palatals into k ? Yet die, due, sic, huno 
stand for dice, dUce, sice, hunce. Hosce is common, but is never 
abbreviated into hose : that is to say, c is frequently added when it 
would, if a sibilant, be indistinguishable, it is not added, when its pre- 
sence would have been audible I Can decem have been pronounced 
decbem or detsem or desem, and yet its derivative ordinal have been 
sounded delcnmus, and then, at the same time with that, decMznus, 
&c.? KailiUB became Callus: did the c change its sound when the 
diphthong ai was changed into the diphthong ae ? or did it wait 
until the diphthong ae gave place to the single vowel e (§ a6a)? 
Compare audacter (Quint, i. 6, § 17) with audadter; dlfficulter 
and dlfficultas with difficile; capio, reclpio, cepl, captum, receptnm; 
cano, cedni; acer, acrls; locus, lod, loco, loctllus, locellus; laciis 
with its genitives lacl and lacus, and dat. pi. lactLbus and laclbus ; 
plBCls, plBdculUB, plscosus ; qverciYetum with qvercotum ; prsoqvo- 
quifl contracted into pracoz, and prs»coz with its genitive pr»cocl8 ; 
&x with its old nom. foces; &c. I am aware that the substitution of 
a guttural for a palatal (dlc=:dlk, for dlce=dlclie) may be paralleled xllv 
from Sanskrit cu now pronounced^ but the change of sound is marked 
by a change of letter, and the palatal letters are not dependent for 
thdr sound on one vowel rather than another. But in classical 
Latin the change supposed is not justified, so far as I know, by any 

xlviii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

analogy. Changes of consonantal sounds are frequent, but they are 
rarely caused by any change of the subsequent vowel: and the 
change of sound is frequently shewn by a change of the spelling, 
e.g. in yeli-ere, vec-tum, which is the nearest analogy that I know. 

a. The letter c was used in early times in words which were 
afterwards spelt, some with c, others with g ; and some instances of 
this use remain in early inscriptions (see ^s^i 104). Whether these 
words were at the time pronounced with the flat guttural, or 
whether the sharp and flat guttural were not clearly distinguished 
(cf. App. A. vii.), it is not easy to say. But Is. was also in use, and 
is found in a few inscriptions, generally before a, but also before o, 
and (in one inscription regarded on this account by Mommsen as 
Graecising) before e; e.g. kalendas, korano, dekembres ; and it was 
the regular abbreviation for the praenomen E»bo and for kal»uUa 
(§ 103). It is not likely that, if c before e and 1 was pronounced 
otherwise than before a, 0, and xi, no attempt should have been made 
to retain k for the guttural. Yet such an idea does not appear to 
have occurred to any of the reformers of Latin orthography— neither 
to Accius nor to Lucilius nor to Claudius Caesar, in the name of 
each of whom (see however § 946 n.) c occurs before one of these 
supposed influential vowels. Quintilian (i. 7, § 10) speaks of the 
desire on the part of some grammarians to write k before a, (not 
before o and u also,) but his remark on this seems clearly to imply 
that c had but one sound, "k quidem in nullis verbis utendum 
puto, nisi quae significat, etiam ut sola ponatur. Hoc eo non omisi, 
quod quidam eam, quotiens a sequatur, necessariam credunt, cum 
sit c littera quae ad omnes vocales vim suam proferat." * k should 
not in my opinion be used in any eword except in those for (which it can 
stand by itself as an abbreviation, I mention this because of the opinion 
of some persons that k must be used if the vo^wel a follo^uj it, though 
c is a letter the sound cf mjijich is heard before all vo^ivels,^ 

3. But with these facts must be considered, in order that 
xlv their full force may be seen, the fact that there is no hint in any 
ancient writer whatever of c having more than one sound, since 
the eaiiy times mentioned in the last paragraph (Schneider, Lat. 
On I. 244, 247; Corssen, jiussprache, i. 48). And this is the more 
remarkable, because there are many parts of their writings in which 

On C hefore a, e, 1, &c. xlix 

such a variety of sound could hardly help being noticed, if it had 
existed. For instance Quintilian (i. 4, §§ 7 — 9) first refers to the 
discussion of the grammarians whether the Romans lacked some 
necessary letters, and then to the counter question whether some 
were superfluous, and speaks of k and 4. In 7 § 28 he is speaking 
expressly of what is written one way and pronounced another, and 
instances this very letter c as used to denote OnsBus (cf. infr. § 104). 
Terentianus Maurus (who is generally thought to have lived at end 
of 3rd century p. Chr.), referring to the fact that the names of the 
three letters c, Ic, q contained each a different vowel (ce, ka, qu ; 
comp. App. A. xxiii.), says expressly, as I understand him, that k 
and q are alike in sound and are both superfluous, because it 
matters not whether c, k, or q be used, whichever of the vowels 
follow (w. 204 — 209)^. 

See also Diomed. pp. 423, 424, ed. Keil; Priscian Inst. i. 14. 
17 ; pp. 12, 13, ed. Hertz ; Servius, p. 422, ed. Keil ; Pompeius, 
V. no, ed. Keil; Max. Vict. p. 1945, Putsche; and others quoted 
in Schneider, Lat. Gr, I. p. 292 sqq. 

4. c is invariably represented in Greek transliteration by /c, be 
the vowel that follows what it may ; and k is invariably represented 
by Latin 0*. Now Greek k has never been, and is not either 

^ The lines stand thus in Lachmann's edition, but the whole pas* 
sage, beginning at v. 85, should be read : 

k perspicuum est littera quod vacare possit; 

et q similis, namque eadem vis in utrat^ue est; 

quia qui locus est primitus unde exoritiir c, 

quascunque deinceps libeat jugare voces, 

mutare necesse est sonitum quidem supremum, 

refert nihilum, k prior an q siet an c. 
i. e. Whatever vowels you please to utter after forming the guttural 
contact for C, you must change accordingly the last part of the sound 
{i.e. the vowel part of the syllable ca, cu, ce <Sr»r.), but it matters not 
whether the former part (/. e, the consonant) be "k or (lor c, [Marius Vic- 
torinus in the passage (l. 6) quoted by Prof. M. Miiller {Acad. 15 Dec. 
1871)" had this passage of Terentianus before him. Both, I think, in 
the words 'supremum sonitum (sonum)' are referring, not to the opening 
of the organs as distinguished from the closing of them in the pronun- 
ciation of mutes, but to the names of the letters, which were symbols of 
the pronunciation. (See § 57). In Marius *distento rictu' refers to the 
vowel a (in ka), *producto rictu' to the vowel u (in qu).] 

* Except possibly in a few early words, the spelling of which may 
be accounted for from being once the common sign of both the sharp 
and flat gatturaL 


1 Pfkface: Observations on Book I. 

>tivi palatalised or assibilated before any vowel, but is the sharp guttural 

Against this argument it may be urged that as the Latin o 
coincided in sound with k before a, o, u, it was only natural for the 
Greeks to use k for c before e and 1, unless the sound before e or 1 
was clearly different from the sound of k and was readily ex- 
pressible by some other Greek letter*. 

Now the actual sounds given to c before e or 1 in words derived 
from Latin are (i) Engl, ch (=tBh) by the Italians and Wallachians. 
(2) Engl, th (sharp) by the Spaniards. (3) s (sharp) by the other 
Romance peoples (and the English). (4) The Germans pronounce 
it in Latin words as ts. Further it may be argued on physiological 
grounds that it may have been sounded as Isy, or Germ, ch, or sli ; 
these being possible mediating sounds between the sharp guttural 
mute and the various existing sounds of Latin c. (See v. Raumer, 
Gesam, Scbrtften, pp. 40 — 43, 90 — 95 ; Schuchardt, I. 164 ; Ellis, 
p. 204, quoted in App. A.xxv.; Max Mttller in Academy for Feb. 15, 
18 7 1.) Gould these sounds have been represented in Greek? 

The sound of s could easily and accurately have been expressed 
by Greek o-. 

sh could be expressed by either o-, fT<T or (n (cf. MuUach, Gram, 
d^ Griech. Vtdgarsprache^ p. 115). 

th (sharp) would be expressed far more nearly by o- than by ic. 
The sound of sharp th is now expressed in modern Greek by ^, 
but it is not clear when 6 first obtained this sound. 

ts could easily be expressed by r<T or t^ (see below). I regard 
this value for Latin c, until at least some very late period, as utterly 
inadmissible. No combination was so thoroughly alien to the 
Romans, who never tolerated a dental mute before a sibilant in the 

^ The Tzakonians say rfe for icat (see below, p. li.). Mr D. Bikelas 
(in the Academy for 15 March, 1871) says, *in many of the Greek 
'islands k is pronounced like Italian c before the vowels 6, t, v.* 

* Prof. Max M tiller says : * Unless we admit that C in Cicero was 

* pronounced either exactly like f or exactly like <r — and this nobody 

* maintains — nothing remained to the Greeks but to use k as the nearest 

* approach to the modified c* Surely this is going too far. He himself 
explains the fact that the Germans wrote z or tz for c, as proving, not 
that z or tz ^as the exact pronunciation of C, but that they came nearer 
to c than did the Germ, k, or ch. {Academy ^ 15 Feb. 1871, p, 146.) 

On C before a, e, 1, &c. li 

same worcL (Etal is of course two words.) Nor did the Greeks xivU 

Germ, ch is a sound which, so far as I know, has never yet 
been actually proposed as a value of Latin c before e and i. In 
modem Greek ^ expresses it exactly, but x is not generally supposed 
to have had this sound, at any rate till late Imperial times (cf. 
Curtius, Gr, Etynt, p. 371, ed. 2). It is enough for the present to 
wait till some spark of evidence for such a sound is produced. It 
can never be a formidable claimant. 

Engl. cli=tBh was expressed in Greek by t( by Procopius in the 
axth century p. Chr. (in the word r^ovpovKov^ now Tchorlu^ and 
others in Benseler's Lexicon), and probably in the Ravenna docu- 
ments of the same time, e.g. a/crfto, Soi/arfioi/f s, for actio, donationes 
(Gorssen, i. 6$ sq. ; Ellis, p. 529). So in modem Greek rf is used to 
represent either ta, or sh, or tsh (Engl, ch) or zh, i.e. French J 
(Mullach, p. 115). Compare the Tzakonian dialect, Mullach, p. 94 
sqq., M. Schmidt in Curtius Studien, ill. 349. Prof. Max MuUer 
objects to the supposition of f having been possible, * because f was 
* looked upon as a double consonant, and in the middle of a word 
' would have made a preceding short vowel long.' This argument is 
no doubt good in reference to verse in the Augustan age: I am not 
sure of its being applicable to prose even then, if ci had really been 
sounded as cM, and I believe it has little or no weight as applied to 
transliteration in the 2nd or 3rd century, when yet k represented c. 
(See Prof. Munro's account of an Algerian inscription in Donald- 
son's Farroniamu, p.jja2, ed. 3 ; Mullach, p. 71 ; Luc. M tiller's 2nd 
Appendix to his De re metrica.) But is not the prosodiacal argu- 
ment as good against the supposition of ci being =tslii, as it is 
against its being represented by f ? (cf. v. Raumer, p. 40); and is 
there any trace whate\^er of a tendency, at a time when quantity wss 
fdt, to make the first syllable in e. g. cecidi long ? 

There remains one theoretical sound for ce, viz. kye. Here it is 
necessary to discriminate. It is possible I believe to articulate ke at 
the same part of the mouth as ka, but neither English nor Germans 
nor, so far as I know, any other European people do so. ke is 
palatal and ka is guttural, but the difference is imperceptible. But 
the real question is, had Latin ke either a full y sound or a slight y 
sound, such as is sometimes heard in Engl, kind^ card? Mr Eliis 

lii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

xiviii several times (e.g. p. 525, comp. 204) suggests that it had, but he 
nowhere defines the time to which he is referring, and he seems to 
think the distinction of ke and Isye is too slight for us to rely upon 
its being noticed. I can only say that the distinction is one which 
seems to me obvious enough, far more obvious than many which I 
find noticed by Roman granunarians; and I cannot trust my ear 
or tongue to find or make any clear distinction between sounds 
which Ellis discriminates, viz. a palatalised k (as heard in the occa- 
sional pronunciation of kind, &c.) and a full ky. But be that as it 
may, if the distinction was not obvious, surely we need not trouble 
ourselves about it ; if it was, then would not the Greek ki have 
been a tolerable representative? Yet no Greek gives us Kirjva-ap 
for censor, or KuKcpatv for Cicero. 

5. Latin c was represented by Gothic k, and the early Latin 
words, received into High German, were all spelt with a k, what- 
ever vowel followed; e.g. CsBsar, Kaiser; career, Goth, karkara, 
Germ, kerker. Later adoptions into* German were spelt differently, 
e.g. census. Germ, z/wj; cancelli, Germ, chanzella, &c. (Prof. 
Max M tiller accounts for this as due to the early poverty of the 
German alphabet, not to the identity or similarity of the sounds; and 
as regards Gothic, partly to this cause, partly to a (supposed) habit 
of taking letter for letter without regard to distinctions of sound, 
partly to the possibility of Ulfilas having received the words through 
the Greek,) 

But the argument most pressed, for c having sometimes a different 
sound from k, is the confusion which existed between ci before a 
vowel and ti before a vowel. Now first, whatever force there may 
be in this argument, it is one which cannot justify our attributing 
an altered sound of c to ce, cl, &c. when before a consonant. 
Secondly, it seems tolerably clear (Corssen, i. 50 — 67) that many 
instances of the miswriting are due to the confusion not of two 
sounds but of two distinct suffixes -cio, -tio; and that there is no pro- 
bable instance of ti for ci before at least the end of the 4th century 
p. Chr.; and only seven instances of d for ti in inscriptions before 
the 7th century p. Chr.i Further, of these seven instances, three 

' Corssen points out (ti. p. 1003) that Mommsen speaks to the 
same purport (Liv. Cod, Veron,^, 175). * Numquam in libro Vero- 

On C bifore a, e, 1, &c. Jiii 

(peridao, odo, iiradencius) are not of early times, and are given by xilx 
collectors who lived at a time when the spelling odo at least was 
usual; one (renundatlonem) is from a notoriously bad collector: a 
fifth (dlsposlcionem) is from a late Neapolitan inscription contain- 
ing several misspelt words ^; the remaining two (tenniiiac[loneB], 
defenciones) are from an inscription at Medjana in Africa of the 
time of Alexander Severus (aaa — 23s P* Chr.). Even if these last 
be rightly copied, (which is not certain,) an inference from African 
spdling or. pronunciation in the 3rd century to ordinary Roman 
spelling and pronunciation in (say) the Augustan age would be 
about as justifiable as an inference from the usage of words or 
constructions in Apuleius or TertuUian to that of Cicero or 
Qwntilian. It is curious that the grammarian (Pompeius), whom 
Pro£ Max M tiller quotes as his authority for saying that *we 
*know for certain that in the 5th century it was considered wrong 
*not to assibilate tl before a vowel,' was also an African, from 
Mauretania, and as regards his age all that is tolerably certain is 
that he did not live before the 5 th century, and not later than the 
end of the 7th century (Keil, Gram. Lot, v. p. 93. See also 
TeufTel, Gesch, d, Rom. Litt. p. 982). And again, another African, 
Commodianus, of the 3rd century, has in an acrostic the word mm 
for the initial word of the line which is to give the last letter but 
three of concuplscen/lae^ (L. MttUer, De re metr. p. a 6 a, quoted by 
Corssen, 11. 1003). 

Thirdly, what does this confusion really prove as to the pro- 
nunciation of d before a vowel, at the time, be it what it may, 
when the confusion existed? Prof. M. MuUer says: *The only 
' point where these two letters (c and t) can possibly meet is the 
*assibilation. Tl may go as far as tsl, but imless UL also went as 

* far as tsM, the two could not have met, and no Roman whether in 

* Italy or Africa could have attempted to write reuuntiatio by 

nensi commutatas reperies litteras c et t, quod qui ante septimum 
saeculum obtinuisse sibi persuadent, ne {assuredly) ii vehementer errant.* 
[See also to the same effect Mommsen's Preface to his edition of the 
Digest, p. xl.] 

^ Some of these remarks are due to Prof. Munro's pamphlet. 

' Prof. Munro tells me that this line should be read, * Tum pro die 
tuo vigila,' in order to harmonize with the imperatives and antitheses 
before and after. [Haupt has independently made the same correction, j 

liv Preface: Observations qn Book L 

*renunciatlo^ {Academy^ p. 146). I reply (i) by referring to Prof. 
Muller's instructive Lectures, 11. p. 168, where, quoting Marsh, he 
says, *We are told by careful observers that the lower classes in 
'(French) Canada habitually confound t and k, and say mekier^ 
^moikie for metier, moitie.^ Quintilian (if the MSS are correct, I. 
II. 5, ed. Halm) speaks of that * fault of pronunciation by which 
*c and g are softened into t and d' (comp. Schuchardt, in. 
81, sq.). (2) I refer to an authority whom Prof. MuUer will 
respect — Mr Ellis (quoted in App. A. xxv.), who explains dis- 
tinctly how the confusion of t with c arises, and in the stage of 
ky, ty, before either is assibilated; and v. Raumer (who seems 
to me to have inspired M. Muller in his argument generally) 
says the same (Gesam, Scbriften, p. 92). (3) I venture to go still 
farther, and, while fully admitting the theoretical possibility of pala- 
talised k and t (ky, ty) having been the mediator between ce, cl and 
the modern assibilated pronunciations, such as a, ta, or th, I hesitate 
as to its reality. For, as Gorssen says (i. 49), there is not a spark of 
positive evidence for it : and, if c once became t, the change of t to s 
is far too common a phenomenon in Latin to necessitate an explana- 
tion, which applies only to t before i (cf. § 191 and infr. p. Ixii.). 
It must be remembered that the palatalisation of c into ch=8]i in 
French is before the vowel a ^ (Diez, i. 249, considers here the 
intermediate step to have been a guttural aspirate. Germ, ch.) 

To sum up ; as there is not one particle of trustworthy evidence, 
before at least the fifth or sixth century, for any other pronunciation 
of c than that of the sharp guttural, except the few reminiscences 
of the sound of g, two African inscriptions, and the [doubtful 
text of the] African acrostic of the 3rd century with the doubtful 
inferences deduced from them, I am unable to see how it can be 
any defence of so thoroughly confusing a pronunciation of the 
Latin of Cicero and Quintilian, as arises from sounding c as s, 
that it is theoretically possible for the Romans to have made a 
difference in cl compared with ca, which was yet so small that no 
granunarian noticed it, and no writer attempted to express it. 

^ So in English the pronunciation of c as ky took place only (?) 
before a; e. g. cardj kind {= kyaind), sky (=skyai). 

On g before 89, e and 1. Iv 

On g before 89, e and 1, 

That g in Latin was not pronounced as English J ( = dEh), and 
that it was always hard before all vowels, may be inferred from the 
following arguments. (Compare also the discussion of the sound 
of c before the like vowels.) 

I. Closely connected foims exhibit perpetual alterations of the 
vowel following g, without any evidence of a desire to change g 
before e or 1; e. g. xnallgnus for mallgenus ; gigno for glgeno ; teg- 
men for teglmen ; tlgnum compared with tlgillum, &c. Similarly 
xego, regis, regit becomes rectum (for regtnm) ; reg- makes regis, 
regl, regum, regnlus, and rex (for reg-s, rec-s); ager, agri; fuga, 
ftagtt, fogaz, fUgio, fngltiynB. 

a. In Greek g is always represented by y; and y is represented 
by g. It is true in modem Greek y before c and i is Eng. y; but it 
is by no means certain when y first gained this sound. And more* 
over the sound of y is not that of Engl. J. 

3. There is no trace to be found in the grammarians of any 
different sound of g before the several vowels. This is the more 
noticeable, because they speak of the effect of g and c, upon a pre- 
ceding n, in converting the dental into the guttural nasal. But they 
make n(* allusion to any difference in the g. Yet the instances 
adduced contain the lingual as well as the labial vowels, e.g. axigyis, 
ingenuus, anoeps, Longinus, angulus, angens. It is no doubt not 
impos^ble that this change in the sound of n should be made before 
palatals such as Engl, ch and J ; but we do not make it in English. 
I infer that the Latins had (in these cases at least, and if in these, 
why not in others?) c and g hard, whether e and i, or a, o, u 

4. There is no evidence of g having such a sound as Engl. J 
before the 4th or 5th century p. Chr., according to Schuchardt; 
before the 5th century, according to Corssen. Diez (i. a68) infers 
from the Anglo-Saxon alphabet that g was the guttural flat mute up 
to the 7th century. The omission of g before i, in major for magior, 
does not appear to imply the assibilation of g. For it takes plac^ 

Ivi Preface: Observations on Book I. 

Hi before v as much as before 1, e.g. nlvis for nlgyis, malo for m&g^cHo; 
and g is too commonly omitted before consonants to miake its 
omission before setniconsonants unnatural. There is evidence in 
the 4th and 5th centuries of its having the soimd of EngL y (=J), 
e.g. magestates for majestates, /Seicvrc for vlgintl. Possibly this 
sound of g may have existed dialectically earlier. 

On dentals; especially tl before a vowel. 

On the pronunciation of tl we have a distinct statement by 
Isidore in the beginning of the 7th century p. Chr., viz. that before 
a vowel tia should be sounded as zia. And Pompeius (v. pp. 104, 
286, ed. Keil) and Gonsentius (v. p. 395, ed. Keil) appear 'to say 
the same. But these -are apparently not much, if at all, earlier wit- 
nesses ; and accordingly donationem, donationes, are represented in 
Ravenna Greek of the 6th century by 8o)va(iov€fiy dovaT^iovts* And 
since the 6th century, according to Corssen, instances occur of a 
similar assibilation, in which the 1 was not preserved, e.g. oon- 
Btantso, constanzo are written for constantio. Schuchardt (i. 104. 
150) thinks that assibilation began as early as the and century 
p. Chr., but did not become general till a much later period. In 
Umbrian and Oscan it appeared before the first Punic War, and 
the origin of such forms as formonsus is probably to be found in 
formontioB (see § 813). On dl before a vowel see § 154. • 

A final d was often pronoimced as t (§ 150) ; and Quintilian's 
words (i. 7, § 5) imply, I think, that there was no difference in the 
pronunciation of ad and at, though the difference in spelling ap- 
pears to have continued long. But d is rarely final (§ 155), and 
Velius Longus (beginning of and cent. p. Chr.) speaks of apud 
and Bed being pronounced with d (p. 2231, Putsche). 

Mr Munro calls attention to the fact that the continental t (and 
therefore of course d) is more dental than with us. Mr Ellis {Pbil. 
Soc, Trans. 1867, SuppL p. 12) describes the European dental as 
formed by pressing the tongue against the teeth, whereas in English 
the tongue scarcely reaches the gmns. (Sed however Eng. Pron. 
p. 477, n.) But I do not think this can affect the question of the 

On VL ; final d ; bs, &c. ; n before gutturals; gn. Ivii 

interchange of d and t. That interchange depended on the tendency Ha 
to drop the sound of the voice at the end of the word, as the 
Germans do now, e.g. itnt for und (BrUcke, pp. 38. 46. See also 
bdow, App. A. vii.). 

On bs, z, bt, &c. 

That bs is=ps, not bz, follows from the general law of Latin, that 
the former of two consonants is made conformable to the latter, and 
frt>m the fact that s was the sharp hiss. Some instances are found 
of axaps, Tirps, pleps (Neue, i. p. 137). Compare also scrlbo, 
fecrlpsl, Bcrlptiim (cf. § 78). Plutarch writes Uphv 6il/€Kov€VTris 
for temidiuii obseqventis (^Fort. Rom, 10). 

Similarly z is for ks, not gz. Compare rego, rezi, rectum. 
Eeg-Bl first becomes rec-si, then is written rezi. 

So also obtullt was pronounced optoUt: optimns is for ob-timus, 
(see Quint i. 7. 7). And usually with the prepositions in compo- 
sition, we shall be justified in thinking that, even where MSS. and 
inscriptions vary much in their spelling, the assimilation, entire or 
partial, was expressed in pronouncing ; the spelling, as is natural, 
oscillating between the claims of etymology and sound; e.g. apparere, 
adparere; imperiuxn, lnperlii2a#. 8cc, 

On n before gutturals; gn. 

The pronunciation of n as ng before a guttural (c, g, <iu) is clear 
from Nigidius Figulus, ap, GelL xix. 14. 7. No mention is made of 
the absorption of the g. And in the Greek to which it is compared 
the y is written twice, ^yyAor. 

On is (or was) in Germany, I believe, pronounced like ng + n, i. e. 
digniu is sounded diBg-niui. In Italian and French it is like 217 in 
dln-yiis. There appears to be no allusion to such pronunciations 
in any of the Latin writers, although they frequently discuss ng. 
This seems ded^ve against the above-named pronunciations of gn, at 
least in the absence of any other evidence for them. (See Schneider, 
Lat.Gr.l, 272; Corssen, 11. 262, ed. 2; and below, p. Ixxx.) 

Iviii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

On 8. 

l«v Corssen maintains {Austpr, i. 294) that s had in Latin three 
sounds : 

(i) Sharp (i.e. a hiss) as initial, and medial before and after 
other consonants, except n. 

(2) Soft (i.e. flat = Engl. 2) between two vowels, as now in the 
Romance tongues, and after n. 

(3) Dull and faint at the end of words. 

Of the- sound of s as a sharp there is the strongest possible 
proof. For (a) it maintains its place before shaiip consonants in st, 
ap, sq, Bc, and it does not maintain its place before flat consonants, 
e. g. d, m, n, 1, r (§ 1 9 3 . a). And (Ji) it changed a flat consonant preced- 
ing it to a sharp. It may be said that consul, mons, ars show flat 
consonants preceding. But consul was abbreviated cos, which shows 
the evanescence of the n. Mons, ars (from stems montl-, art!-) 
are instances of the refusal of the Romans, when sacrificing some- 
thing, to sacrifice all. The ti had already gone : it was necessary at 
least to write n and r to preserve the individuality of the words. 
But the pronunciation is a different thing. I conjecture that both n 
and r were in these cases fujhispered^ not voiced (cf. App. A. viii. — x.). 
This necessity made the Romans unwilling to permit the retention 
of n and r, when there was no further reason. A whispered r 
exists in Icelandic (written lir, Ellis, p. 544). A similar whispered r 
may be presumed in words like prorsum, sursum, which became 
prosum, susum, by r assimilating to s. But that r as a general rule 
was voiced, appears clearly from its pathology and influence. 

The third sound, attributed by Corssen to s, is inferred from 
the frequent omission of a in writing, and from its non-pronuncia- 
tion in early verse (§ 193. 5). I do not know what precise sound 
(-orssen means to give it, nor what it could have, different from a 
or z, but, this difficulty over, I have nothing to object. 

But the second sound seems to me very doubtful. \ cannot 
estimate properly the value of the argument from the Romance lan- 
guages ^ Their list of sounds is not so closely accordant with that 

^ Mr Payne {PhiL Soc. Trans, 1868 — 9, p. 419) doubts the a between 
two vowels having a z sound in French in the 13th or 14th centuries. 

On 8. lix 

attributed either by Corsaen dr myself to the Romans, as to render iv 
it necessary to suppose any identity of pronunciation in this case. 
In Italian particularly a has a very different character from what it 
had in Latin. Witness the combinations sb, sin, sg, sd, sn, si, sr, 
&c. There remain three other arguments which appear to me, if 
they prove anything, to prove that s written was s sharp. 

(i) The fact that r supplanted s in many words is justly ad- 
duced (p. 280) as a proof that a was in these words pronounced 
like 2. But why this should prove that a was pronounced as z in 
other words, in which this change did not take place, is far from 
dear. I draw exactly the opposite inference. If s had in these 
words been pronounced like z, it would have passed to r as in 
other words. This rhotacism swept over the language like an 
epidemic, and seized those instances of a as its victims which were 
predisposed to it by the sound; and it is surely most probable that 
it seized all such. Reason for discrimination I see none. 

(a) Another argimaent (p. a 81) is that an a between two 
vowels, which in some forms was changed to r, in other forms of 
the same stem was omitted. I cannot see what this proves, except 
that the flat a which changed to r was sometimes omitted. But 
the question is, what was the sound of an a which was not omitted, 
and which did not change to r? 

(3) The last argument brought by Corssen (p. 284) is that a 
after n was pronounced, in certain words at least, as if between 
two vowels, the n being omitted, and, consequently, it would have 
the ordinary sound of a between two vowels, i.e. z (see § 168. 3). 
On this matter I would refer to the extract from Mr Bell given 
in App. A. § V. It will be remembered that Cicero tells us that na, 
nf lengthened the preceding vowel (§ 167). Now a and f agree in 
being voiceless continuous consonants. And voiceless consonants 
are just those * before which n is so short, as scarcely to add any 
* appreciable quantity to the syllable.' I conclude from these facts that 
a was a voiceless consonant in this case also; that the n was scarcely 
audible; but that to compensate for this, the Romans lengthened 
the preceding vowel, i.e. dwelt longer on the preceding vowel, to 
signalize the fact of the syllable being more than the vowel + b» 

Ix Preface: Observations on Book I. 

Ivi Greek transcriptions show that it was the vofivel^ not merely the 
syllable, that was lengthened. 

[Mr Munro contends for a having had the flat sound *in the 
'comparatively few cases in which s not representing a real as 

* comes between two vowels.' He points to the fact that * in 

* Italian there are most suggestive exceptions to s being soft' (flat) 

* between two vowels: in cosa, riso, etc.; and in the adjective ter- 

* mination -obo it is sounded, as' sharp s. 'The Italian too is strongly 
'supported by late Greek; we find Kaa-a-os (casus), Kovpioa-aos 
' (curiosos), fJMfuoarara (famossa), i^Kova'craros (excusatus), t^Kovar^ 
' (raT€V€iv (excusare) and the like. What is the meaning of this o-c, 
' if there was no difference between the s of casus (cassus) and c&sa, 
' of rosiis (rosBus) and rdsa?" (^Fe<w Remarks ^ pp. 13 and a 6.) If 
indeed the Italian representatives of all the words enumerated in 
§ 193. 3. f., which are not really referable to a, or b of that section, 
and if no other words with Latin a have a flat a between two 
vowels, the coincidence would be so striking as perhaps to justify 
Mr Munro's inference. I do not know whether this is so or not. 
An intimate knowledge of Italian in its whole development is re- 
quisite to enable due weight to be given to an argument from 
pronunciation which seems to spring over many centuries.] 

Curtius has made the origin of the long vowel in the nominative 
case of certain classes of Greek substantives ^the subject of an 
instructive essay (as indeed all he writes is instructive), Sttuiien, 11. 
159 — 175; and has put forth a theory of the pathology of these 
cases, which has considerable bearing on the Latin long vowel 
before ns, a fact which he naturally notices in this connexion. 
I am not sure that in setting out the different moments of the 
change from e. g. Trareps to Trarrjp, yvdfiovs to yvcifKov^ ^ipovrs to 
<f)€p<ii>Vj o-a(j)€(rs to a'a<f>ijs (p. 169), he means to imply any chrono- 
logical interval, even the smallest, between the stages of the change. 
But there seems to me to be an unreality about it, which makes me 
unable, at least without explanation, to adopt his theory. He de- 
scribes the process thus : ' n, r, s before a final s make the preceding 
' vowel long ; and thereby becoming weak themselves, run a risk of 
' passing, as it were, into the preceding vowel, as is the case in the 
' accusative plural (jiova-as, musas, for fjuyvaavs, musams). But in- 
* stead of so doing, they draw the following a to themselves, assi- 

On a. • Ixi 

* milate it to themselves, take, as it were, the duration of the s, and 
*so recover their fiill sound of n, r, s.' The unreality of this lies 
first in speaking of n, r, s as going through successive stages of 
weakness and recovery, and secondly in the notion of assimilation 
itself. The fact is, I suppose, that in Greek and Latin the vocal n 
and voiceless s were incompatible. The Latin generally, after its 
wont, and the Greek in some instances (e.g. fiova-as, Sovy), made the 
former of the two give way to the latter; n became voiceless, arttt 
the vowel was lengthened by the involuntary dwelling upon it in 
consciousness of the obscuration of one of the normal sounds of the 
word. In Greek generally the n won the day, and the so-called 
assimilation of ns to zm is", in reality, the voice dwelling longer on 
the n and not uttering the s at allj the previous vowel having been, 
as before, prolonged in anticipation of the loss. If I may use 
metaphorical language, the voice may be said to lengthen the vowel 
just as a leaper presses the ground more firmly before a spring. 
The speaker is aware of a difficult combination of sounds ap- 
proaching, and instinctively spreads the time required for the vowel 
+11+8 over two of them, because he knows he cannot apportion it 
strictly and preserve them all. 

In Latin homoins became homos, and the s was then dropped ; IvU 
partly perhaps, because otherwise a confusion with the ace. plur. of 
nouns would be imminent, partly from the slight hold a final s 
had in the early language. But in by far the majority of -on stems 
(cf. §§ 449, 450) the was naturally long. The stems in -r and -1 
(which were voiced consonants) repudiated the sharp nominative 
sign 8. Stems in -s with a short preceding vowel and not neuter 
are rare. In some we have a long vowel in the nominative (e. g. 
Csrha, arbSs), in others a short vowel (e.g. veiiti8, vettLs, leptis, 
dnls). Of stems in -t with short vowel, only a1>le8, aries, paries 
lengthen it in nonL sing. 

Ixii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

Origin of as. 

It passes now for a recognized and certain theory among most 
philologers that ss is in many words the result of a progressi've 
assimilation (§31. n.). This assimilation is alleged in {a) the supine 
stem ; and [h) in superlatives and ordinals. It is always assumed by 
ftepp, Curtius^, Corssen, L. Meyer, Schleicher. 

(«) Corssen, who especially has defended this theory against 
all comers {Beitr, 419, 426 sq.), holds that, e.g. tond-tum became 
tons-tiim, and then tons-Bun, afterwards tonsum; and that in such 
cases as mer-sum, lap-sum, &c., where there is no dental at the end 
of the stem, the change of t to s is due to a false analogy. 

Now to this theory there are, as it seems to me, two fatal ob- 
jections: (i) toxus-tum is a perfectly stable sound, and if this form 
had once arisen, no further change (except perhaps to tostum) would 
have occurred; (2) there is a fujbole class of stems forming their 
supine in -sum (§ 191. 3), for which the theory utterly fails to account. 

I have not a word to say against the possibility of Corssen's first 
step ; viz. that tond-tum became tons-turn. Neither Greeks nor Romans 
tolerated two dental mutes coming together. It was important to 
show the existence of the suffix, and yet tond-tum, if left to the 
ordinary law, would have become simply tont-tum, and the double 
iviii t would have been sounded like one only. The Greeks therefore 
softened the former of the two mutes into s; e.g. avxyr'To^,, aworoy; 
d8-T€ov, aoTcoi/; Treid'dfjvai, TreKrdfjvm. (Curt. Gr, Gr, § 46. See also 
§ 50.) The Romans also adopted this course in cases in which it 
was important to preserve the t (e.g. in est for edit (edt), eats) ; and 
where an r follows immediately, because an a immediately before 
an r is hardly pronounceable; e.g. tond-triz becomes tons-trlx (not 
tond-srix, tonsrix) ; and compare mulctrum with mulsum. There is 
therefore nothing against, but much to favour, the first step of 
Corssen's theory, if dental stems only were concerned. Tond-tum, 
mit-tum may well have become tons-turn, mis-tum ; but why should 

^ Curtius says, * ar is in all Greek dialects one of the most favourite 

* groups. I only know at the most of one instance of its passing into 

* (r...The passage of St into s is in Latin as frequent, as it is strange in 

* Greek.' i^Studien^ I, i, p. 24 1 — 2.) 

Origin of bb. Ixiii 

any further change have occurred? If, as Curtius says (Eridut. %u 
§ 147), * it is a prevalent law of speech that difficulUcombinations 

* of sounds are more bearable, if they have arisen from others yet 

* more difficult, language setting limits to the change of sounds in 

* order to make their origin more patent,' still less is it likely that, 
when change has secured an easy combination, a causeless further 
change should be made. The combination Bt is one of the com- 
monest in the language^; e.g. fastus, festus, § 787; arista, costa, 
pmtexta, &c. § 788; angustus, ftinestus, Sec. § 789; astus, csBstus, 
&c. § 800 ; fuBtls, hostiB, pestis, &c. § 803 ; agrestiB, &c. § 808 ; 
es^oBtas, poteBtaB, § 811; equeBter, pedeBter, ice, § 903; post, ast; 
ost«ndo, abBtineo, sustento, Sec; est, estis; venlsti, audisti, &c. ; 
Stella, BturnuB, sto, stemo, antistes, &c. Nor, so far as I am aware, 
is there a single clear instance of st passing into ss or s^. There is 
no necessity whatever for assuming that os, ossis, or the old form 
OBBO, are formed from oareov. The root of os may have had a d or 
t; in which case this instance would only exemplify the very same 
difference between the Greek and Roman method of dealing with 
double dentals, which we are here discussing. Corssen indeed 
brings forward adgrotus, egretus, quoted by Festus as old forms of 
the past participles; comestuxn is also found in one or two places ^ 
as well as comesnm; and ostensa is found as well as ostenta. 
Now adgretUB and egretus are of course, if genuine, simply in- lix 
stances of the preservation of the starting-point common to all 
theories: comeBtum is, I believe, the oijy instance of a perfectly 

' Leo Meyer calls it *a combination for which our languages 
• (i.e. Greek and Latin) have a general and strong predilection.' ( Verg/, 
Cr. I. 243.) 

• Even in the later imperial times there seems little evidence of such 
a change. See Schuchardt, i. 145. in. 75. 

• [They are (see Neue, 11. 442) Cato, /^.I?. 50, *comesta' (but in 58 
'comesse') ; Val. Max., 9, 12, Ext. 6 ; and the African physician (referred 
by Teuffel to Hadrian's time)Caelius Aurel., Chron. ii. i. Priscian, x. 
^8, 30, quotes *C(Jmestum* from Cic. Chi. 62, § 173, where the oldest 
MS. has *comesum.* Diomedes, pp. 363, 387, ed. Keil, condemns the 
formation *comestum/but adds a quotation from an obscure *Didius de 
Sallustio, comesto patrimonio.' If this is the Declamatio in Sallust., the 
MSS. give comeso. In a passage of Varro {Menip. Sat. 523, ed. 
Biicheler) quoted by Nonius, p. 152, we have *acinis electis et comestis.* 
(In Van. R,R. I. 2, § 11, we have 'comesa' or 'comessa.')] 

Ixiv Preface: Observations on Book I. 

possible way of dealing with the double dental in these fonns, 
but may be equally well regarded as the sister, not the mother, of 
comesum : ostenta may be an instance of the same, but is probably 
to be regarded as belonging to ten-Sre, while ostensa belongs to 
tend-£re. (On infestus, &c., quoted by Corssen, see my note on p. 
220. On iMBSuxn, hausurus see below, p. Ixv.) It can hardly be 
said that there is any evidence for the change of st into 8 or ss. 

My second objection to Corssen's theory is this. All the verbs 
which form their supine in -sun may be divided into three classes; 
the first, stems of which the final consonant is a dental mute, viz. 
t, d; the second, stems in which the final stem consonants are 1 or p 
pr^eding g, 1, or r; the third consisting of a miscellaneous list of 
verbs, all of which are however characterised by the active perfect (if 
they have one) being in si (§ 705). Now this third class, not a large 
one (lapsiim, Jussom, pressum; parsums, mulsum from mnloere; 
fixum, fliiznm; mansum; censuxn, lissuxn, hausunu), but containing 
stems ending similarly to other verbs which have -turn, exhibits 
probably the result of various laws, and the -sum may be partly 
due to a kind of attraction exercised by the perfect. At any rate 
no light on its origin is derivable from Corssen's theory. But the 
- second class, which is quite as numerous, is pervaded by a law: all 
words of the character named have the supine in -sum. And yet 
this is utterly alien from Corssen's theory. No one will suppose 
that sparg-tum, mulg-tum, fall-tum, curr-tum became spar-sum, 
mul-sum, fal-sum, cur-sui^ by passing through the stage of spar-s- 
tum, mul-B-tum, fal-s-tum, cur-s-tum. (Torreo with stem tors- 
made torstum, then tostum, and there stayed.) 

Two other grounds for hesitation in accepting Corssen's theory 
may be mentioned, (i) It supposes a progressi've assimilation, 
whereas this is very rare indeed in Latin ^ But I admit that it is 
possible. Its probability however is very small. Moreover (a), 
ix the fact should be noticed that stems ending in s originally do not 
follow the change prescribed by Corssen; e.g. ges-timi does not 
become ges-sum. But there are three verbs in which such a change 

^ It is rare in other cognate languages too, if I may judge from 
Schleicher's Compendium, (For the definition oi progressive BXid regres- 
sive assimilation see note to page 12. Kuhner {Ausf. Gr, Gr. § 6^, 
Vol I. p. 709, ed. 7) reverses the usual application of these terms). 

Origin of ss. Ixv 

appears to be found; censeo, haiirio, hsereo. Now censeo is origi- 
nally a t- stem (comp. /kcvtco)), and is perhaps a secondary 
derivative from census, which would in that case be the participle 
.of a lost consonant verb. Hausnrus is quite anomalous. I find 
it only in Verg. A, iv. 383, and an imitation in Stat. A, i. 667, 
twice in Silius, and pos^bly once in Seneca (see p. 247). Hansturus 
(Cic.) and haiutus show the regular supine stem. Hsdreo is, 
I suspect, an r stem (comp. atpfco, though h in Latin does not 
usually correspond to an aspirate in Greek), and owes its supine stem 
(limranis, luralto) to the long penult (comp. cuiro, vexro). 

[Mr Nettleship (Academy 1 March 187a) brings, against my 
theory and in favour of a progressive assimilation of st into ss, the 
words jnsBiui (for Justus) from Jus ; assus, assura apparently par- 
ticipial formations (as-tus, as-tura) from a stem as- which in fixSre, 
azldus follows the ordinary law; pustula with another form pusula 
(or pufisula?) which had it been formed from stem pus+ulo would 
have been purnla. Now jussus is from a stem Jou-, as I believe, §§ 
76. % ; 705, though why it has jussus and not jutus I cannot explain. 
Possibly the desire to avoid comparison with the participle of juvare 
may have had something to do with it: (see also p. Ixiv). Assus, 
Monxa I take from a root fir- and parallel them to hsdr-, hsssum. 
Pusfeula, in texts accessible to me, I find only in Cels. 2. i ; 3, 22, 
ed. Daremberg; Sen. Ep, 72. § 75, ed. Haase; Mart. 8. 51. 6; 11, 
98, 4. ed. Schneidewin ; Vitruv. 7, 2. § 9 ed. Rose. Also pustu- 
latum Suet. Ner, 44, ed. Roth. ; Mart. 7, 86. On the other hand 
I find pusula in Cels. v. 26. § 31, 28. §§ 6, 10, 15 (eleven times), 16, 
17; Sen. Ir. 3. 43; Pliny (ed. Detlefsen) xx. § 44; and at least 
eleven other places, besides xxxvii. §§ 77, 98, ed. Jan.; in Martial. 
14, 167; Colum. VII. 5. § 15 ; Paul. ap. Fest. p. 99, s.v. Hetta, ed. 
Mailer; and pussula in TibuU. 2. 3. 10, ed. L. Mtiller q. v. p. xxii.; 
also pusnlatum Dig. 19. 2. 31; pusulosum Cels. 5. 26. 31 ; Colum. 
7. 5. 17. I believe pusula to be the earlier form of the two, and 
to be from the Greek ^vaa, <jiv(rM<is' Pustula, if not due to 
copyists, is probably formed from the Latin pus.] 

The theory which I oppose to Corssen's is, taking the dental stems 
as instances, that tt, dt became first ts, ds, and then ss or s. This 
theory fulfils the really necessary conditions of truth as completely 
as Corssen's foils. For the first step is equally applicable to all 
stems, inasmuch as it supposes the suffix onl^ to ^oe ^rvnm^>^ 

Ixvi Preface: Observations on Book I. 

"■■■ I..II .--.^ ■— ■ ■ .M..!! ■■■.■^■— ■■■!■ Man — ^ai^—^^^a^— fcw^B^^^I^^^^ 

affected: the second step is inevitable if the first be admitted. T», 
ds are utterly unstable (in Latin), and must become entirely sibilant. 

The only objection which I can see to this theory is that the 
phonetic cause of the change of dt, tt, Igt, bt, &c. into di, ts, Igs, 
ps, &c. is not apparent. But neither is the phonetic cause of the 
change of dt to at. Possibly a good phonetician, like Mr M. Bell or 
Mr Ellis, may find a reason for the change where others cannot. 
I content myself with referring to the fact that in Greek r before i 
frequently changed to a (e.g. </)i;o-t, Dor. <f>aTL)y (jyda-is by the 
side of {fiCLTiSi etKotri, Dor. ct/coTt; dvaiardrjarla from dvalfr&rjTos 
(Schleicher, Fergl. Gr, § 148; Curtius, Gr, Gr, § 60); and some- 
times before v; e.g. otJ, Dor. tv, Lat. tu (but also aov, a-oi); and 
to the word ipse, which is generally taken to be for Ip-te ; noxa for 
noc-ta; capsa, a box, from capere; &c. (See App. A. xxvi.) 

A double t is found in a few words; e.g. Attiiu, blatta, cette, 
Cotta, cottidie, quattuor, gutta, xnatta, sagltta, vitta, futtills, Uttera, 
Mettius, mltto, and, it may be, some others. The question is perhaps 
one rather of spelling than of pronouncing. But, considering the 
frequency of suffixes commencing with t, the paucity of words with 
double t is striking. As I hold, the Romans had two ways of avoid- 
ixi ing it; they changed tt either into ts or into st. The first produced 
an unstable combination, and therefore passed on into sb or s. This 
was the course usually adopted. The second produced a stable com- 
bination, but was (in Latin) used only where the first would occasion 
further difficulties of pronunciation. (Comp. §§ 151. a; 152. 3.) 

(b) The double s in the superlative form of most adjectives is 
also supposed by Corssen (see esp. Ausspr, 11. 550 sqq. 102a, ed. a) 
and many philologers to have arisen out of st. The superlative is 
formed from the comparative stem in los, by adding, as is supposed, 
ttimus (or timus), and compressing los to is, as in magls for mag-ios 
(^Ausspr, II. 215). My objection to this is the same as in the 
fonner case, the extreme improbability of a stable combination like 
8t changing to ss. Corssen states that his theory of this change rests 
principally on his explanation of the two words ainlstimus, soUls- 
timus, as being superlatives. But, even granting that these are super- 
latives, such a fact would only show that a superlative mighty not that 
it must^ be so formed. Here again, as I conceive, the Latins had 
two modes of forming the superlative; either by a suffix -iimo, or by 
a compound suffix -ttlmo. It is agreed that some superlatives are 

Origin of sz. Ixvii 

formed by the simple addition of a suffix (without a dental)* -mo or 
"tmo to the positive or comparative stem (see § 754 ; Corssen, i. 
780); e.g. primus, minimus, plurimus, &c. I think that the easiest 
. way of explaining the formation of the ordinary superlative is by 
adding the same suffix -iimo to the comparative, and regarding the 
double 8 as accentual and phonetic only, i.e. as representing the 
length of the syllable and the sharp sound of the s. It is possible 
■to explain the superlative of words in 1 or r, as having the same 
suffix, but attached to the stem of the positive, and to give a similar 
explanation of the double 1 or r. But the suffix may have been 
appended to the comparative, and then a strong contraction have 
taken place, fiicilios-imus, feudllsumus, faxsilsimus, fiEicilllmus. This 
presumes indeed a progressive assimilation. But 1 and r seem to 
me the only sounds in Latin which show signs of such an m- 
fluence; comp. velle for volere, tuxris by the side of rupo-ty (Cors- 
sen, Beitr. p. 40a), and the evident incompatibility of 1 and r with 
a final s; e.g. consul for consuls, pater for paters. Corssen con- 
siders miserrlmus to be for mlsersimus, and that for mlsertimus ; 
*for t after r and 1 is frequently changed to s' (^Aiuspr. 11. 5S'i)\ 
but with this I cannot agree. I do not remember any instance of ixii 
t after a simple r or 1, preceded by a short vowel, becoming s. The 
instances are after rr, 11, and haurio, hsBreo ; on which see above, p. Ixv. 

Corssen accounts for the s in ordinal mmibers on a similar 
hypothesis to that which he applies to the superlative forms; e.g. 
Hgeslmus for Tigenstimns, for vigentitimus. As in the case of the 
supine form I suppose nt^ have become nt-s, and then necessarily 
ns-B, and easily ns or s only. (Cf. §§ 757. c» 168. 3.) 

Besides the above-named classes of formations we find ss also (c) 
in the old ftitures; e.g. proMbessit, levasslt; (d) in arcessoj capesso, 
&c.; (e) in Yermoossus, &c.; (/) in essem, amavlssem, amavlsse, 
^^•) C?) ^ &88i8f bessis, tressis, &c.; (h) to represent Greek (, 

The cases of double s in proMbessit, &c. are explained in § 622; 
and here I have the authority of Corssen in supposing the double s 
to be due to accentual considerations {Ausspr, 11. sdj^^ ed. a). For 
aroeeso, &c. see § (i%s\ for verracossus, §§ 168. 3. 813. Essem, &c. 
are, I imagine, cases of a natural union of a with a suffix beginning 

c -i 

Ixviii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

-■■i »■■-. ■■ ■■■■ I ■■■ III - ■■ ■■ ■ » B^— ^M^— ^ ■■»■ ■■ ^ I ■■ ^^^^^— — ^^^^ 

with B, §§ 609, 610. ABsla is of uncertain origin, unless it be a mas- 
culine f(»iiiation from the same stem as as, but retaining ifs a and 
therefore defending it with a double s. 

The double s used to represent the Greek f, at least in 
early times (§ 189), was perhaps really from the Dorian o-a. 
Whether this as represented the sound of s or sh (which Curtius 
once attributed to a-tr) is not, as it seems to me, certain. Sh appears 
to my tongue and ears a more natural result of 3qr, ty, which are 
regarded as the origin of ao- in Greek, than s (Curt. Gr. Gr. § 57). 
But see above, pp. liii, liv. 

It appears to be generally conceded that the sound of ah was 
not unknown in Italy. According to Mommsen the Etruscans 
had it (Unter-ItaL Dial. p. 6) ; the Greek alphabet of Caere had it 
(p. 15); the Umbrian had it (p. aa); perhaps also the Sabellian 
(p. 24) and Oscan (p. a 6). Moreover, of the Romance languages 
Portuguese and French have this sound (written di), and Ital. and 
Wallach. c before 1 and e, and Spanish and Provencal ch are 
sounded as (English ch; i.e. as) tsli. (See Diez, Qram, Vol. i.) 
ixiii On the assumption made in the above explanations that ss may 
stand merely for s, or at least for s when some letters or syllables 
have been extruded, I will only observe that the fact that the early 
Romans wrote no double letters (§ 58) seems to me a very im- 
portant one. For, when first the Romans took to writing them 
double, what clue did they follow? It is possible that they followed 
the pronunciation, as an Italian now makes a difference between 
such sounds as &to and atto— a difference which Englishmen do not 
make. (Comp. also Ellis, Early EngL Pron, p. 56.) I am not sure 
whether Quintilian's language (quoted in note to p. 58) should be 
taken to imply a real difference in pronunciation, though the word 
(Uxenint looks like it^. But, when the practice of writing double 

^ Mr Munro (in his note on Lucr. III. 545) quotes Servius on ^n. 
I. 616: * applicat: secundum prsesentem usum per d prima syllaba scri- 

* bitur : secundum antiquani orthographiam, quae pnepositionum ultimam 

* litteram in vicinam mutabat, per / : secundum vero euphoniam per a 

* tantum ;' and adds, * i. e. only one / was sounded. In this, as in so 

* many other points, it is clear that the artificial modem Italian pronun- 

* elation is directly contrary to that of the old Latins, with whom causa 
' and caussa, ex<dsu8 and exscissus, were identical in sound.' In his 
note, Lucr. ill. 504, he points out the striking instances of mamxua, 

On the vowels^ especially o and e. Ixix 

letters came in, it is surely very probable that they were guided, at 
least to some extent, by etymological theories; and thus, though 
I regard the supposition that levasso arose by ass'tmilation from 
iBTaYlBO as unsound, I think it by no means unlikely that the notion 
of a syllable being dropt justified to the popular apprehension the 
spelling leTa«80^ 

On the vowels, especially o and e. 

The exact determination of the quality of the vowels is a 
problem which scarcely admits of satisfactory solution. Descrip- 
tions of vowel sounds ^are worth very little, and the ancients had no 
full list of customary or possible vowels, derived, either from 
observation of provincial pronunciations, or from analysis of vowel 
sound, so as to assign to any particular vowel its nearest representa- Ixiv 
tive. Still less had they any such definitions of vowels as Mr Bell's 
system affords, and his Visible Speech exhibits. It is quite possible 
that the same letter did not always represent the same quality of 
vowel; indeed, when we see one letter supplanted eventually by 
another, we may be sure (as I have said before) that the sound had 
been already supplanted, before the letter was changed. 

But there seems no ground for doubting that a, u, i were what 
they are now in Italian, the distinction between the Germ, a and 
ItaL a bdng relatively unimportant, o and e are intermediate 
vowels, being somewhere between a and u, e somewhere between 
a and 1 Modem Italian which, as the local representative of Latin, 
has perhaps .the right to maintain its identity, until a reason for 
inferring a difference is brought forward, has two sounds of each of 
these vowels. They will be found included in the list on p. 9, 
the close sounds being further from a and nearer respectively to 1 
and u than the open sounds. Illustrations of the present use of these 
sounds in connection with their Latin original are given in Diez, 

m&iBlIla; offlBt^ OfeUa; tlntino, tintinnalnilimi ; Porseima, Porsdna; 
CatUluB, Catnos; and perhaps cumis, ctlralls; quattuor, qn&ter; 
Ilttera, lltnra. See also on in. 1044. And comp. dmltto, dperlo, § 784. 
^ A similar account may be given of dlssicio, porrldo for dis-Jlcio, 
]Kir-jiclo: cf. § 144, 3 and 143. (I doubt these being analogous to 
ai0^o% for alltis, &c. on which see Curt. Gr, Etym. p. 592 sqq. ed. «.) 

Ixx Preface: Observations on Book I. 

Gram, Vol. I. ed. 3; (see also Schuchardt III. p. 161 sqq.). The 
most important facts seem to be these: 

Open e arises (i) from short e, (a) from e before two coDsoi* 
nants, (3) from sb: 

close e arises (i) from short 1, (a) from i before two conso^ 
nants, (3) from long e; and (4) is usually heard when e is final. 

Open arises (i) from short 0, (a) from before two consonants, 
(3) from au; and (4) is heard (without exception?) when is final: 

close arises (i) from short u ; (a) from u or y before two 
consonants; (3) from long in the suffixes one, 080, Qre,> ojo 
(though this last is identical with orlo which has open o). 

From most of these rules there are more or fewer individual ex- 
ceptions, especially (perhaps in accordance with the real length or 
shortness of the vowel) from the rules relating to the vowel before 
two consonants : and both e and have the close sound frequently, 
when the former of the two consonants is n. Moreover it appears 
that Italian granmiarians are not always agreed as to whether z, 
particular word has the close or open voweP. 
ixv Two points here are noticeable. The first is that both e and 9 
are often written in Italian where the Romans had i and u, and in 
this case the e and have the close sound, i.e. a sound nearer to 1, 
u than the open sound is. If the cultivated Latin dialect had been 
the parent of the Italian, we should have had here a reversal of the 
early tendency by which became u, and e became 1 (§§ 196, ai3, 
a34). But, as the Italian has sprung not from the cultivated 
language, but from one or more rustic provincial dialects', the 
explanation is simpler, — ^the old sounds having been preserved, if the 
close sounds were original, or, more probably, having advanced only 
half, and not the whole, distance towards 1 and u. In either case 
we gain little if any light on the question, how and e were 
pronounced in the cultivated language of, say, the Augustan age. 

The second point is that long e and (though less decisively) long 

* I am not acquainted with Italian myself. My notion of the Italian 
sounds is mainly derived from Mr Ellis's book. 

^ [This is from Schuchardt : see also Diez, Gram. 1. 6. Mr Munro 
says {Few Remarks^ p. 29), *I on the other hand hold it to be 

* demonstrable that the Romano-Tuscan is the child of cultivated Latin 

* falling to pieces, and caught up and subdued by German mouths.'] 

On the vowels^ especially o and e. Ixxi 

■ ■ . « — 

o in Latin generally receive in Italian the close sounds, short e 

and receive the open sounds. The inference which may be 
drawn from this is confirmed, as Schuchardt^ maintains, in the case 
of e, by the feet that sb is often miswritten for 6, and i for e ; by the 
language of the grammarians, who describe 6 as having the sound 
of a diphthong (apparently sb), S as having the sound of i ; and 
by the same difference in quality accompanying the difference 
in quantity in the e of the Greeks, Kelts, Germans, English 
(Schuchardt, I. 461 sq.). In the case of the sounds the mis- 
writing is not so decisively one way. And though Marius Victorinus 
(p. 33, ed. Keil) says, * O, ut e, geminum vocis sonum pro con- 
*Jicione temporis promit...Igitur qui correptiun enuntiat, nee 
' magno hiatu labra reserabit, et retrorsum actam linguam tenebit : 
Mongum autem productis labiis, rictu tereti, lingua ^ntro oris 

* pendula, sonum tragicum dabit ; cujus observationis et in e litera 

* similis paene ratio est :' yet other grammarians (Sergius in Donat. i v. 
p. 510, ed. Keil ; Pompeius v. p. 102, ed. Keil), probably copying 
from Donatus, speak of as being expressed at the extremity of the 
tips (prlmis lalMls exprtmitur), and 5 as sounding within the palate 
(intra i>alatiim sonat)^ which apparently would make 5 to be a 
sound nearer a, and 6 to be nearer u. And the Greek ©^ never ixvi 
became so completely u as 17 became i (Schuchardt, 11. p. 146), 
though the Germans and English, it may be added, give to their 
long a sound nearer to n, and to their short a sound nearer 

to a. 

It is not easy to draw with much confidence any argument from 
this to the pronunciation of the Romans in the classical period. 
For (i) Italian is (as has been already remarked) not the child of 
classical Latin, but of one or more unsubdued dialects, [or, if the 
diild of cultivated Latin, has grown up under foreign influences ; (see 
above, p. Ixx)]. (a) The inference from misspellings is by np 

* In reading Schuchardt it is well to remember that his distinction 
of * clear* and 'dull* corresponds with *open' and 'close' in the o 
sounds, with * close* and 'open' in the e sounds. His use of accents 
in Italian words is different from Diez*s (see 11. p. 146 n., but also iii. 2 1 3). 

• Mr Ellis says (p. 523), that Prof. Valetta (Greek) pronounced 
Greek (o and w) and English with a clear 7th vowel (Ital. open 0), and 
did not seem to be aware of the 8th vowel at all. 

Ixxii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

— » ■ • 

means clear in the case of o, and is not very weighty in the case of e. 

For SB is frequently miswritten for long e, and 1 for short e ; and 
many instances of sa for short e are probably due to mistaken ety- 
mology (e.g. prseces, ssBcundniii) qunstUB for questiu). (3) The 
grammarians quoted (Schuchardt, iii. 151, a 12) are none of them 
earlier than the 4th century i; and three centuries are a long interval, 
when delicate distinctions of sound have to be caught. (4) The 
analogy of other languages is proof only of what was possible, not of 
what was actual, still less of what was actual at a particular time. 
And long.e and long 0, even if they changed at all, may yet very well 
have been open e and open in the mouths of Cicero and Quintilian. 
Mr EUis^s investigations into English pronunciation show a similar 
direction and at least as great an extent of change within the period 
from the i6th to the 19th century. The whole section of Mr 
Ellis's book (chap, ill. § 6) is highly illustrative of the question, 
but some of his words describing the change may be quoted, 

* The long vowels have altered more than the short vowels. The 

* voice being sustained, there was more time for the vowel-sound to 

* be considered, and hence the fancy of the speaker may have come 

* more into play. This has generally given rise to a refining process, 

* consisting in diminishing the lingual or the labial aperture. The 

* lingual aperture is materially diminished in the passage from a long 

* Italian a (2nd vowel) successively to Somersetshire a (13th vowel), 
bcvii « to open e (15th vowel), to close e (i6th vowel) ; and again in the 

' passage from open e to Ital. 1. The change of long open o (7th 

* vowel) to long Ital. u (loth vowel) was a similar refinement, con- 
*asting first in the elevation of the tongue, and corresponding 

* narrowing of the labial passage, producing long 9th vowel, and 

* secondly in the narrowing of the pharynx. The change from open 

* to close o consisted simply in narrowing the pharyngeal cavity.' 
(Ellis, p. 232.) 

This^tendency of long vowels is a tendency working through 
long periods of time, and i^ not at all inconsistent with Mr Bell's 
assertion, * that the tendency of all vowels is to open in prolonga- 
tion' (Principles, p. 34, comp. 122). This latter physiological tend- 

* Terentianus, quoted by Pompeius {UTeil. v. p. 102), does not bear 
out the quotation, at least if the poem of Terentianus Maurus is 

On the vowels^ especially o and e. hcxiii 

cncy accords with the following line of argument, which seems 
to me to furnish us with some evidence as to the quality of o and e 
in Latin. It has two premises; (i) the representation of Latin 
vowels in Greek, and of Greek vowels in Latin ; (a) the compo- 
nents which imder crasis, contraction, &c., gave rise to o and 17 

The details of the representation^ will be found under that head 
in Book L Chap. 9 (viz. o in §§ ao8, ai8, 219; e in §§ 2*9, a39). 
The fects of Greek contraction, &c., may be found in Greek 
Grammars (e.g. Kuhner's Aiufuhrlicbe Gram, ed. a, §§ 50, 51. 
Gurtius, Gr. §§ z^ — 38. Comp. also i^. § 4a). 

Now the very introduction of the new symbols o and 17 proba- 
bly implied a sound different in quality as well as in quantity from 
o and € respectively. And this is confirmed by the fact that the 
name of o was ov) not cd, and of c was «t, not 17 ; in other words 
that, as the voice dwelt on the sound of o, it naturally uttered ov, 
and as it dwelt on t, it uttered ti. In the same way, when the 
vowels c and o were lengthened in compensation, as it is called (see 
below, § 373. 4), for an omitted consonant, they become et and ov. 
But when ao and oa are contracted, we get to in Attic : when o^ 
is contracted, we get a; from ea, usually 1; in Attic. From these 
facts I infer that o) and 1; diJOfered in quality from o and « by being 
nearer a, and not by being nearer the u and 1 sounds; i.e. and rj 
were opener, not closer than o and c. But 17 was perhaps nearer to ixviU 
f than (o was to o. 

But Latin represents Greek cd, and a> represents Latin 0. 
Both Latin 6 and Latin H represent Greek o; Greek o represents 
Latin ; and both o and ov represent Latin H (as well as Latin v, 
cf. §§ 90, 91). This seems to imply that Greek o was between 
Latin and Latin u. Again Latin 6 represents Greek 17, and 17 re- 
presents Latin S. Latin 6 represents Greek c, and Greek e re- 
presents both Latin 6 and often Latin I. This seems to imply that 
€ was between Latin 6 and Latin I; but perhaps, considering the 
sphere of i, e was nearer to Latin 6, than o was to Latui 0. [It is 

^ Correspondence, \,e. Etymological representation (seep. 24, n.) is 
not here conceFned. And to this head belong the suffixes of inOexion, 
eg. Hecuba, 'E/cd/S?;. 

Ixxiv' Preface: Observations on Book I. 

posable that the Greek *, when used apparently to represent Lathi !,• 
is really a representative of the older vowel e (cf. §§ 234, 239) which 
older vowel may have remained dialectically for a long time]. 

In the stricter Doric 00 gives <», ao and oa give a' ; €€, ae and 
ca give 1;. This is probably to be accounted for by supposing 
o and € to have been opener in Doric than in Attic or Ionic, and 
perhaps a to have inclined more to the o sound than it did in 
Attic, But the language with which we compare Latin is the 
language of Polybius, Dionysius, Diodorus, Sec, and this is an 
Attic dialect, though a late one. 

Now, without professing to be able to assign any absolute quality 
to the ancient vowels, I may, if this argument be sound, express 
their relative qualities by a tabular arrangement. I take a, aw, 
Fr. au, u to represent four regions of labial vowel sound, and 
a, 6, ^, 1 to represent four regions of lingual vowel sound. Then 
we. may arrange Attic, Doric, Latin somewhat as follows: 

Labial a aw Fr. au u 

Attic a CO Oi ov 


















€, €1 











It should always be borne in mind, in comparing the transcrip- 
tion of a word in different languages, that each can supply only 
ixix what it possesses, and therefore if the sounds are not the same (and 
the whole range never is the same), the representation of them can 
be but approximate. Hence the Latin u and the Greek o may 
sometimes be representative of one another. But generally Gr. o 
and go together, and ov represents Latin u. That ov should in 
the Roman period represent u even exactly, is no obstacle to its 
having earlier represented the long sound of the Greek o. This 

^ The Doric substitution of a for w is reproduced in the Cumberland 
quarter f and Somersetshire cord with 2nd vowel instead of 6th; the 
Ionic substitution of tj for a by the Somersetshire BatJi with the 13th 
vowel instead of the 2nd. (Cf. Ellis, p. 67.) 

On the diphthongs zX, ae, ol, oe, ul. Ixxv 

change is analogous to that which has befallen j;, which is now 
identical with long 1. And both are but instances of the same law 
as that which we find to have prevailed in English. So €i (at least* 
before consonants, § 229) was in the Roman period a long 1, but 
eariier a long 6. Whether both €i and ov had, at first, the slight 
diphthongal termination which we hear in our ordinary Southern 
English long a (= ti), and 6 (=ov), is not easy to say positively, 
but it looks probable enough on the mere face of it. 

On the diphthongs al, ae, ol, oe, ui. 

The Latin sa, the ordinary representative of the Greek ai, be- 
came eventually hardly, if at all, distinguishable from e, just as 01 
was confounded with *. Originally it was doubtless a diphthong. 
And this seems to have been the case in Varro's time; for he states 
{Lat. Ling. V. § 97, MuU.) that in the country edus was used, in 
the dty tadoB, * with the addition of a as in many words ;' (see 
also VII. § 96, Mull). Speaking, not writing, must be meant. 
Now a diphthong with so small an interval between its limiting 
vowel-poations easily passes into a single intermediate sound. It 
may be assumed that this soimd, if it differed from e, lay on the 
side nearer a and not on the side nearer 1. So that if Latin e be 
represented by the Italian open e, perhaps the English & (13th 
vowel) may be taken (in quality) for sa. The. sounds are quite near 
enough to be readily confused, and yet are in themselves distinct. 
A Saxon (says Mr Ellis, p. 58, 106) would pronounce the English 
words bad^ bead^ with the substitution of the Italian open e for the 
vowel in each. If the Latin e be represented by the English open e, 
we get a somewhat greater distinction (and that is desirable) be- 
tween Latin sa (13th vowel) and e (15th vowel). 

The sound of ca is somewhat perplexing. Mr Ellis has suggested lx< 
(Trans, PhiL Soc, 1867, Supp. p. 65, and £arly £ng. Pron, p. 529) 
that Greek ot was originally ui with the first element preponder- 
ating, Latin ca was originally ue with the second element preponder- 
ating. This seems possible enough for the Greek, as o had fre- 
quently that approximation to our w, which is here presumed (see 
App. A. xii.). But the Latin sound is much more doubtful. It is 

Ixxvi Preface: Observations on Book I. 

true that a is the successor of Latin oi and the representative of 
Greek oi^ and that both ol and <b passed frequently into, u, e. g. 
eolrare, coerare, cnxare ; monui, mnrnB ; mcBnia, xnunla ; pcsna, pvnire, 
&c.; but I am not aware of any indication that Latin o had any 
such approximation to our w; and m never alternated with uL The 
passage of ol and of <b into u seems to imply that at that time the 
first, not the second, element, the o, not the 1 or e, was in the pre* 
ponderance. In imperial times <b became confused with e and sa, 
and then the second element may have been preponderant. And 
this was the case also in the words which in very early times 
were spelt with o, e.g. lobertas, oloes (cf. §§ 264, 363, 366), and 
afterwards were written with I. I am inclined to think that the 
diphthongal sound implied by the letters o and 1, or o and e, (with 
their Latin sounds) is the safest conclusion, and that in the words 
which the ordinary language spells with <b (e.g. amoBmui, copl, 
xnomla, foBdoB, Fooni, posna, obcMUo) the stress should be laid on the 
rather than the e. 

Ill as a diphthong occurs (besides an interjection or two) only in 
bulc, <nil. In both of these words it represents an earlier oi, e.g. 
hole, quoi. In Quintilian's time (i. 7. § 27) cul and qui appear to 
have been pronounced alike. Probably the sound was French out. 
In the dative of -u stems, e.g. gradul, the vowels would probably 
be pronounced separately, when both written. But a diphthongal 
pronunciation may have led to the omission of the 1. On the pro- 
nunciation of -aius, 0I118, -eiuB, see § 138. 

On a supposed sound like ii. 

There are three cases in which it appears more or less pro- 
bable that the Latins had a modified sound of a short vowel similar 
ixxi to that of French u or Germ, tl, especially when it inclines, as it 
does in some parts of Germany, more to 1 than to u. 

(i) The first case is in the combination qui-, which is generally 
represented in Greek by kv, though sometimes by kvi or koi. Cf. 
§ 90. a. And in some- Latin words qui- is descended from cu- or 
CO-; e.g. QuXrlnuB from cures, esquXlln from sbscuIus, inquXLinua 
from Incola, sterquHlnlum (§934) &om stereos. So Tarqnlnlua 

On a supposed sound like ft. Ixxvii 

firom the Etruscan Tarchnn (Schuchardt, ii. 277). The labialisa- 
tion of the guttural, which is expressed by qu, affected the follow- 
. ing vowel, and the result was a pronunciation like kii instead of 

(a) The second case is that of I after v, which is noticed by- 
several of the grammarians in almost the same words. Priscian 
{Part. § a4, 25 = 111. p. 465, Keil) lays down generally, that words 
be^nning with vl followed by d, t, m, r or x appear to have the 
sound of the Greek v, and instances video, vim, vis, vlrgo, vlrtos, 
vltiiim, vlx, and says most people gave the same sound to 11. But I 
see no other authority for such a statement, the only examples 
quoted by Diomedes, Servius, Sergius and Cledonius being vir, 
to which Velius Longus adds virtus, and the Appendix to 
Probus (IV. p. 198, Keil) adds vlrgo and vlrga. (Gf. Schuchardt, 
II. 219. Schneider, i. 19 sq.). I notice this because vlr and its 
probable kin are almost the only words in which short 1 occurs 
before r, and some peculiarity of the sound of I in these words is 
therefore not unnatural (cf. § 184, 3). 

(3) The third case is that of the vowel in the penultimate of 
superlatives and ordinal numbers, which was u in the earlier language, 
and 1 usually in the subsequent language. Jul. Caesar is said to 
have first written L The variation in spelling remained for long. 
Quintilian (1. 7. 21) expressly says that the sound of 1 in (q;>tiinu8 
was intermediate between 1 and u, and this view is confirmed by 
the later grammarians. 

But on the other hand there are difficulties, (i) It may be said 
that, if the sound of this vowel had been that of the French u, the 
Latin y, which was the Greek v, would have been often used to 
represent it. But from Schuchardt's collections (11. 224, 225), it 
appears that it is rarely found in this termination. Indeed it is more 
conunon in gyla, SyUa (Schuchardt, 11. 198, 205). Its rarity, how- ixxU 
ever, may be accounted for by the natural shrinking of the Romans 
from writing their own words with a foreign letter. (2) The Greek 
transcription of these words is, so far as I am aware, uniformly by 
I, not by V. [Dittenberger [Hermes^ VI. 296) says that in inscrip- 
tions we find earlier only o, later ov or t, never v]. (3) Quintilian 
dwells on the beauty of two Greek sounds, <^ and v, and expressly 

Ixxviii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

- _ I ■- -M- I I • - " """ ' " * ~^~ ~ 

says the Romans have not got them (xii. lo, § ay). (4) The later* 
grammarians, except Mariiis Victorinus, do not suggest the y sound 
for this vowel, though Priscian does aknost in the same sentence 
suggest it for I after v. 

I do not see much likelihood or possibility of u changing to 1, 
without some such intermediate step. But yet it may be, that the 
vowel was not specifically u or specifically I, but simply an unac- 
cented vowel in a suffix, which for a time was, under the influence 
of the following labial, retained at the stage of ft, but afterwards was 
carried away by the general drift and became 1. In this case the 
precise quality of the vowel. need never have been very sharply 
defined, and the representation of it by one of the five vowel signs 
was approximate only. Or, indeed, the relation of the two sounds 
in this and in many other cases may be more analogous to the corre- 
spondence of sounds in dilBferent languages. U may have belonged 
to one dialect and 1 to another, and the eventual substitution of 1 
may have been mainly the triumph of the second dialect. Thus 
Mr Ellis (p. 473, n.) speaks of the Peak in Derbyshire having two 
distinct pronunciations of e.g. jbeep, and one of these is a sound 
which one Southerner might interpret one way and another anotlier. 
Thus J beep might be sounded with the i6th vowel, or the i8th or 
the diphthong 3 to 18. We shall not be far wrong, if we print 
prozumuB or proximus according to the best evidence we may have 
respecting the particular author in whose text it occurs, or the 
period at which each author wrote, and then pronounce accordingly 
either u or 1 lightly. But our English sound (the 3rd vowel) is, 
I suppose, entirely out of the question, though I expect many English 
speakers often utter it in these as in many other unaccented syllables. 

Miscellaneous: chiefly on vowel pronunciation. 

There are one or two other points respecting the pronunciation 
of vowels which may here be mentioned. 

The length of the votivel should be preserved, as much before 
two consonants, as before one or more. In the cases of ns, nf a 
vowel originally short was lengthened by position (§167). Mr Munro 

Miscellaneous: chiefly on vouOel pronunciation, ixxix 

takes Prisdan's statement^ (ii. 63), that the vowel before gn was 
always long, as meaning that the gn makes it long by nature: but 
I cannot agree to this. Priscian could on his principles come to 
no other conclusion; for he held that gn begun the j&nal syllable 
Xii. 8) and that gn made a preceding syllable common, i.e. allowed 
a short vowel to remain short (i. 11; 11. 12). Hence, finding all 
words which ended in gniu had the penultimate long, he concluded 
the 'Vfywd must be long. But, I believe, gn did not belong to the 
last syllable; the g belonged to the penultimate*. And, as in Greek 
such a syllable with a short vowel (e.g. tyvtav) is always long by 
position, although at one time it was supposed that occasionally 
it remained short, there seems no reason for assuming in general 
.the vofwel to be lengthened. In Ignavns, &c. where the n is omitted^ 
the 1 may be lengthened in compensation. Many words no doubt 
had, or were supposed to have, a naturally long vowel, e.g. reg- 
som from rSg-, rez, instead of from r6g-6re ; but tlgnum, signum, 
magnoB, Sec. (comp. tXgillnm, slgUliun, mSgis) probably have a short 
▼owd. The Latin words Egnatia, Egnatlus occur not unfrequently 
in Greek with «. (See Benseler's Lexicon), 

[Mr Mimro has replied (Fefiv Remarks^ p. 26 sqq.) to these ob- 
servations at length. But I am still unconvinced. I do not think 
Priscian or those from whom he copied were at all incapable of 
substituting a theoretical conclusion for an actual observation. 
Very much better orthoepists than he was have stated rules, 
which their own ear, if emancipated from prejudice, would have 
told them were not true, or not universally true. This particular 
statement may very likely not be of Priscian's own discovery, but 
I should require further evidence before I should think it properly 
attributable to a good authority four or five centuries earlier ; and 
less time will not give us a contemporary statement. A statement 
like that of Cicero's about ns has very different weight. 

But I have endeavoured to show (p. lix.) how ns lengthened the 

* Priscian is, I think, unsupported in this statement. 

* See § 272. The Verona palimpsest of Livy, which was probably 
written in the 4th cent. p. Chn, and consequently before Priscian's 
time, always divides words with gn occurring at the end of a line be- 
tween the g and n, so as to give the g and n to separate syllables (Momm- 
sen, CihL Uv, Ver, p. 164), 

Ixxx Preface: Observations on Book I. 

preceding vowel. I do not see, why gn, if pronounced as hard g 
followed by the dental nasal, could have done so, any more than 
auy other mute followed by a nasal. If Priscian^s statement is true, 
then I should argue that probably gn was pronounced like xig-n 
or like ny, (Spanish n.) And this statement of Priscian has, I see, 
actually been brought forward by G. Brugman (in Curtius Studien^ 
IV. 105 — 108) to prove that gn was ng-n. But against this sound of 
gn is the fact that no Roman granunarian, so far as I am aware, al- 
ludes to such a sound of gn, though the occasions for so doing 
were obvious (see p. Ivii.). 

I did not refer before to Mr Munro's arguments in support ci 
his view derived from the long I in signa, digna, ** in inscriptions 
of high authority not likely to err on such points," and ** from 
regnl and regno with the apex," because the long I is certainly 
sometimes misplaced, and I expect the apex is too. And it is not 
at all clear to my mind why one stone-cutter puts long I or apex, 
and another omits them, or on what grammatical authority the 
stone-cutter who did put them acted. But until we get further 
volumes of the Berlin edition of the Inscriptions, I deem it wise to 
postpone any positive opinion on this as well as on some other 

Mr Munro has I think missed my meaning when I refer (p. 
Ixxix. n.) to the mode in which syllables are divided in the Verona 
palimpsest of Livy. I endeavoured to account for Priscian's statement 
by his theory of syllables. And I adduced the Verona palimpsest 
to show that this theory was apparently not that of more ancient 
authorities. Rightly or wrongly, I do at present hold that a 
Roman did not pronounce l-gnominia, 1-gnota, co-gnatus, re-gnnm, 
gi-gno, but Ig-nominia, Ig-nota, cog-natus, reg-num, glg-no. 

For we have to account for the Romans writing Inglorlos, oon- 
gredior, but Ignotns, oognatus. Now gl and gr are, and were 
readily pronounceable in an initial position. Gloria and gradlor 
were so written whether in or out of composition. But gn is not 
easily so pronounced, and therefore gnomen, gnatus, became nomen, 
natus. Accordingly I divide inglorlus, oongredior, as ing-gloilusy 
cong-gredior, the ng being a single sound, viz. the guttural nasal 
(see § 1 6a). Had the Romans ret^dned the n of the prepositions 
before gn, they would have felt bound to pronounce ing-gnotos. 

Miscdlaneous: chiefly on vowel pronunciation* Ixxxi 

oong-snatiis, but would practically have pronounced ing-notus, oong- 
natiiB. But they did not retain the n and write ingnotus, congnatus, 
but IgnotUB, oognatus. What is the explanation ? Does this repre* 
sent a pronunciation Ing-notus, oong-natus, or Inyotus, conyatus? 
Mr Munro (and I agree with him) holds that it does not. I ac« 
count for it by supposing the Romans to have reduced the mass 
of consonants, the whole of which they were imable to pronounce, 
by omitting as usual (§ 31) the former n, that of the preposition, 
rather than the later and radical n. And then I divide the conso- 
nants according to phonetic laws, and pronounce with the ordinary 
sounds of the consonants Ig-notus, cog-natus. That the vowel 1 may 
here be lengthened, as an n is omitted, I have said above is quite 
possible; But it is very remarkable that Cicero, only a few lines 
before he calls attention to the lengthening of the vowel before ns, 
nf; refers to this very phenomenon without giving a hint that the 
vowel was lengthened. His words are: *noti* erant et *navi,' et 
*nari,'quibus cmn *in' praeponi oporteret, dulcius visum est *ignoti, 
ignavi, ignari* dicere, quam ut Veritas postulavit (fir, 4j). The 
context shews that Mulcius' here has no distinctive reference to any 
peculiar pronunciation. 

I see no ground for thinking that the Romans pronounced 
according to the etymology, and therefore neither did tiiey (before 
Greek-following systematisers like Priscian gave artificial rules) 
divide the words in writing according to the etymology, which is 
an that Mommsen means in his words quoted by Mr Munro. 
It is hard to believe that the 1 in glgno was * long by nature.' 
In reference to Egnatiiis, I will quote some of Mr Munro's 
remarks. * The words Egnatla, Egnatius, are no more Latin than 
^DlSgnetatf, TcHfgaotoa, FrOgne, Ctgniu: the town is Peucetian^ 
'alien to Greeks, not Latins ; and Monmisen tells us that the native 
'name is ffr ^thiy.^ the genuine Latin form Onatla; and certainly 
'our two oldest authorities Horace and Mela know no other 

Of course a short vowel before two consonants (unless length- 
ened as above) should be pronounced with its usual short quantity. 

In English we are in the habit of changing, or pronouncing ob* 

ixxxii Preface: Observations on Book I. 

- ■■■ ■■ — — — >^— 

scurely, short vowels in unaccented syllables, e.g. in the first syllable , 
of appear^ together^ &c., and in the final syllable of mention^ goodness^ 
cabbage^ futile^ honour, &c. In Latin the pronunciation may be 
presumed to have been, as in Italian, more distinct; and though 
changes of the vowels occur, we shall be safest in following the 
spelling, which represents, though no doubt sometimes laggardly^ 
the pronunciation, 
jj^xiv The pronunciation of a final vowel before an initial vowel is 
somewhat uncertain. But that it was not omitted, but either lightly 
pronounced separately, or formed into a diphthong with the initial 
vowel, seems both in oratory and poetry to be the right conclusion^ 
both from the language of Cicero (Orat, 13* § 77 ; 14. § ijo sqq.), 
and Quintilian (ix. 4, § 33 ; xi. 3. 34), and from the fact that the 
vowel was written, riot omitted. (See Corssen, Ausspr, li. pp. 770 
— 793). The chief points of usage in this matter in Latin verse are 
given (after Luc. M uUer) in §§ a 8 8 — 2 91. (I have there used the terms 
elided and elision in conformity vdth general usage and for brevity.) 
The modem analogies are thus stated by Mr Ellis (p. 324), 
'In common French discourse the. final e and many medial e's 

* may be said to be entirely elided When singing, the French 

'not merely pronounce these <?'j, but dwell upon them, and give 

* them long and accented notes in the music. This recognition is 

* absolutely necessary to the measure of the verse, which, depending 

* solely upon the number of the syllables in a line, and having no 
'relation to the position of accent, is entirely broken up and 
' destroyed when these syllables are omitted. And yet when they 

* declaim^ the French omit these final is without mercy, producing 
' to English ears a hideous, rough, shapeless, unmusical result, 

* which nothing but si consciousness of the omitted syllables can 
» mass into rhythm.' Again (p. 329 n.), ' In German and French 

* poetry the omission of the vowel is complete and absolute. It is 
' not in any way slurred over, or rapidly pronounced in connection 
•with the following vowel, as is the case in Italian and Spanish 

* poetry, and even in Italian singing. The Germans, like the Greeks, 
' do not even write the elided vowel. The Latins wrote the elided 

* vowel, as the Italians do, and may therefore have touched it briefly, 
'as in the English custom of reading Latin verse; whereas it is 

* the German custom to omit such vowels altogether, even in reading 

Division of words info Syllables, Ixxxiii 

* Latin verse. Except in a few instances as /', /', &c. the French do 
' not make the elision of a final e before a following vowel, and in 

* old English the vowel was written even when eUded.' Mr Ellis 
thinks Chaucer sounded, at least usually, his final e^s. 

Final m before an initial vowel was, according to Quintilian (ix. 
4. 40), sounded, though slightly: *Etiamsi scribitur, tamen parum 

* exprimitur, ut multum ille et quantum erat, adeo ut paene cujus- 

* dam novae litterse sonum reddat. Neque enim eximitur, sed ixxy 
•* obscuratur et tantmn in hoc aliqua inter duas vocalis velut nota 

* est, ne ipsae coeant.' Mr Ellis {PhiL Soc, Tiam, 1867, Suppl. p. 20) 
suggests that the m may have simply nasalized the preceding vowel, 
as is the case with m frequently in Portuguese and French, and with 
n always in the latter language. 

The omission of the initial vowel in est is mentioned in § 721. 
F^haps also the same may 'have taken place in Istnc, &c. (§ 375). 

The chief rules of accentuation are given in Book I. Chap. xiii. 
I confess to entertaining some doubts as to a short syllable, when 
followed by an enclitic, receiving the accent, e.g. pzlmique. As 
the Romans would not have accented prlmaque on the penult, if it 
had been one word, I do not see why the 1 should have lost the 
accent by the addition of the enclitic. But the grammarians no 
doubt are against me, and I cannot pretend to any great confidence 
in my own judgment in matters of accentuation and quantity. 

Division of words into Syllables. 

The general doctrine given (in §§ 14 — 16, 27a — 274) is, I 
think, in fair accordance^ with the teaching of Mr Bell and 
Mr Ellis. To a pamphlet of the latter I owe the first hint of 

* But the mode of representing the pronunciation is often different 
from what they appear to recommend. For instance, Mr Bell ( Visible 
Speech, p. 119; and comp. Ellis, p. 55 note) says critical is pronounced 
cri-ti'Cal not crit-ic-al, I am quite aware that his ear is far better than 
mine, but I cannot think, if we are to assign the t to one syllable 
more than the other, that it would be generally felt to belong to 
the second syllable. However, write the division how we may, I do 
not mean more in what I say of Latin pronunciation of mutes than 
that the consonant was pronounced as much with the vowel before it 
ts t is (invariably I believe) in this word ct'iticaL And this is not the 
notion wLicli I get from the ordinary statement. 

Ixxxiv Preface: Observations on Book I. 

what I believe to be the truth. Their views will be fpund in Bellas 
Visible Speech^ p. 69 sq., Principles of Speech^ p. 87 sq.; Ellis's Early 
English Pronunciation^ P» 5 1 sqq. 

The application of this doctrine to Latin brings me at once into 

collision with the doctrine faithfully transmitted from Prisdan 

(Lib. a), and even with the same doctrine as modified by Krflger 

(Lat, Gr, §§ 3a, 2^) and Madvig {Bemerkungen, p. 17). Madvig's 

ixxvi account of both is as follows (^Lat. Gr, § 13): * A consonant be* 

* tween two vowels belongs to the last vowel, and with this it is 

* combined in pronunciation. Of two or more consonants the last, 

* or, if they can begin a Latin word, the two last, belong to the 

* following vowel, the remaining consonant or consonants to the 

* preceding vowel (pa-tris, fa-sola, ef-fluo, perfec-tos, emp-tus). 

* The double x is best united with the preceding vowel. In words 

* compounded with prepositions the final consonant of the preposir 
^ tion is not separated from it (ab-eo, ad-eo, pr»ter-60, also prod-eo^ 

* According to a generally spread custom' [this is Priscian's doc- 
trine and is the only one which has ancient authority in its favour] 
^ words are in many books so divided, that all consonants which 
*in Greek can begin a word, and all mutes with liquids (even 

* though they could not begin a Greek word, e.g. gm), and amilar 

* combinations of two mutes (e.g. gd as ct) are drawn to the syllable 

* following (1-gnlB, o-nmls, a-ctus, ra-ptus', Ca-dmus, l-pse, scrl-psl, 
» Le-sboB, a-gmen, Da-plme, rby-tbmus, smaxa-gdiu).' 

I assert, on the contrary, that the Roman pronunciation tended 
to unite a consonant with the preceding, not with the following, 
vowel; and I have briefly mentioned in § 273, and need not here 
repeat, the indisputable facts of Latin etymology and prosody, which 
seem to me to justify this inference. I have in § 274, p. 89, briefly 
noted (in some words of Mr Bell's) the probable basis of the ordi- 
nary doctrine, and will now remark on some objections which may 
possibly be urged to three of my four arguments. 

I. It may be said that the retention of o after v (instead of 
allowing the change to u, § 93) shows a connexion with the follow- 
ing, not with the preceding, vowel. Unquestionably it does, and 
the reason is that the vowel u only becomes consonantal at all by its 

Division of words into Syllables, Ixxxv 

rapid pronunciation before a following vowel. V (=w) is not a 
consonant standing independently between two vowels (as it ought 
to have been to invalidate my principle), but a vowel, which, if it 
be distinctly pronounced as such, does not necessarily affect either 
the preceding or subsequent sounds, but, when coming before 
a different vowel, naturally gains a semiconsonantal character. W is 
hardly pronounceable at the end of a syllable. See above, p. xxxiv. 

a. It may be said that a change of the final sound of a word is 
sometimes caused by the initial sound of a <ujord following; e.g. licxviS 
dfAmddov for dm nebov ; Imprimis for In prlmis ; and that therefore 
such a change does not imply the union in one syllable of the con- 
sonants so affecting each other. I do not deny that sounds in 
different syllables may affect one another ; the law of assimilation or 
dissimilation does undoubtedly extend over several syllables, and in 
some languages, I believe, prevails much more largely than it does 
in Latin ; but when we find, as we do in Latin, such changes 
frequent and regular, almost invariable indeed, in the case of con- 
tiguous consonants, and very rare, in the case of separated conso- 
nants, it seems to me difficult to suppose that these contiguous 
consonants were separated in speech. And such instances of the 
influence of initial sounds of a word on the terminal sound of a 
preceding word rather show that the two words run into one 
another in pronunciation. This is confirmed (a) by the express 
statement of the Latin grammarians, that prepositions with a case 
had no separate accent (§ 299) : (b) by their being constantly writ- 
ten as one word in inscriptions (Gorssen, Aussprache^ 11. 863 — 872) ; 
(f) by the change of vowel in (for instance) llllco for In loco 
(lb. p. 869). 

3. It may be said that the prosodiacal law, of a syllable being 
long if its vowel has two consonants after it, applies just as much 
when these two consonants are in different words, as when they are 
in the same word as the vowel ; and therefore, if the lengthening of 
the syllable proves that the consonants are in the same syllable, it 
jMTOves also that the initial consonant of a word must be regarded as 
in the same syllable as the end of a preceding word. This is so, 
no doubt, but how else is the fact to be accounted for? The 
Romans did not arbitrarily invent the laws of prosody ; these laws 

IxxXvi Preface: Observations on Book I. 


must in substance rest on sounds actually heard. Part of the 
solution of the apparently strange confusion of word with word is, 
I think, to be found in the fact that words were not divided in 
writing, and that consequently a law strictly applicable to con- 
sonants in the same word was applied also to consonants in different 
words, partly from a real confusion in rapid speech, partly from a 
want of distinction in writing. When both consonants are in the 
second word, the Romans were much more reluctant (cf. § 293) to 
ixxviii admit in theory, because they were less liable to produce in prac- 
tice, the same prosodiacal effect. The confusion of two words 
here supposed finds an analogy in French, when the final consonant 
otherwise mute is revived in order to be pronounced, not with its 
own word, but with the following word. (Comp. also Ellis, Early 
Eng. Pron, p. s^-) 

To the 4th argument I do not see what answer can be made. 

Madvig (Bemerk. pp. 17, a6. «.) points to the vowel e being 
found in perfectus, nomen compared with 1 in perfido, nomlnls, and 
considers it to be due to the syllable being closed in the first two 
words, open in the last two. And it may be urged that on my 
theory, though perfect-ua compared with perfic-io may admit of 
explanation, there are not two consonants to account for the e in 
nomen. True, but neither is there a closed syllable to account for 
mare compared with marls; and still more clearly in words like iste, 
ante, compared with istic, antlstes, &c. (see § 334, 3), the (^^en 
syllable exhibits the e, but becoming closed takes i instead. The 
true explanation of the e in nomen, 1 am not at all sure of: it might 
perhaps be held to be the result of the suffix having once been, as 
some philologers (e.g. Leo Meyer, 11. 263) suppose, ment (for mant), 
in which case the e has remained as in eques for equets, &c. But 
it is enough to observe that on examining carefully the laws of 
change as set forth (rnore systematically than I have elsewhere seen) 
in § »34i 3j it will be found that nomen, nominls is quite consistent 
with other words, and that these laws, be their basis what it may, 
do not depend on the syllable being open or shut. 

Summary of Roman Pronunciation, ' Ixxxvii 

The following is a summary statement of the probable pro-< 
nunciation of educated Romans in the period from Cicero to 
Quintilian, say 70 A.c. to 90 p.c. (The references in brackets are 
to pages ^f the preface or sections of the book where arguments 
are given.) 

I. Vowels: j^^j. 

The long and short sounds of a vowel were probably identical in 
quality. In English they are always different. 

ft as in Italian, i.e. as m father; not as in ^/^. 

& the same sound shortened, as in French chatte; not as in hat, 

6 as Italian open 0, nearly as in dot, 

as Italian open o, or the Cumberland pronunciation of homey 

a sound nearer to English aivthaxi is the ordinary in dote, 

or in the ordinary English home, (pp. Ixix. — Ixxv.) 
ft as in Italian, i.e. as French ou in poide, nearly as in pull; 

not as in lull, 
ft as in Italian, i.e. 00 in pool; not with a prefixed ^-sound, as 

in pule y mule, 
9 as Italian open e ; nearly as in pet^ met, 
8 the same sound lengthened ; not as in peat^mete, (pp.lxix. — ^Ixxv.) 

1 as Italian 1, i.e. as in machine; not as in shine, pine, 

1 the same sound shortened: but practically the ordinary 

English short 1 may be used, as in pin. 
J as Germ, ti, but inclining to i, e. g. MUllery which is nearer 

Miller than Mullen 

This pronunciation of 6 and 8 is recommended, partly be- 
cause it appears more probably to be right than the sound of 
French an and French ix partly because the ordinary English 
long o and long a, which might be otherwise used, are usually 
diphthongs (see § ai). 

A long vowel was pronounced long, and a short syllable short, 
whether by itself or before one or more consonants, e. g. Iflx, Mce ; 
p&ter, p&tre; zn&ter, zn&tre; amftnt, regftnt. Sec, (pp. Ixxviii. Ixxxi.) 

A vowel before ns or nf was pronounced long (§ 167). 

Ixxxviii Preface: Observations on Book L 

In unaccented syllables, each vowel probably had its proper sound, 
instead of their being all alike reduced as commonly in English to the 
sound in mention^ p^P^r^ labels turBan, &c. (pp. Ixxxi. Ixxxii.) 

When e0t followed a vowel or m, the e was omitted fS 721). 

ixxx II. Diphthongs. 

The right rule for pronouncing diphthongs is to pronounce the 
constituent vowels as rapidly as possible in their proper order. (See 
a more exact account in App. A. xi. xii.) This will give as fol- 

an as in Germ, baus, i.e. a broader sound than ow in cow; 

not as an in cause, 
en as in Italian Europa, i.e. as ow in Yankee temm, 
ae nearly as (the single vowel) a in the Somerset pronunciation 

of Batb, i,e, as in bat lengthened, (p. Ixxv.) 
oe as a diphthong, (p. Ixxv.) 
el nearly as in feint^ but with the stress on the latter vowel ; 

not as long English 1. (Cf. § 267.) 
ui (in hole, col) as French om, (p. Ixxvi. and § 222.) 

The diphthongs ou (§ 251) and oi (§ 263) are found only in 
early Latin. 

III. Consonants : 

c always hard, as k in kitty; not as 6 ( = 8) in city, (pp. xlvii — 

g always hard, as g in g'fvt; not as in gin. (p. Iv.) 
ng as ng + g i.e. as in anger (i.e. ang-ger); not as in bang-er. 

So nc, nq, as ng + c, ng + q. (p. Ivii.) 
J as English y, in year; not as English J in Jeer. (§ 138.) 
V as English w in twincj or French on in oui; not as v in vine. 

(pp. xxxiii. — xlvi.) 
qu as in English, e.g. queen. But quu should be avoided, and 

e.g. quom or cum uttered. On qui- see p. Ixxvi. 

Summary of Roman Pronunciation, Ixxxix 

p always trilled, never vocalized as commonly in English when 
a vowel does not follow. (See App. A. xiii. — xvii.) Thus 
per should be sounded as in perry ^ not as in pert; fire as 
English a-rjr, not airy: Ire as (English) ee^ry^ not eary, 

8 always sharp as in hiss; not (like z) as in hU, (pp. Iviii. — Ixxxi 
Ixi.) The mispronunciation by Englishmen occurs most 
when 8 follows e or n. 

bs as ps, not as bz. (p. Ivii.) 

X always as ks, as in axe; not gz, as in exact, (p. Ivii.) 

tl always tee (long or short as the case may require), not (as 
before a vowel, e.g. natio) as sh or she, (p. Ivi.) 

pli, cb, tb were not like English f, German cb, English tb, 
but as p+b, k + b, t+b: sounds somewhat difficult to 
Englishmen, but often heard from Irishmen (§ 132). 

In prepoational compounds assimilation in pronunciation appears 
to have been usual in certain cases : 

ad was completely assimilated to all consonants, except b, 
1; and m. (§ 160. 9.) 

sub, Ob were completely assimilated to c, f : and became sup, 
op, before sharp consonants. (§78.) 

com was completely assimilated to 1, r ; became co before gn 
and b ; and became con before all other consonants, ex- 
cept labials. (§ 85. 4.) 

In was completely assimilated to 1, r, and became im before 
labials. (§§ 168. i. 2; 176. i; 184. i.) 

per was completely assimilated to 1. (§176. i.) 

On other cases see Book I. 

The other consonants in Latin were probably pronounced as 
we now pronounce them. But final m was sometimes not sounded, 
or perhaps gave only a nasal sound to the vowel, (p. Ixxxii.) 

An observance of the Latin rules for accentuation does not in- 
volve much which is different from the usual English practice 
(p. Ixxxiii). On the division of the words into syllables, see §§ 15, 
232 ; pp. Ixxxiii. — Ixxxvi. 


preface: Observations on Book I. 

Ixxxii A few examples will show plainly the great difference between 
the ordinary English, and what is here represented to be the Roman, 
pronunciation. To express the pronunciation I have thought it 
best to follow no exact system, but to select, where possible, conlmon 
English words or s) llables. I have however used ah, », eh, and 6 
for what I suppose to be the true sounds of Latin a, », e, and o 
as defined above; firr for the sound in herring^ not in English err; 
ay for the ordinary English long a. 



not as 

cemo, crevi 

kerr-no, kreh-wee 

sur-no, kree-^'e 








fah geese 











jas-i-unt or jay-si- 
unt, jay-shi-unt 










paw -see 




scire, cire 

skee-reh, kee-reh 





veni, vidi, vTci 

weh-nee, wee-dee, 

vee-nigh, vie-die, 






The division of syllables in the above is, in order not to embarrass 
the reader, accommodated in the main to the ordinary view. 

Observations on Book II. 

Noun-stems ending in e. 

I BELIEVE the general doctrine of grammarians may be represent- ixxxiii 
cd to be, that the stems commonly forming the fifth declension have 
the genitive and dative singular, except occasionally in poetry, in ei; 
that the el is a dissyllable ; and that the e is usually long, e. g. di6I, 
but short, if it follows a consonant, e.g. fldfil. And accordingly 
it is common enough to find modern writers using such words as 
materlSI, and referring (e.g. Corssen, ii. 723) without hesitation 
to words like fEtciSI, notltlS, amicltiSI, as if they were of common 
and undoubted occurrence. Now, putting aside the Latin authors 
subsequent to the silver age, into whose usage on this point I have 
made but little investigation, and speaking of the older period, that 
which alone I regard in this volume, I believe all the above parts 
of the ordinary doctrine to be quite unfounded. I do not profess to 
have read through all the wnters of the gold and silver ages with 
a view to this inquiry, but I have used such other means as were 
available, and have had the point before me for some years. The 
result is stated in §§ 340 — 343, and 357 and 360. The kernel of the 
whole matter is to be found in Gellius, ix. 14, and in Quintilian's 
significant question (v. 6. § 26) quoted in the note'to p. 116; and 
the inference, which may be thence drawn, is confirmed by Neue's 
collection of the facts of actual usage. The great mistake com- 
monly made is in starting from the assumption, derived from Roman 
grammarians, that a dissyllabic ei is the regular ending, and con- 
sequently only noticing what are supposed to be deviations. In 
§§ 35 7» 360 will be found all the instances that I have been able to 
collect of the use of a genitive or dative singular of an e stem at all. 
It will be seen that dies, res, spes, fides and plebes, are the only 
words which are found in these cases, except quite sporadically. 

xcii Preface: Observations on Book II. 

ixxxiv Of these, only dies has 1 before e, and the 1 here is a vowel of the 
root, not part of a derivative suffix, as in notities, &c. As for the 
rule concerning the quantity of the e, diel alone when dissyllabic 
has always an e long (as indeed a short e between two i's would 
be utterly unstable in Latin) : rei is used with e long in Plautus 
and Lucretius, with 6 short in Plautus, Terence, and Horace: fidei 
has e long in Ennius, Plautus, and Lucretius; d short in Manilius 
and Silius. There are, so far as I can find, no other instances in 
verse of a genitive and dative singular in ei. The dissyllabic nature 
of el can be shown only by express mention or by verse. 

Now, putting together the following facts, (i) that at least in 
many words the stems in e are collateral to stems in a; (2) that an 
antique genitive of -a stems, in U, was preserved in poetry by occa- 
sional usage for some time; (3) that in Cicero's time the genitive 
and dative of the -e stems were written either with e or with 1; 
(4) that el was an accredited spelling of either an intermediate 
sound between e and 1, or of long i: (5) that the use of any 
genitive or dative sing, of these stems is decidedly rare, except in 
three 6r four words, and that Quintilian regarded the form, at least 
as regards progenies, as either non-existent or disputed; — putting 
these facts together, we may conclude that while ei may very pos- 
sibly have been one mode of spelling the ending of the genitive 
and dative, it was probably monosyllabic, except in poetic and 
antiquarian writers. There is, however, no reason to doubt that, 
after Gellius' time, this was the ordinary spelling, and possibly, under 
the deceptive influence of diel, fidei in the old phrases bon» fidei, 
and plebei (in trlbunus plebei, plebeiscitum), and the monosyllabic 
stems re-, spe-, the ei was regarded as dissyllabic. I have given 
in the paradigms of the declension (§343) what I suppose Cicero 
or Livy would have given. 

It may perhaps be the most convenient course in modem times 
to continue to write el, but we should pronounce it as a diphthong 
(§ 267), and use such forms as little as may be. It is impossible 
to suppose, considering the words 1, that the rare occurrence of 
the genitive and dative is not in some degree the result of a felt 
difficulty : and some of the instances which do exist are probably 

^ e. g. acies. I have not hit upon any place in Livy where the geni- 
tive or dative of this word is used. 

Noun-stems ending in l or in a consonant, xciii 

due to copyists who restored the ordinary spelling of their time, Ixxxv 
not to the writing of the authors of the gold or silver age than- 

Noun-stems ending in i and in a consonant 

In determining which are 1 stems and which are consonant 
stems, I have followed principally the clue given by the genitive 
plural, and, in the case of neuter substantives or of adjectives, that 
of the nominative and accusative plural also. But I have also 
taken into account, especially where evidence on the above points 
was either non-existent or vacillating, the use of -Ib in the nom. 
or accus. plural of masculine and feminine nouns, and of course, 
in the few nouns which exhibit it, -Im in the accus., and the more 
frequent I in the abl. singulai*. Many writers have considered words 
like an, mens, &c., which do not exhibit the 1 in the nominative 
singular, as having, either in this case or in the singular number 
generally, passed into the consonant declension, or as having two 
stems, a consonant stem and an 1 stem. But the thorough-going 
distribution of the words of the third declension, adjectives in- 
cluded, between consonant stems and i stems, and the enumeration 
of all the words (except very niunerous derivatives), with mention 
of any peculiarities they may show, have not, so far as I am aware, 
been done before. And this has brought into light two unportant 
points, stated respectively in § 406 and in § 408, compared with 

S 435- 

I. The first of these points is that the difference between re- 

t^ning or omitting the 1 in the nominative singular is due to 

phonetics and not to etymology. The 1 was evidently so weak 

m this final syllable, that, with rare exceptions, it was retained 

only when the natiure of the preceding consonants was such as 

to be powerfully affected by an adjoining s. Thus stems in -ml, 

-▼1, -qvl, -gvl, -nl, -U, -rl, -si, retain the 1 with rare exceptions. 

The exceptions show the extent to which the stem would have been 

disguised, if this protective influence had not been exerted. Thus 

mx is hardly recognizable as of the same stem as nlgvls or nlvls; 

prtBOOX, though looking very different, really stands to prsecoqyls in 

xciv Preface: Observations on Book II. 

— — ■ I T* 

facxxvi the same relation that c6cub does to coqvos. Ci generally drops 1, 
but 8cl retains it, clearly because fascis would otherwise have been 
confused with fax. Tl generally dropped it, notwithstanding that 
this occasioned the loss of the t also. I presume, the close affinity 
of the continuous dental sharp s to the explosive dental sharp (t) 
rendered the former a sufficiently clear symbol of the real stem. 
But this clearness could not last, if other consonants were also to 
be absorbed by the nominative suffix; and therefore sti and -dl 
retain the 1, and thereby retain their distinctive consonants; resUs 
is not allowed to become res, nor pedis to become pes. Assls, 
semissis, bessls (cf. App. D. p. 449), are found both in the full 
form, and as as, semis, bes, the abbreviation being the natural 
result of constant usage. Again, where t is preceded by a short 
vowel, the omission of the 1 would confuse stems having a short 
vowel, with stems having a long vowel. Hence n&tis does not be- 
come nas, because nas would presume a stem nfiti-; sitla is, by the 
retention of its 1, presei*ved from an identity with the commonly 
occurring word sis. On the other hand, intercus, compos, com- 
pared with cutis, potis, show the tendency allowed to operate, 
because the desire of shortening a long word prevailed over the 
risk of confusion — a risk which is indeed less when a word 
has a prefix than when it is a simple stem. But the confusion 
is evident, where such principles have been disregarded. Frinceps 
may fairly enough represent principis, but then prascipitis should 
not have been allowed to sink into an apparently analogous prss- 
ceps. Ennius indeed, and another old poet, seem to have been de- 
ceived by the nominative, and used prsBcipim, prsecipe, for accus. 
and abl.^ Clear evidence of the antipathy of n, 1, and r to an ad- 
joining final s is affiarded by the nominative of such consonant 
nouns as had stems ending in these sounds. It would not have been 
^-ell to cut all such words down, as supellectilis was cut down, 
simply through this, to (supellectils, supellects) supellex. Who 
could have borne messis becoming mcs, tussis becoming tus ? 

Corbis and orbis retained their 1, probably because otherwise 
tliey might be confused with p stems. Thus urbs was doubtless 

^ This is by no means the only instance in which the very early 
poets (Greeks by origin) seem to have simply blundered. 

Noun-Stems ending in l, or in a consonant xcv 

— — ■ « — — ^^_^___^ 

pronounced urps, but there appeal's to have been an unwillingness ixxxvii 
so to write it, lest the last evidence of the b stem should vanish. 
For, it must be remembered, though the Romans knew nothing of 
the modem theory of stems, yet they were struck by the apparent 
anomaly of writing, e.g. nrps in the nominative and urbem in 
the accusative. 

It is probable that the i has a very different origin in some 
of these words from' what it has in others; in some it may be 
original, in others a weakened a (or o or e); in others it may 
have been inserted in order to give more distinctness and indepen- 
dence to a puny stem, and ward oiF the dangers of an overbearing 8, 
This appears to be the case in canis, Juvenis. Senez found another 
way out of this difficulty. 

The stems with nom. ip -ea, I have thought best to class 
with the 1 stems, as those with which they have most resemblance. 
I am well aware that they are often supposed properly to have 
their stem^ not merely their nominative case, in -es (cf. e. g. 
Schweizer-Sidler Lat, Gr, § 50^ and see Leo Meyer, Corssen, &c.), 
but this appears to me far from certain (see § 405). And in a case 
of obscurity I have preferred to be guided in my arrangement by 
the balance of objective facts. 

a. In §§ 408, 435, I have pointed out some striking differences 
between the words which have i stems, and the words which have 
consonant stems. While fully admitting the probability of some 
of both classes of stems being as original as stems in a and 0, I 
am inclined to regard the second class of nouns as on the whole 
of later birth than the first class, and the majority of these stems as 
being weakened forms of and a stems, the so-called 1 stems having 
been for phonetic reasons arrested at an intermediate stage, the 
consonant stems showing the latest and furthest stage. As the 
words increased in length by the addition of derivative suffixes, 
they under the influence of the Latin accentuation first thinned the 
final vowel, then dropped it altogether. This final vowel was, 
it is true, originally very important as the sign of gender, but as 
the language grew older, the imagination which saw sex in inani- 
mate objects grew duller, and first the distinction of male and 
female became unimportant in such matters, and then the distinc* 

xcvi Preface: Observations on Book IL 

Ucxxviii tion of sex and no sex. The new derivatives which were the off- 
spring of the rational faculty were names of abstractions, not of 
things, and they were by the process of their formation descriptions, 
not pictures. Thus the gender became masculine or feminine 
according to some distant analogy, instead of present vision • and 
it was recognized not by one special and invariable suffix for 
each sex (o or a), but by the character of the derivative suffixes 
themselves ; e.g. On masculine, -iOn feminine ; -tOr masculine, -trie 
feminine, &c.; -fts or -6s neuter. So again some suffixes were 
confined primarily at least to adjectives, e.g. -till: others to sub- 
stantives, e.g. -6n, -16n. 

Gossrau {Lat Gr, § 86, p. 9a) has called attention to the con- 
nection of the genitive plural with the accent, and proposed the 
following rules: * (i) All pari-syllables, as belonging to the 1 de- 
*clension, have -ium. (a) All words, which with the ending in 
' -ium need not draw the accent forward from the syllable on which 

* it falls in the genitive singular or nominative plural, have Inm ; 

* others have uxn. Or the rule may be thus stated: all words which 
*in the genitive singular have the penultimate syllable long have 

* -ium, those which have it short have -um. This rule,' he adds, 
*is good also for all adjectives.' But there are some considerable 
exceptions, as he acknowledges, to these rules. 

In my opinion the only truth, contained in these rules, is what 
I have before referred to ; viz. that the consonant stems are to a 
considerable extent stunted i stems, the Roman law of accentuation 
exerting a constant influence to shorten the word at the end, and 
this particularly, when the penultimate syllable is short 

Verbs with vowel stems. 

Some readers will probably be surprised at seeing the final vowel 
of some verb-stems marked as short; e.g. domft-, mon6-, fad-, and 
others of the classes to which these belong. My reasons for regard- 
ing them as short are these. 

To take first the case of e stems^. (i) A few verbs with e 

^ A very competent comparative philologer, Grassmann, has already 
taken a similar view^ and on much the same grounds (Kuhn's Zeii" 
ichrift^ XI. p. 89). 

Verbs with vowel stems. xcvii 

radical (all but two, -ole, and -vie being monosyllabic stems) have ixxxjx 
-Stmn in the supine (§ 69a). But the great mass of the rest have 
-Xtnm (§ 693). A few omit the vowel altogether (§§ 700 — 709). 
Short I is a very frequent substitute for 6, especially in unaccented 
syllables (§ 234). The occurrence therefore of a short 1 in the great 
majority of suffixes from verbs with e stems is strongly suggestive 
of the shortness of the final stem e. 

(a) There is a numerous class of adjectives with stems in -do 
(§ 816). Most of these are derived from verbs, and all but a few 
of these are from verbs with e stems. In all these cases there is 
a vowel preceding the -do, and this vowel is short i. In no in- 
stance is there a long vowel, unless radical, preceding -do, and in 
no instance is the adjective derived from a stem with ft or 8 or 
ft or L This again points to a connection of I-do with shortness 
of the stem vowel of the e verbs. 

(3) The perfect of verbs with e stems which have -Itum in 
the supine is in -ul, never in -Svl. And the same perfect is found 
m a great many other verbs of the like stems, which have no supine 
or other word of this formation in use. Now it seems difficult to 
account for the general prevalence of ui (instead of evi) in e verbs, 
compared with -ftvi in a verbs, unless from the quantity of the 
vowels being different. The difference in quality between a and e, 
when these vowels come before u, does not seem of a kind to 
accoimt at all for the nearly universal solution of the one vowel 
and maintenance of the other. Verbs which, as monosyllables and 
as having radical e, have the best claim on a priori grounds to e 
long, have 8yl in the perfect, accompanying Stum in the supine. 
But d+u seems calculated to pass into eu and then into u with- 
out difficulty. 

These facts together seem to me to make strongly for the short- 
ness of the 9 in mone- and such like verbs. Nor do I see any argu- 
ment^ for its length, which is not drawn from facts which, to say 

^ Gellius indeed speaks (vii. =vi. 15) as if *calescit, nitescit, stu- 
pescit, et alia hujuscemodi multa ' had e long, and *qviescit' e short. 
ihose who consider this a proof of the characteristic vowel of e verbs 
being long naturally, may explain how * quiescit * came to be (according 
to (^llius) short. [In Greek inscriptions we have from verbs with e 
stems OifoKofTOif IlouSeyros though the nominatives were written OuaX?;s, 

xcviii Preface: Observations on Book II. 

the least, are perfectly compatible with this theory. I conceive the 
xc length of e in parts of the present stem, e.g. monfiB, numSniiig, 
xnonStlB, monSre, and similar parts of the passive verb, to be explica- 
ble by a contraction of the final e with the initial vowel of this 
suffix, mon6-Sre=mon6re. For the existence of the initial vowd 
of the suffix, I refer to the consonant stems. (For Corssen^s theory 
respecting these consonant stems, see § 743.) • 

The analogy of Greek stems appears to confirm the same 
view. There the -e is unquestionably short, e.g. i^tXea>; and 
wherever a long vowel appears in its stead, a contraction has taken 

I might refer to the quantity of the e in the half compoimds, 
e.g. pudefads, but the evidence is not decisive. All the instances 
will be found collected in § 994. The majority of them have 
6 short, and of the dozen which are found with a long e, three 
(experge-, rare-, Tace-) are not from e stems, one (sve-) is from 
a verb with radical e, four others (llqve-, pate-, putre-, tepe-) are 
also found with e short ; and the remaining four (conferve-, contabe-, 
perfrlge-, obstupe-) are each used once only, and that in writers 
(Plaut., Ter., Lucret.) whose use in such a matter can hardly be re- 
garded as decisive. The probable solution of this occasional lengthen- 
ing may be sought in a wrong inference from the length of the e in 
znonemus, znonere, or in a fancy that, e.g. perfrige-fado is contracted 
for perfirlg6re facio. Anyhow the evidence from these compounds 
on the whole inclines considerably in favour of the theory of the 
final e of the stem being short. 

There are a few verbs with a stems which seem to me to have ft 
short They will be found named in §§ 645 and 688. The 
greater number of them are markedly distinguished from ordinary 
a verbs by the same characteristics as have been noticed in most e 
verbs, viz. a perfect in -ul (instead of avl), and a supine in -Xtnm 
(instead of fttum). Some of these show indications of having their 
natural character eventually overborne by the analogy of the others. 
Hence we have mlcul and dlmlcftvl, enecul and enecftvi, -pUcni 

UovSrfi (for Valens, Pudens, of. § 167) ; OuaXarreivos, ^\(i)p€VTia; just as 
much as Kprja-KevroSf UpaKTon-a which are from consonant verbs. 
(Dittenberger, Hermes vi. 308.)] 

Ver^s with vowel stems, xcix 

and -xdlcftyl. D&- retains its radical short quantity throughout, 
except in das; Bt&- is, as regards the present stem, swept into the 
strong current of the derivative verbs; Bon&- gives place to a verb 
■On-; or it may perhaps be held that sonls, sonSre are really attempts xd 
at preserving the proper quantity without the apparent anomaly 
of a short ft. [LaySre, l&vl, lautuxn or lOtum with compound 
(diluo for dllauo) points to a stem Ian- ; but there is also lavfttum 
pointing to lavft- : the common point of origin may well have been 
Uy&-]. B&- and sft- deviate in other ways. On Inqvam, see § 561. 

The argument from the supine will be best appreciated by an 
examination of Book 11. Chap. xxiv. It will be seen how few are 
the cases in which a vowel is found before turn in the supine, with- 
out the other parts also showing a vowel stem. (See § 698, also 
frnitiims and mituras.) Nor are the instances many more in 
which, if the above principles be adopted, the quantity of this 
vQiwel does not correspond with the quantity of the final stem 
vowd. (Corssen supposes in the case of e stems a shortening of 
an original 5; in the case of the a stems the coexistence of a verb 
of the 3rd conjugation. Ausspr. 11. 29a — 295 ed. a.) 

The verbs like f ado, capio, &c. are generally regarded as having an 
inorganic 1 inserted in some parts, whilst in others what is considered 
its real consonant stem is shown. I have ventured to consider these 
verbs to be vowel verbs with stem ending in -1. For, as far as I un- 
derstand the laws of vocalization in Latin, the phenomena are exactly 
those which would be found, if they had this stem ending : I would 
maintain its place before a labial vowel (0 or u), and would be 
omitted before I; comp. adice for adjice, &c. (§ 144). But when 
8 becomes r, I would of course become fi, and this completely ac- 
counts for what otherwise seems such strange variation as capio, 
capis, capXt, caplnnt, capiebam, capias, capies, cap6re, capSrem^, 
&c The imperative singular cape from a stem capi- is evidently 
analogous to mare from a stem marl-, and may be accounted for m 
the same way, whatever that be (see § 196). It may be remarked 
that a final X is very rare in Latin words (see §§ a8o, 243, 4V Such 

^ Comp. Grassmann in Kuhn's Zeitschrift, xi. p. 50. 

Preface: Observations on Book IL 

instances as do occur are all due to poetic shortenings of original 
long vowels. 

Some of these verbs exhibit this 1 short in the supine. In others 
it is omitted, as is the case in many vowel verbs. Any short vowel in 
this position would almost inevitably have become 1, and the omis- 
sion of 1 in, or adjoining to, suffixes is far from being unconmion. 

[Just as the current of the derivative verbs with -ft stems, swept 
with it some verbs whose stem was properly in -ft, so some verbs 
with I stems were made occasionally to assume the character of 
verbs with I stems. Thus e.g. cupl- has cuplvl, cupltum and once 
cuplret; znori- has znorirl; a^gredl- ^has a^gredlrl, aggredlmur ; 
fodi- has fodlrl; oil- has orimur, adorirls; poti- has potltus, potlrer, 
potlrl. (See Chap, xxx.) Comp. also § 657.] 
xcii I am not confident as to the quantity of the final stem vowel in 
such verbs as senti- (sentio, sensl, sensum). I have sometimes marked 
it long as usual. It may be, these verbs are instances of a semi-per- 
version by the analogy of more regular i stems, e.g. audio, audlYl, 
audituin; or the 1 is here distinctly realized as a suffix of inflexion 
only, a mark of \h.t present stem, instead of the verb stem. In verbs 
which have reduplicated perfects, or perfects in -si, the same dis- 
tinction is practically recognized. 

Concluding Remarks. 

I have stated in different parts of the book such obligations as 
I thought necessary to mention in a book of this kind, which can 
rarely be formed by independent research from the original authori- 
ties directly. But I desire here expressly to recognize the debt I owe 
to Ritschl, Corssen, Neue, and Curtius, to all of whom I hope, 
at a future time, to express renewed obligations for further infor- 
mation. Many of the statements about Latin inscriptions of the 
Republican period are taken from Ritschl, and taken with the con- 
fident belief that, though they may not prove always right, it is ex- 
ceedingly improbable that I should be able to correct him. Some of 
his writings on Inscriptions are not easily accessible. I look forward 
with much interest to their republication in his Opuscula^ as well as 
to the new edition of his Plautus, and the promised Grammar 

Concluding Remarks. ci 

of old Latin, if indeed the last is not put off to the Greek Kalends. 
The statements about later inscriptions, and some respecting Repub- 
lican inscriptions, are chiefly founded on statements by Corssen or 
Brambach {Die Neugestaltung der lateiniscben Orthographie^ 1868). 
These of course cannot claim anything like the weight of Ritschl's 
statements, which are the outcome of years of skilled and careful 
labour. To Corssen I am the more anxious to acknowledge my 
frequent obligations, because his very prominence in the field of 
Roman phonetics has made it necessary for me, in some cases, 
to express and vindicate my dissent from his views. The second 
volume of the new edition of his Ausspracbe did not reach me in 
time to make much use of, except in occasional reference and cor- 
rection. Curtius' very careful identification of Latin and Greek 
roots has been followed almost implicitly to this extent, that I have xciii 
rarely suggested an identity which he has not approved, though I 
have frequently omitted some which were either superfluous for the 
purpose in hand, or appeared to me to admit of some doubt. 

Neue's Formenlehre (1300 closely printed pages without an index) 
has enabled me to give a more complete, and at the same time a 
briefer, account of Latin inflexions than will be foundiin other 
Grammars. It seemed to me useless, as a general rulCj to encumber 
my book with references to the passages where a particular form 
occurs, when this work has been done exhaustively already, and 
the result can be easily obtained by any scholar who seeks to test 
a matter himself. On the other hand Neue's book is quite unreadable 
by the majority of students, and is, in fact, not so much a grammar 
itself, as a quarry from which grammars will be built. I hope 
greatly to improve my own ist and 3rd Books when the corre- 
sponding parts of Neue's work are published. It may be useful to 
add that, being mainly a collection of references, it is accessible to 
a great extent by students who have little knowledge of German. 
I have tested his references in a great many cases, and rarely found 
them inaccurate. Of course, later critical editions of authors will 
sometimes alter his results. 

Madvig's Grammar (3rd Germ, edit.) has not been of so much 
service to me in this volume, as in the Syntax. In that my obliga- 
tions to him are paramount to all others. To Key's Grammar 
I certainly owe much in the way of suggestion, but how much 

cii Preface: Observations on Book II. , 

I cannot tell, as I have often used it for many years, and in such ^ 
case it is impossible to distinguish between ideas which have been 
more or less borrowed, and those which have been obtained by 
independent mquiry with eyes turned in the same direction. But 
there is no recent Latin Grammar, that I know of (except Madvig's 
in the Syntax), which is based on so fresh a study of the facts, 
or has done more in awakening a more scientific treatment. I have 
also read some of his other Philological papers, and sometimes got 
useful hints even from those with whose general arguments and 
concluaons I am quite incompetent to deal. 

Gossrau's elaborate, but not, as I think, very happily conceived 
Granunar, and Schweizer-Sidler's Formenkbre^ were not published 
till my first two books were in print. And two English books, 
xciv Peile^s Introduction to Greek and Latin Etymology^ and Ferrar's 
Comparati've Grammar, vol. I., did not come into my hands till 
$till later. 

I have intended to use always the best texts of the Latin authors. 
What I have used are Cicero by Baiter and Kayser, and the larger 
edition by Baiter and Halm ; Sallust by Jordan; Caesar by Kraner 
and Dinter; Livy by Madvig; Curtius by Hedicke; Pliny the 
elder by Detlefsen, so far as it had appeared (now 3 vols, containing 
Books i. — ^xxil), and Jan for the rest ; Quintilian by Bonnell, and 
latterly the edition by Halm ; Plautus by Ritschl, and Fleckeisen, 
with Wagner's Aulularia; Terence by Wagner and Umpfenbach; 
Lucretius and Horace by Munro, to whose notes on Lucretius 
I am often indebted ; Vergil by Ribbeck, whose grammatical index 
has been of much service to me. For most other books I have 
used the editions in Teubner's series. 

Of some plays of Plautus which have had no recent critical 
editors, and of Cato and Varro, de re rustica, I have made less use 
than I should have done, had I been able to regard the text as in a 
fairly trustworthy condition. 

I have the pleasure of expressing my thanks to my friend, the 
Rev. Professor Joseph B. Mayor, who has kindly read over most 
of the proof sheets, and by whose criticisms I have always benefited : 
and to the Rev. J. H. Backhouse, who read and commented on the 

Concluding Remarks, ciii 

proof sheets of the book when in an early stage. The draft he saw 
(an enlai^gement of my Elementary Latin Grammar^ published in 
1862) has however been twice superseded since, and I can only regret 
that the present book has not passed under his most accurate eye. 

There are several real or apparent inconsistencies, especially in 
the printing of the volume, which I mentioti, lest they should 
deceive any one. I have by no means always distinguished 
(as I think it desirable to do in a granmiar) the consonant ▼ 
from the vowel u; nor always marked the suffixes or parts of 
suffixes with hyphens, nor always marked the quantity of vowels, 
nor been rigid in spelling, especially in cases of assimilation, e.g. 
qranqvaiiL or qyamqvain, &c., nor named a word always ac- 
cording to its form at the same stage of the language, e. g. xcv 
PTommiu and XKnnlmus; com, cum, con; &c. Nor have I been 
always consistent in noticing or not noticing very exceptional oc- 
currences of words or forms, or rare occurrences in extinct writers 
(e.g. tiie early dramatic poets) ; or the non-use of particular cases 
of nouns, where the non-use was probably accidental, and the like. 
In some cases I have had a reason for the apparent inconsistency, 
but in others it has been unintentional. I fear too that there are 
some unintentional omissions and misplacements of words iu the 
lists in Book III. 

The second part containing the Syntax is half printed, and will 
be ready, I hope, in a few months. References made here to sections 
bearing niunbers higher than 999 are to the Syntax. 

I have now only to add that I shall be thankful to any one 
who may take the trouble, either privately or publicly, to point 
out any mistakes I may have made. 

H. J. ROBY. 

London, May, 1871. 

{Published 7 July^ 1871.) 

civ . Preface to Second Edition. 

In this second edition I have silently corrected the errors which 
have been pointed out to me and those which I have myself noticed. 
Some additions also have been made, though these had to be kept 
within narrow limits owing to the book being stereotyped Both 
corrections and additions, though not inconsiderable in number, are 
mostly of slight moment, and none, I think, involve any change 
of principle. A thorough revision of the book has been out of 
the question. Such time as I have to spare for studies of this kind, 
has been fully taken up with the preparation of the Syntax. Nor 
indeed could a re-examination of the subject-matter be so usefully 
undertaken now, as after a few more years have brought furthei 
criticism and further aids from without. 

The additions made to the Pre&ce have been included in square 
brackets. A few verbal corrections have been made without notice. 
I have marked in the margin the pages of the first edition. 

I am glad to be able to refer my readers for a fuller exposition 
of many points of phonetics and philology to the second edition of 
Mr Peile's able and interesting Introduction to Greek and Latin 

I have the pleasure of acknowledging corrections kindly sent to 
me by the Rev. John E. B. Mayor, of Cambridge; Henry Nettleship, 
Esq., of Harrow; Charles C. Tancock, Esq., of Exeter College, - 
Oxford; and especially by Professor George M. Lane, of Harvard 
College, Massachusetts, who favoured me with a long list of cor- 
rections, of which many might have escaped my notice, and all have 
been of much service. 

The second Part has been delayed partly by increased official 
work, but chiefly by my having recast and enlarged the doctrine 
of the cases. I hope now a few months will complete it. 

H. J. R. 

92, Kensington Gardens' Square, London. W. 
14 Octob. 1872. 


5 O UND S. 






The human voice may be regarded as a continuous sti-eam of i 
air, emitted as breath from the lungs, changed, as it leaves the larynx, 
by the vibration of two ligaments (called chordss Tocales) into 
Tocal sound, and either modified by various positions, or inter- 
rupted or compressed by various actions, of the uvula, the tongue, 
and the lips. In a whisper the ligaments do not vibrate, but other- 
wise the description holds good. 

Interruption by complete contact, or compression by approxi- 
mation of certain parts of the organs, or vibration of the tongue 
or uvula, produces consonants. 

Modification, without interruption or compression, and without 
vibration of the tongue or uvula, produces vowels. 


Consonants admit of a fourfold clasafication, according to a 

I. the completeness or incompleteness of the contact; 
a. the accompaniment or absence of vocal sound; 

3. the position of the organs, where the contact takes place; 

4. the passage of the breath through the mouth or nose. 

* In this and the next two Chapters, much use has been made of 
"LmAviS^ Standard Alphabet {ih6i) 'y Max Mailer's Survey of Languagis 
(1055) and Z'Cctures 2nd series; Melville Bellas Principles of Speech 
(1863); Brtlcke's Physiologic der SprachlauU (1856). 

4 Sounds. [Book / 

1. (a) If the contact is complete, so as to cause an entire in- 3 
temiption of the passage of the breath, we get mutes (explosive 
consonants, checks y &c.); as p, b; k, g; t» d. 

(b) If the contact is only partial, i.e. if the organs do but 
approximate more or less closely to each other, we get a continuous 
sound caused by the friction of the breath against the parts. 
These sounds are called fricative consonants (continuous^ spirants^ 
flatus, breathings, &c.); as 8, z; sli, ill (French J); fli; f, ▼; &c. 

2. (a) Again the contact or approximation may be made with 4 
the vocal chords wide apart, in which case a whisper only takes 
place. These consonants are called sharp or voiceless (breathed^ 
hard, surd, tenues, &c.) ; as p, k, t, 8, 8h, th (in thin), t, wh, li (in 
huge), rh (as r in French theatre, Jiacre), &c. 

(b) If the contact or approximation is made, with the vocal 
chords close to one another, the consonants are called flat or voiced 
(soft, blunt, sonant, media, &c.) ; as I), g, d, z, zli, th (in then), ▼, w, 
y, r, &c. The chords being thus ready to vibrate usually do vibrate, 
causing voice, either during the approximation, or, in the case of 
a mute, the instant that the contact is released. But the sound of 
the voice is not essential, as, in whispering, a rustle in the throat 
takes its place. (See App. A. vii.) 

3. Again the parts of the mouth which are put in contact or 5 
approximation or movement are very various, and the sound is 
modified accordingly. For the purposes of classification in Euro- 
pean languages five parts may be especially distinguished; viz. the 
lips, the throat (or rather the soft palate just above the larynx), the 
hard palate, the teeth, and the tongue. 

(a) Consonants formed at or with the lips are called Labial; 
viz. p, t), m, w, and labial f, ▼. The ordinary f, ▼ are labio-dentals, 
being formed by the under lip and upper teeth. 

(b) Consonants formed in the throat (or soft palate) are called 
Guttural; viz. k (c, q), g, zig, ck (in loch), 

(c) Consonants formed at the hard palate are called Palatal, 
of which some approach nearer to gutturals, some to dentals: 
such are y, ck (in Germ. Ich, or k in Engl, huge), sk, French J. 
(The Italian c (ya. cima)\.t. English ck (in church), and Italian g 
(in giro) i. e. English J (in Join), which are sometimes classed as 
palatals, appear to be really double consonants ; viz. ck = tsk ; J = dzk 
where zk is French J.) 

C}iap, /.] Elements of Speech, 5 

(d) Consonants formed at or just above the teeth are called 
Dental; yiz. t» d, n; th; 8, z. 

(e) Two other consonants, called Lingual consonants or liquids 
(or trills), are r, L r is caused by the breath passing over the tip of 
the tongue, which is more or less vibrated: 1 is caused by the 
breath passing over the sides of the back of the tongue, which is 
then removed from its position to complete the sound. For an r 
(common in France), caused by vibration of the uvula, see A pp. A. 

4. If the uvula be lowered so as to obstruct the passage of the e 
air through the mouth, but allow it to vibrate in tJie cavities of the 
nose, a nasal sound is produced. If the organs are otherwise in 
the positions required for \}, d, g, but the air passes into the nose, 
the nasal consonants m, n, ng (a single sound as in sing) are respec- 
tively produced. (The palatal n has much the same sound as a 
dental n.) 

The nasals resemble the explosive consonants in requiring a 
vowd before and after to give the fiill effect; they resemble the 
continuous consonants in the posability of continuing the sound, 
which is however that of the first half only of the consonant. 

5. The semivowels w and y will be best described after the 7 
vowels (§ 23). 

Another letter has yet to be noticed, viz. h (Bplrltos asper). 
This is a mere expulsion of breath through the perfectly open 
glottis, i.e. with the vocal chords apart, not approximated and 
vibrating, li stands to the vowels, as p to b, k to g, &c. 

(If li is breathed inmiediately after an explosive consonant we 
get sounds, represented in Greek, viz. ^=p+lif ^=k4-li, ^=t+h, 
and in Sanscrit (g+li &c.). A strong articulation of consonants 
e.g. by Scotchmen or Irishmen gives a similar sound.) 

There is also a very slight sound heard before any initial vowel, 
and best caught when two vowels come together, but are pro- 
nounced separately, as in go over. This is rarely expressed by any 
letter. It is the qplxitmi lenia of the Greeks. 

The principal sounds in European languages may be tabulated s 
as follows, the letters being supposed to be sounded as in English, 
except where it is otherwise stated. 


[Book /. 

Explosive. Nasal. 
Sharp. Flat. Usually 










labial ▼ 
ordinary ▼ 

k g hard ng 

g in Germ. 

jlabial f 
ordinary f 

{ch in 
Scotch loch 
(Germ, ch after 
a or o) 

f h in buge 7 

J (nearly Germ, cli nearly g in 
I after i or e) Germ, wiege 

Bh sh (French J) 

whispered r r 

Welsh (?) 11 1 

8 X 

til th 

(in tbin) (in then) 

It may be added that s, a, and sometimes sli and French J are 
called sibilants. 


Single consonants may be sounded either before or after a 9 
rowel. But the semivowels y and w are sounded only before a 

A continuous consonant has always the same sound whether 
its vowel be before or after : but an explosive consonant has not 
the same. The fiiU pronunciation of an explosive consonant re- 
quires both the closing and opening of the organs. Thus in ap 
only half the p is properly sounded: in pa we have the other half. 
The fiill pronunciation is heard in apa, or, as commonly written, 
ap-pa. In ap-lca the first half of p and the second hadf of k is 

Writing consonants double has either an etymological origin, 
when it is done to preserve the memory of distinct sounds now lost; 
e.g. ac-cedo for ad-oedo; aXX-or compared with ali-us; &c., or a 
phonetic origin, as in English it is used to distinguish a short accented 
vowel from a long one, e.g. kite^ kitten; &c. In either case the 
consonant is wholly pronounced once only. ' 

^ The continuous part of the sound wh is really a blowing, the con- 
tinuous part of w is the vowel u. 

Chap. //.] Combination of Consonants, ' 7 

Two or ihore consonants may be pronounced with only one «> 
▼owel, but the possible combinations are somewhat different, when 
the vowel is before the consonants and when it is behind them* 
AVhen the vowel is sounded after the consonants, the combination 
may be called initial; when the vowel is before the consonants.^;;^/!/. 

(The Germans give the name Anlaut^ Inlauty Auslaut (on- 
soimd, in-sound, out-sound) to the sound of a consonant with the 
vowel following, on both sides, and preceding, respectively.) 

An Initial^ coijibination may not consist of a liquid or nasal " 
followed by any other consonant, except that an m may be fol- 
lowed by n, nor of a fricative, except a sibilant, followed by an 
exploave: nor of two explosives unless the former of the two be a 
labial or guttural, the latter a dental. Semivowels are never fol- 
lowed by any consonant. 

Of the rarer combinations may be given as instances: 
Greek, rKax£t^ Tm;©, KTCivcDt yjrevda), ^alvo), fivfjfia, 0diVo)^ X^**" 
German, Pfanne, P/iaum, Pjrcfp/, Zerren (i.e. Uerren), 

K final combination may not consist of a nasal preceded by any »« 
consonant, except a liquid ; nor of a liquid preceded by any consonant, 
except that 1 may be preceded by r; nor readily of two explosives 
or two fricatives, unless the latter of the two be a dental : e.g. akp, 
apk, atk, atp, seem harsher than akt^ apt; and (taking th as in 
English and di as in German) athf, asf; athch, afch, than afth, afs, 
achtb, achf . 

Instances of the rarer combinations are 
English, ^/w, kiln^ strength^ <ivatch^ textSy cringed. 
German, kopf dumpf obst, balgst^ birgst. 

Neither in initial nor final combinations are sharps pronounceable 13 
before flats, or readily flats before sharps. When they occur to- 
gether in writing, the former of the two, if a sharp, is usually changed 
in speaking into the corresponding flat ; if a flat, into the corre- 
sponcUng sharp. Sometimes the latter is changed, to suit the former, 
which is retained: e.g. otxeX is either pronounced opst, or otizd^ 
(But midsty stri'v'st, bug^st are pronounced without this change.) 

Nor can either an initial or final combination contain more ex- 
plosives than two, with or without a fricative before or after each, 

A syllable is such a sound or combination of sounds as can be 14 
uttercd with one breath. It may consist of a vowel (or diphthong) 
only, or of a vowel (or diphthong) combined with one or more 

A word consists of as many syllables, as it has vowels separately 

^ The languages of the Grseco-Latin and Teutonic stocks are alone 
regarded in the following statements. 

8 Sounds. [BaakL 

■ - - - - - 

A single syllable may contain a vowel with two or more con- 15 
sonants on each ade of it Two consecutive syllables maj thereftnie, 
if the first ends and the second begins with a combination of con- 
sonants, bring together in the middle a twofold aggregation of 

The aggregation of consonants in the middle of a word is 
limited only by the necessity of its being capable of precise division 
into a pronounceable final combination followed by a pronounceal^ 
initial combination. 

But in ordinary pronunciation a consonant between two vowels 
is uttered partly with both. The real dividon of the svllables is 
therefore neither before nor after the consonant, but in the middte 
of it, i.e. after the closing of the organs and before the opening. 

Accordingly a valid aggregation of consonants in the midcUe of a 
word must be such that some one of the consonants shall fitly close 
the first syllable, and also open the second syllable: e.g. axjtra is 
divisible into act-tra; but act-pra is not divisible into act-tpra or 
into actp-pra, tpra not being a possible initial combination, nor actP 
a possible final combination. 

The (tivi^on of a word into syllables is in modem languages ^6 
decided rather by the etymological than by a phonetic diviaon. 
So far as this phonetic principle is disregarded, the word is either 
resolved not into separate syllables, but into separate words, or else 
a vowel is lightly interposed between the consonants by the open- 
ing of the organs to complete one consonant before uttering the 
next; e.g. actpra becomes aotdpra or ac6t6pra. 

On the division in Latin, see Chap. xi. 



The shape of the mouth determines the quality of the vowel. 17 
There are two great agents in modifying vowel sound, the tongue 
and the lips. The tongue by the elevation of its hinder part towarids 
the palate diminishes internally the oral channel : the lips being pro- 
truded lengthen the oral channel and contract the external aperture. 

The purest and simplest vowel is Italian a, English ah. The ig 
extremes are Italian i (i.e. English ee), being the vowel with the nar- 
rowest channel: and Italian u, English 00, the vowel with the long- 
est channel and narrowest external aperture. Of these, a is formed 
nearest to the guttural point of contact ; 1 at the palato-dental 
point; u at the labial. 

Other vowels, i.e. other modifications of vowel sound, may be ig 
regarded as intermediate either b^ween a and 1 {lingual vowels), or 

Chap, III,'\ Vowels and Combinations of Vowels, 9 

between a and u (labial or round vowels), or partaking in some 
degree of the characters of both lines. Each vowel also may be 
<unde or close ^ according as the pharynx (i.e. the cavity at the 
back of the tongue above the larynx) is more or less expanded. 

It is difficult to put any precise limit to the number of possible 
▼owds, most nations, and, indeed, most individuals, differing more 
or less from one another in vowel pronunciation. But the vowels 
most worth notice for an English student of Latin are given in the 
following list All may be eitiier long or short. (Ellis's palaeotypic 
symbols and Bell's names are subjoined to each. Most of the 
parallelisms are from Ellis.) 

I. Germ, a (a, *Low back wide*). Scot m^n; Germ, m^nn, 

«. ItaL a (a. * Mid back wide'). Engl. faUker; Ital. tn^to^ m&no; 
Ft. cMdte. 

3. A common EngL vowel (9 or g[. * Mid mixed ' or * Mid back '). 
Engl, ttjj, s6n, dots; nearly tailor^paptr; long in ur«, word^fixn, bird; 
nearly Fr. queJQ me repents, 

4. Ital. close («h. ' High mixed wide round'). Ital. croce^ dolce^ 
Roma, It sounds to English ears between 3 and 9, but nearer 9. 

5. EngL short (o. * Low back wide round '). Engl, odd, doll, 
John, dog, 

6. EngL atr (A. *Low back round*). Engl, awerf, /a//, /aw«; 
Austrian a ; short in Engl, axigusf, 

7. ItaL open (o. * Mid back wide round *). Cumberland home; 
Ital. uomo I French short o, e. g. komme; Germ, short o, e. g. gold, 

8. French au {p, * Mid back round '). Engl. 6mity w/«2bw, home 
(but c£ § ai) ; Germ, long o, e.g. gross, 

9. EngL short u («. * High back wide round *). Engl, /u//, book^ 

10. Ital. u (u. * High back round *). Engl, brxxte^ rule, do, mood; 
short in "FrendlipovJe, covLpe, 

II. French eu (oe. *Mid front wide round'). Fr. peur, JevLne; 
Germ, o, e.g. boche, Gothe, 

11. French u (y. *High front wide round*). Devonshire combe, 
yoa; French da, hvJte; Germ, u, e.g. liicke, M^ler. 

13. Engl, short a (se. * Low front wide '). Engl. ^S/, m&n; long in 
(sometimes) h2Jf, ash, and in Somersetshire Bath, 

14. Ital. open e (E. 'Low front'). Scot ell,pef; Ital. bello, Ittto, 
btnc, Galileo; Germ, 'i,, e.g. V&ter; Fr. m^me. 

15. Engl, short e (e. *Mid front wide'). Engl, til, ptt, men; 
Scot. \ll,ini; Gexm, fett, eben; Fr. elle, les, 

j6, Ital. close e {e, * Mid front '). Engl, a in acnal; Ital. quello, 
detta^ rtmo; Fr. 6, e.g. iii, 

17. Engl, short 1 (/. * High front wide'). Engl, shin, fit, pity; the 
long soond is heard in singing and in Icelandic. 

18. Ital. 1 (i. * High front'). Engl, machine, feet; Scot./i/y; the 
oidinaiy Fr., Germ.^ and Ital. i. 

lo Sounds. [Book L 

Of these 5 to i8 may be arranged tabularly from their common 
base a to each of the extremes: 

Labial. Labio-lingaaL Lingual. 

Wide Close Wide Wide Close 

56 13 14 

Engl, short Engl, aw Engl, short a Ital. open e 

7 8 IT 15 10 

ItaL open French au French en Engl, short e Ital. close e 

9 10 13 17 18 

Engl, short U Ital. u French u Engl, short 1 Ital. 1 

A diphthong is the sound made by the voice while passing from » 
one vowel position to another. The precise sound vanes according 
to (i) the quaUty of the limiting vowels; (a) the distance between 
them; (3) the evenness of the rate of speed. The most usually 
recognized diphthongs are formed when the passage is from an 
open to a close position, i.e. when the initial position is nearer to 
a, and further from i or u than the final position is. 

The following may here be noted, the limiting vowels bdng n 
denoted by their nmnhiers in the list given above. (Ellis' symbol is 
added in brackets. On diphthongs with Engl, r see Appendix A.) 

a to ID (au). Germ, ^au^, /au/. 
3 to 10 (3u). Engl. «ow, bovighf house, lovuf. 
8 to ID (^^u). Southern Engl, long o, the second element being 
faint, e.g. «o, done, hose, 

13 to JO (seu). Cockney /bw». 

15 to 10 (eu). American /ow» ; Ital. and Span. Eur^^* 

1 to 18 (ai). Engl, ay {yes), a broad sound of I, IszSah; Germ. 
Aai«, K^s^er, thtU; Ital. ai (with first element prolonged), doxno^ Ishdo; 
French ai (with second element prolonged), yki^wtr^. 

3 to 18 (si). Engl, long i, e.g.yi«^,'^e, ^y, </ie, 

13 to 18 (aei). Cockney and Scotch long i. 

16 to 18 (eei). Southern Engl, long a, the second element being 
faint; t,g.fiie,f3i\n,fdnt, 

5 to 18 (oi). Engl, oi, e.g. boM, boy, oyster. 

7 to 12 or 18 (oy or oi). Germ, eu, e.g. hovJe, each. 

A diphthong sometimes gives way to an intermediate vowel, aa 
which yet is often written as a diphthong. Comp. Germ, an, al 
with French au, al. Again, an intermediate vowel is sometimes re^ 
solved into a diphthong; e.g. Cockney au for 0. 

The sounds represented in English hj w and y when initial "3 
are usually called semivoewels^ They easily arise when the voice 
passes from a closer to a more open vowel position; i.e. w in pass- 
mg from a .or 0, 7 in passing from i or e, backwards towards a. 
The consonantal character (compare Engl, we with Fr. oul) is pro- 
duced by very slight pressure of the lips in the case of w, of the 
tongue and palate in the case of y, followed by instant separation. 

Chap. IK] Zaras of Phonetic Change, i\ 


L Phonetic change in words is either 'voluntary^ e. g- such as ^4 
is made for the purposes of inflexion, or involuntary. The latter 
alone is the subject of the following statements. 

ii. Involuntary phonetic change is the result of a struggle be- as 
tween the phyacal tendency to reduce the effort of articulation,, and 
the intellectual or instinctive desire of preserving any parts of the 
word which are characteristic of its meaning. The latter acts 
mainly by way of resistance. 

e.g. ab is much seldomer changed in composition than sul), 
because of the danger of confuaon with ad. 

In the passive voice forms like amabarls, amaberls, amareris are 
shortened mto amabare, &c., but amarla is not shortened to amare 
lest it should be confused with the present infinitive. 

iii. The normal condition of these forces is one of apparent *^ 
equilibrium, but really of slow conflict, which however is called 
into greater and more perceptible activity, when a new sound or 
syllable is added to the word, as is done by inflexion or derivation 
or composition in order to adapt the word to a modification or 
enlargement of the conception. 

Sudden phonetic change. 

iv. Such an addition may produce phonetic changes in two a/ 
ways : (i). by its adding to the length or weight of the word; and 
(2) by its bringing into contact sounds, which do not then admit ot 
easy articulation in their integrity. 

* The illustrations throughout this Chapter are meant as illustra- 
tions only, not as in any way exhausting the phenomena. Many of the 
facts are stated more nilly as regards Latin in the sixth and following 

12 Sounds. [BookT* 

y. So iar as such an addition lengthens a word, there is a ar 
tendency to counteract this in other ways, especially 

1. by omitting short unaccented vowels; e. g. audacter for 
audadter ; Jurglum for juriginm ; dlsdpUxia for (Uscipiilixia, &c. 

2. by omitting entire syllables ; e. g. homltildiiim for homliii- 
cidium ; ▼eneficium for ▼eneniflcinm ; Tiglnti for dTl-decen-ti ; oor- 
pulentos for corpomlentos ; Yolimtas for volimtitaB, &c. 

Compound verbs rarely retain the reduplication in the perfect; 
e.g: tango, tetlgi, but contixigo, oontigL 

So in French semet ipslssliniim becomes in old Proven^ smet 
essme; in Provencal medesme; in old French melsme; in modem 
¥r&\c\i mime. Maleaptns becomes Prov. malapti; Ital. malato; 
French malade. 

In English Cbolmondeley is pronounced Chumley; Brigbtbelmstone^ 
Brighton; Wymondbam^ Wyndham; Toeivcester^ Tonvster; Marfan^ 
banks J Marchbanks ; Cirencester^ Cicester; &c. 

3. by slurring over the final syllable, which in Latin is always 
unaccented ; e. g. amavere for amaySrunt ; aznatdr for amatfir, &c. 
Each of these changes may again bring incompatible sounds into 

vi. The incompatibility of neighboiu-ing sounds may be abso* 39 
lute, or only relative to other combinations ready at hand to 
replace them. That is, it may be impossible to pronounce two 
neighbouring sounds, or, at least, it may be much easier to pro- 
nounce other sounds nearly allied to the more difficult sounds. 

Thus we have suggero as well as succorro, though Btihgero con- 
tains no such incompatibility as sabcnrro does. 

vii. Sounds are incompatible either from requiring very different 30 
positions of the organs, or from being respectively voiced and voice- 
less (flat and sharp). 

viii. When two incompatible sounds would otherwise come 31 
together, usually the difficulty is foreseen, and instead of the organs 
being left, after pronouncing the former, to do what they can with the 
lattei, the anticipation works a change in the former, or at least 
acts so as to preserve the latter. (But the reverse is sometimes the 

^ When the former of the two consonants or vowels is changed to 
suit the latter, the assimilation is called recessive; when the latter is 
changed to suit the former, progressive. 

CJiap. IF.] Laws of Phonetic Change, 13 

The fonner is either made compatible with the latter by par- 
tial assimilation, q^ by complete assimilation, or the former is omit- 
ted altogether, or other changes are made. And the change thus 
pnxluced may propagate effects still further back. 

ix. The phenomena are naturally divided into four classes, 3a 
according to the nature of the sounds brought into contact : 

I. Consonant + consonant ; a. vowel + consonant ; 3. con- 
sonant + vowel ; 4. vowel + vowel. 

I. Consonant + Consonant : sj 

{d) Partial assimilation. 

Thus, v<Mced are changed to the corresponding voiceless conso- 
nants ; e. g. BUb-iKurto to supporto ; scrib-tus to scrlptus ; ag-tuB 
to actiiB ; ang-Bi to auc-si (anzi), &c. 

Again a nasal of one organ is changed to that of another ; e. g. 
com-tero to contero; ezim-de to eztnde ; in-pero to Impero, &c. 

Analogous to this is the change of an explosive to a continuous 
consonant as seen in Ig, rg, 11, rr, changing a follonving suffixed t 
to • ; e. g. mulg- mnlsum ; curro, curBuin, &c. 

(b) Complete assimilation is found, chiefly, either (a) when 34 
both consonants belong to the same organ, or (JS) in the case of 
prepositions in composition ; (y) rarely otherwise. 

e.g. (a) cessl for ced-si; fossus for fod-sus; pos-sldere for 
por-sldere; summus for sub-mus; gemma for gen-ma; sella for 
•ed-la; paella for puer-la; columella for columen-la; Sec, 

(fi) ad in compounds ap-pello, accnrro, aggero, afflclo, attraho, 
asBideo, arrideo, allicio, &c. 

oib in Qppono, occurro, officio, oggaxmio, &c. ; sub in suppono, 
■nmmoveo, succurro, snfflclo, soggero, &c. 

60- in efferOi effliglo, &c. ; dis in difltiglo, &c. ; com in cormo, 

GOUldO, &C. 

(y) pregal for prem-si (pren-si) ; flamma for flag-ma, &c. 

(f) O mission : the preceding vowel is often lengthened : 35 

(a) Medial: before c; e. g. hoc for hodce. 

Before nasals; e.g. ezftmen for ez&g-men; JfLmentom for jftg- 
mexLtiim; csementom for csed-mentum ; semestris for seB-mestxis; 
pono for poano ; Ittna for Inc-na ; d$nl for dte-nl ; satin' for aatlBne ; 

14 Sounds. \BookL 

Before t ; e.g. nltor for gnictor (§ i lo) ; autumnuB for anctnmiiuB. 

Before d ; e. g. Jfldex for Jusdex. 

Before b ; e. g. sust^llo for subsUdlo ; ostento for obstento \ as- 
porto for aWorto. 

Before 1 ; e. g. qufilus for quas-lus. 

Before J; e.g. dljudlco for dlsjudlco; rSJectuB for re<UectU8; 
pSJero for perjdro ; xn&Jor for magjor. 

Before v ; e. g. brdvls for bregvls (§ 129). 

The middle of three consonants is frequently omitted; e.g. 
ftdmen for fulgmen : fultus for falctus ; mul-sl for mvlgBi ; x>an 
for parts. Comp. pergo for perrlgo ; Burpuit for surrlpiilt, &c. 

(j3) Initial: e.g. lamentam for clamentnm; Ub for BtUs; 
bonus for dvonuB ; Janus for DJanus ; nltor for gnitor, &c 

Sy) In Jinal syllable; e.g. cor for cord; lao for lact; Con- 
or consuls ; equds for equets ; pes for peds, &c. 

(d) Dissimilation: e.g. in order to avoid the- recurrence 36 
of 1, the suffix alls is frequently changed after 1 to -arls; e.g. puerl- 
Us, but puellaris, &c. Similarly Parllla from Pales. 

(e) Insertion; e.g. sumptus for sum-tus; Uemps for Mems, 37 


So also in early Latin ; e. g. Alcumena for 'AkKji^inj ; Tecumessa 
for TUfirja-a-a; £sculaplus for *A(TKKr)m6s. 

In Greek dvbpos for dvepos ; fieoTjfifipia from fiea-rj i^fiepa* 

In French chambre from camera; tiendrcut from tenir; bumble 
from humilis ; nombre from numerus. 

In German nvesentlich, namentlich for cuuesenlich^ &c.; Fandricb 
for Fanrich; aendlich (in rustic dialect) for dbnlicb; in Dutch Hen' 
irick from Henriciu^ &c. 

(/) Transposition: 38 

(a) of two consonants; e.g. mixtus for misctus (as some think: 
but cf. § 6z5)' So in Greek ca-xaros for t^aros^ superlative of c^; 
English fivaspj dialectically fvuaps. 

(fi) of liquid (r, 1) with succeeding vowel ; e. g. stra-, stemo ; 
spre-, spemo ; ere-, cemo. So in Greek Kapbia for Kpabia ; bpaK-^ 
bcpKOi ; &c. dulcis compared with ykvKvs ; in English, purty for 
pretty; burn for bren; firth sndfritb; Althorp pronounced Altrup; 
<kc.; and all terminations in -bre, -ere, -gre, -tre; -Ue, -tile, -£^e, 
-tie, pronounced ber, cer, ger, ter ; bol, cul, go], tol. 

CMap, IF.] Laws of Flwnetic Change, 15 

(^) The combinations dt, and (almost always) tt appear to have 
been unbearable; hence they are usually changed to ss, apparently 
by the latter letter being changed to s and then the former assimi- 
lated to it; e.g. cesBiim, missum for ced-snm, mit-sum from ced-tum, 
mtt-tnm. (But mitto, quattuor, &c. are allowed.) 

a. Vowel + Consonant. 3q 

(d) The vowel 5 is substituted or retained before r (also br, tr) 
in place of I; e.g. p&rlo, pep^ compftrlo compared with c&do, cecldl, 
eonoldo; f8ro, refSro with Idgo, collXgo; flinus, flmdrlB with bomo, 
homlnls; aaser, aasdrlB with ales, alltis; regerls from regis; &c. 

In fieil, flerem (for firl, flrem) e is inserted (or not absorbed) 
l)efbre r. So in English mire ^ fire pronounced mier,fier, 

(b) If a precedes two consonants, of which the first is 1, a is 
changed into n instead of into e; e.g. salsua, insulsus, compared 
with cantos, concentos; calco, concolco, with tracto, contrecto, &c. 

U prefers e; e.g. vello, vulsum; pello, pulsiun; &c. 

Before a single 1, 6 is changed to ft (or retained) instead of being 
changed to I (unless 1 follow; cf. § 41); e.g. popolus, populus; €7rt- 
oroXif, eplstula; compared with bomo, homlnis; \eyofiev, legimus, 8cc, 

(f) 5 is found before two consonants, where I is found before 
a angle consonant; e.g. scando, conscendo compared with cano, 
condno; nutrlmentum compared with nutriminls; biceps with 
iddpitla; &c. 

(d) t. was preferred to I before m (at least before Caesar'5 
time); e.g. mazomus, documentum, drachuma, &c. 

3. Consonant + Vowel. 4© 

(a) The vowel 1 when following c, g, t, d assibilated the pre- 
ceding consonant in late Latin, and languages thence derived. Hence 
we pronounce nation, nashon; musician, musishon. The Italians 
pronounce c as English cb, in Cicero; gl as English J, in collegiato, 
retigione, &c., and have Marzo from Martlas; palazzo from pala- 
ttnm; mezzo for medlus, &c. 

The French have assibilated c before other vowels; e.g, chambre 
from camera; cbien from canls; cbeval from caballus ; 5cc. 

(b) The vowel 6 was retained (to avoid confusion) after the 
consonantal v (§§ 93, ai3) for a considerable time after it had given 
place in other words to il; e.g. equos, quom, servos, &c. were not 
changed to equus, quurn, servus, Sec. till long after domlnos (nom. 
sing.), &c. had given place to domlnus, &c. In English ciu^/z/, <waj^ 
war^ &c the sound of a has been partially assimilated to w. 


i6 Sounds. ' [BaokZ 

4. V0WEL + Vowel. 4« 

(a) Though 1 has a liking for u (or earlier 0) before it, yet 
if 1 follows, 1 also precedes: hence slmllls, fleusUls, compared with 
simolo, simiiltaB, facultas; inqnUlniia iirom Incola; jExnUlns, tsjnUlML, 
ezBillum, compared with ssmiUiui, famulus, ezol, 8cc. 

(^) A similar assimilation is seen in liene for bone; B0lx>leB for 
suboles; socordia for secordla; boIvo for se-luo (Curtius). 

In German this principle has a much wider application, under 
the name of Umlaut, when a, 0, u of the stem are changed to ft, 5, tt 
in consequence of an 1 or e in the termination, e.g. Glas, Cldser; 
Schlosjj SMosser; Kuh, Kiihe; Kunst^ kunstlich; Jlog^Jfoge; &c* 

X. The usual changes are sometimes foregone from dread of 43 
some characteristic part of the word being obscured. Hence (i) 
sometimes an unstable combination of sounds is preserved, espe- 
cially where it is the result of previous changes: (a) sometimes 
the incompatibility of sounds is removed by other methods than 
those usual. 

(i) Thus ars, puis, amans, firons are allowed to remain because 
they are for arts, pults, amants, fronds or fronts; while pater, 
consul have thrown away the s, and homo, sermo for homons, 
sermons have thrown off ns. In fers (so also in vis for vlls) the s 
is preserved as the sign of the second person. 

{%) In tonstriz for tondtrlx the suffixed t is preserved, because 
tonsriz would be contrary to Latin pronunciation; tonsor for 
tondtor follows the ordinary rule by which dt becomes ss or s. 

In pietas, societas, ebrletas, &c., the of pio-, socio-, ebrio-, is 
changed to e instead of to 1 (as in 1>onlta3, 6cc.), because iditas 
would have become pitas, &c. 

Gradual Phonetic Change. 

xi. The more gradual phonetic changes, not caused by any 43 
sudden derangement of the balance, take place mainly according to 
the following laws or tendencies: 

I. A position of the organs requiring greater exertion is changed 
for one requiring less exertion. 

a. The change is either between sounds of different characters 
(sharp, flat, nasal, fricative) uttered at the same part of the mouth; 

3. A sound made in the more forward part of the mouth is 
substituted for one which should have been made further back. 

Chap, I V^ Laws of Phonetic Change, • 17 

^ xii. The result of these tendencies (when uninfluenced by the 44 
neighbouring sounds) is that 

(a) Explosive sounds change to fricative, not the reversed 

Oak to c=8; e.g. centum (=:lcentiim), Fr. cent. 

k to di Fr., (all Engl.); e.g. oaballus, Fr. cheval, 

g to y; e.g. Geht, Berl. Jeist; Germ. Gestem^ Engl.j'^fj/ffr-day, 

t to ■; e.g. Indo-Europ. Lat. tu, Doric rv, Attic (tv. 

g to Fr. J; e.g. paglna, Fr, page, 

d to 1; e.g. doKpVy Lat. lacruma; *08va-a-€vs, Ullzes. 

d to til ; e.g. ovBev, modem Greek 5cV, pronounced as English 

I) to v; e.g. Iial)er6, Ital. avert. So Greek /3=li has become 
in modmi Gi^eek a labial fricative, between our v and w, 

p to v; e.g. Bapere, Fr. savoir; fiaba, Tr.feve. 

So the three aspirates^, 6, <^, once pronounced k+h, t +I1, p+b, 
are in modem Greek fncative; viz. ch Germ., tli, f. And the 
Latin k and f are representatives of earlier aspirates. 

(If) Gutturals change to palatals and dentals, not the reverse. 45 
Thus c=k changes to c = Eng. ch; e.g. Glcero (KiKcptov) to Ital, 
Cicero: oaseuB, Gemi. Kase, Engl, cbeese, 

hard g to g=Engl. J ; e.g. gyms, Ital. gire. . 

The labials conform apparently to no definite law. 

(r) Of the liquids &c., r appears to be older than 1, Greek 46 
and Latin often giving 1 where Sanscrit has r. In the Romance 
languages they interchange both ways; e.g. peregrlnus, Ital. pelle- 
grino; Tibur, Ital. TivoH; lusdnlolus, Ital. rossignuolo; apostolus, 
Fr. apotre; &c. 

N also passes into either, and sometimes vice versa; e.g. Bononla, 
ItaL Bologna; yenenum, Ital. veleno; lamella, 'Provencal namela ; 
>imn<«>tw Span, bombre; tympannm, Fr. timbre. In Greek, ekOiiv is 
in Doric tvOelv; c^/Xraror, djilvraros'^ &C. 

m appears to be earlier than n; e.g. Sanscrit damam, (Lat. do- 
mum), Gr. b6it.ov\ rem, Fr. rien^ &c. 

• changes to later r in Latin ; and to the rough breathing in 
Greek; c.g. arbosem, arborem; Sansc. saptan, Lat. septem, Gr. 
farrO} &C 

* See Curtius, Gr. Etym. p. 385, ed. 2. 

^8 Sounds. [Book I. 

^ in Latin becomes in French almost always inaudible: 1 is often 
omitted or sounded as y; final s is not sounded; and the nasals 
merely give a twang to the vowels. 

(U) In the case of the vowels a appears to have been earlier 47 
than and e, and changes through them respectively to u and L 
Thus Sanscrit frequently has a, where Greek and Latin have the 
more forward vowels. In Latin the order of priority is a, o, u, e, 1, 
hot the reverse. (See § 196.) 

xiii. By a similar laxness of pronunciation parasitical sounds 48 
often arise, the organs assuming a position for one sound in the 
effort to reach or leave the position required for another sound. 

Thus from Latin vastare comes Ital. guastare; from vadiuin, 
guage; from vespa, French guepe; &c. The same was perhaps the 
case with vivo compared wiUi vio-sl, as if from vlgvo; (see § 129 r). 

So in English a parasitical d becomes attached to n in the vulgar 
pronunciation oi gonvn asgotwnd; droivned as drowndedK 

Y is by some speakers inserted before i (=al) in guide pro- 
nounced ^/W^/ ^/W, ^yind; sky, skyi; &c. : and before u, e.g. duty, 
usually pronounced dyooty ; music, use, &c, always pronounced 
myoosic,yoos; &c. But see App. A. xx, xxv. 

After a broad a = ah or er, a slight raising of the tip of the tongue 
suggests to some speakers a vibration, and an r is the result; e.g. 
Emma Ann becoming Emma ran, &c. 

xiv. The . difficulty of uttering a particular sound varies with 49 
different individuals, sometimes from want of practice, sometimes 
from organic defect; and where there is no absolute incapacity or 
even difficulty, there is often a greater tendency for the organs to 
assume one position, and consequently to pronounce one sound, 
rather than another. 

Thus in English we have persons pronouncing rake for lake; 
lake for rake (cf. Aristoph. Fesp, 45); thin for sin; dound for round; 
twun,gfiveen, for run, green; hat for at, and at for hat; twine for 'vim', 
and vine for twine ; &c. Foreigners often pronounce tree and dat 
for three and that 

XV. As with individuals, so with tribes and nations. Certain 50 
sounds and certain classes of sounds are preferred or avoided, are 
frequently or never pronounced. In this way the same word may, 
when tribes separate from a conunon stock, assume gradually a 

^ Prof. Key considers this tendency to have been widely operative in 
language. Essays, p. 204 foil. 

Chap, /v.] Laws of Phonetic Change, 19: 

scnnewhat different shape (even apart from inflexions) in one tribe 
from what they bear in another, each tribe fixing differently an 
ambiguous or intermediate sound, or developing it in a different 
way. A few illustrations only can be given, (i) of the absence or 
presence of certain sounds in nations^ ; (a) of the different shapes 
the same root assumes in different languages. 

I. {a\ The dentals appear to be the easiest sounds, for they are 51 
usually the first uttered by children and they are the most universal. 
But it is said the voiced dental d does not occur in Chinese, or in 
tbe Mexican and other American languages. 

(^j Several of the Polynesian languages have no gutturals; and 
several of the North American have no labials. In the language of 
the Sandwich Islands the gutturals and dentals are indistinguish- 
able. " It takes months of patient labour to teach a Hawaian 
youth the difference between k and t, g and d, 1 and r." Steel is 
prooounced nearly as kila; Cook as tute; &c. 

(c) Again the sharp and flat sounds are not distinguished in any 
Polynesian dialect. So the Welsh often pronounce sharp for flat; 
e^ for bed: and the inhabitants of Saxony are said not to know 
t^e distinction. Cf. App. A. vii. 

(d) The Sanscrit has aspirated flat mutes (b + h, g+h, d + h) ; 
the ancient Greek had aspirated sharp mutes p + h, k+h, t + h; 
the Romans had neither. 

(e) The labio-dentals denoted in English by F and V are absent 
from Hottentot and Australian languages, and probably from an- 
cient Greek. F is absent also from Finnish, Lithuanian, Tamil, 
Burmese, &c. 

(/") R is absent altogether from some American and Polynesian 
dialects: L is absent from Zend, Japanese, and several American and 
African tongues. The Chinese suostitute 1 for r, saying, e.g. Eu- 
lopa for Buropa, and (avoiding the pronunciation of two consonants 
together), Ki'li^sse-tu for Christ, 

(g) The Arabic and cognate languages have peculiar guttural 
and gutturo-dental consonants. The Indian languages have a pecu- 
liar palatal class. The Hottentots accompany the pronunciation 
of otiier letters with peculiar clicks. 

a. The variation of the same root in languages of the same 5= 
stock is best illustrated by the law which Grinun (following in 
EUsk^s track) showed to prevail between the Sanscrit, Greek and 


' These statements are chiefly from Max M tiller, Lectures, Second 
Series^ p. 167, &c. 

2 2 



[Book L 

Latin together, compared with the Gothic and low German dialects^ 
on the one hand, and the old High German and its stock on the 
other, the one having an aspirated mute or fricative, where the 
second has a flat mute, and the third a sharp, and so on. Initial 
mutes exhibit the law most clearly, being freest from the influence 
of neighbouring consonants, and dentals most regularly. The Eng- 
lish is here taken as the representative of Gothic, and the modem 
German as representative of high German. 


Latin f 
English d 
German t, or th: 

Latin d 
English t 
German z or b 

$vyaTijp, Orjpy OvpOy fieGv, 

fera, fores. 

daughter, deer^ door, mead, 

tQcbter, thier, thor, metb. 

obovSi dafiap, dvo, Hicw, vdatp, 

dens, domare, duo, 6dere, unda. 

tootbf tame, tfwo, eat, <water, 

zahftj xdJbmen zwei, essen, fwasser» 



Greek r Dor. rv Att. or, r/of 49, 
Latin t tu, tres, 

English til thou, three, 

German d du, drei, 

Similarly a Greek aspirate often corresponds to a Latin s. 

tenuis, Is-tud, firater. 
thin, that, brother, 
diinn, das, Cruder, 

xvi. It results from the action of these laws, both those of 53 
sudden and those of gradual change, that while the same word may 
under different influences give rise to variously modified forms, the 
same form may also eventually result from different original combi- 
nations of sounds. 

e. g. page in English is in its different senses derived respectively 
from Greek naibiop and from Latin paglna. 

From the three Latin words mare, major, mater come three 
French words all pronounced alike; viz. la mer, lemaire, la mere, 

xvii. The introduction of foreign words into a language is 5* 
subject to special phonetic conditions. One nation has rarely got 
just the same set of sounds as another, or allows the same combina- 
tions. Consequently in adopting a foreign word by the sound 
an approximation more or less clumsy has to be made, and a greater 
divergence is sometimes caused by the tendency to approximate to 
a familiar indigenous word, especially if it seem to aflord an intelli- 
gible etymology. 

e.g. the Romans had Hercules for 'HpoxX^f ; and in early Latin 
tsclna for rexvrj ; Clutdmestra for KXvraiiJLvijorpa* 

Chap. IV,] Laws of Phonetic Change, 21 

The English pronunciation of such words as pure (fyoor) is 
said to be from an attempt to imitate the French u* 

As errors caused by what has been called Popular Etymology 
may be quoted Jerusalem artichoke for Girasol which comes from 
gynu and sol: <walnut^ which is from Angl. Sax. wealh-knut^ i.e. 
foreign or Italian nut. 

xviii. The use of letters reacts on the sounds. They rarely fit 55 
each other precisely to start with; and the pronunciation has a 
constant tendency to change, while the spelling remains. The 
letters then become symbols of different sounds from those proper 
to them, and sometimes are supposed to carry, and thence do carry 
these new sounds into other words. In the case of foreign names 
the want of corre^ondence in the alphabets is an additional cause 
of error to that named in the preceding paragraph. 


The alphabets of all Italian peoples were borrowed immediately 36 
from that of the Dorian Greeks of Italy and Sicily. The Roman 
or Latin alphabet was probably obtained from the trading colony of 
Cumae. Its oldest form, as collected from coins and inscriptions, 
dating between the end of the Samnite wars (2723.0. = 48a u.c), 
and the end of the second Punic war (201 B.C. = 553 u.c), con- 
tained the following twenty letters; A, B, C, D, E, F, H, I, K, L, M, N, 

The Romans appear never to have used the three aspirates which 
the Greek alphabet contained, e, $, ^ ( = X): and there is but 
slight evidence of their having at first taken Z. 

In the course of the century, 300 to a 00 B.C., a modified form 
of C, viz. a, was introduced, in order to distinguish the flat from 
the sharp guttural; and K was used only in very few words. Z, if 
it ever had been in use, had passed out again. In Cicero's time or 
somewhat earlier, the characters Z and Y were used in writing words 
borrowed from the Greek. 

The Romans devised a very simple nomenclature for the letters, S7 
the vowels being denoted by their own sound, the explosive con- 
stmants and H by a vowel after them, the fricative consonants by 

* See Corssen, Aussprache^ i. i foil. ed. 2. 

22 Sounds. [Bi>ok I, 

a vowel before them. The vowel used for this purpose was e, 
excepting that the gutturals k and h were called ka, lia, a was call^ 
qu, and x was called Iz. 

The consonants were not, so ^ as we know, written double 58 
before Ennius (who is said to have introduced the practice), the 
first inscription containing doubled letters being A.u.c. 565 : but 
from that period the practice began, and, if we judge from inscrip- 
tions, became predominant about the time of the Gracchi, and con- 
stant twenty years later. Plautus could have used the doubled 
letters only in his last years, if at all. 

To denote the length of a vowel several methods were tried. 59 
(i) They doubled the vowel 1. This method introduced into Latin 
by the tragic poet Accius prevailed in inscriptions from about 130 
to 75 B.C. It was also used by other Italian nations, but neither in 
Oscan nor Latin was doubled. After Cicero and Caesar's time 
the double 1 had a different meaning, the second i being a semi- 
consonant; e.g. Pompeijus, 8cc. 

(a) The length of an 1 was often denoted by writing the diphthong 
el, but also and most usually since Sulla's time by making the 
1 taller than the other letters. In imperial times this sign appears 
to have sometimes stood between two vowels to denote the semi- 
consonant I (i.e. J). In later times, e.g. even in Domitian's reign, 
in some Spanish inscriptions the tall I is used indiscriminately for 
long and for short vowels, and also for the semiconsonant. 

(3) Since about the time of Cicero's consulate, a long vowel 
was frequently denoted by an accent, e.g. J(ill6: but this too came 
gradually to be misapplied. 

The Emperor Claudius attempted to introduce three new cha- 60 
racters; viz. an inverted digamma (J) for v when used as a semi- 
consonant: a reversed Greek sigma (3) for the combination bs or 
ps: and the sign of the Greek spiritus asper (|-) for the middle 
sound between 1 and u; that is, according to inscriptions in which 
we find it used, merely to represent the Greek v (not for the doubt- 
ful vowel in max^mus, &c.). The first and the last of these new 

signs are found in inscriptions of this reign ; the antisigma, as it 
was called, is not found. 

The following table contains the letters of the Latm alphabet Ci 
with their signs and probable pronunciation, as inferred chiefly from 
the facts respecting the several letters given in the ensuing Chapters. 

1 Probably this is the meaning of the double u which occurs regu- 
larly in the gen. sing, and nom. and ace. plur. of U stems in MSS. of 
Pliny, &c. ; e. g. v^tuuB, specuus. 

\ap. FT] 

Latin Alphabet in, General, 


Old signs 
(other tluin in 

cir. 80 B.C. 




Pronun- ^1!."^!!""' 
,»iot;«Ti ^^^ same 

next col.) 

tab. LXix.) 


C'ation. ^y^j 





ah A 






h B 




' ce 

k IL 





d A 




e 5.^°""/ , 
< J (Easltal. 

( ^ ' close e) 

/>Y 1' 




• f (cf.§98) 





gi^ive) r 


Hh . 


b(Jbat) • 










k K 





/ A 





m M 





(« isi 

♦ 00 

Co «fo^^ , 
) 0? . {0 as Engl. 





P n 





k K 





r (trilled) P 





J (sharp) 2 



Uu ) 


/ T 

/Engl. ^^;. OY: 



Vv ) 


( in out) OY 

* is 

Y y (Ypsilon) u Fr. 
Z z (Zeta) (cf. § 195) 



AI ai 
AE ae 
EI ei 

Pronunciation. Greek. 

ay ( =yes) earlier AI 
'(cf. §258) later AI 

Engl, (fate) EI 

Germ.fl«(i6a«j). AY 
Engl. (note) OY 

Modem. Pronunciation. Greek. 

EU eu Ital. eu EY 

01 oi nearly 0/(^0//) earlier 01 

OE oe (cf. § »63) later 01 

Ul ui asYx. oui (^l.\*vvC" 

24 Sounds. [Book L 

The Greek v was Fr. u, (It did not correspond to Latin ii» 
wWch Greek expressed by ov). The Greek a> was probably the 
sound of English aw. It must be remembered that the contraction 
of 00 in Greek gives ou, not <» ; of €6 gives ct, not ly. Moreover 
the name of o was o^; of e was cf. On the English and ft being 
really diphthongs, see § 2V. 




Character : in the oldest inscriptions P (but not after cir. 6ao 6a 
U.c), then P, last P. 

Sound: always the sharp labial mute; English p. Never aspi- ^3 
rated, except in Greek words; e.g. spbasra, pMLosoplras. 

Position : never final, except in Tcflnp (for volupe). It can 64 
stand inunediately in same syllable 

1. before 1 or r; e.g. plando, prandeo, &c. 

2. after s; e.g. spatlTun, splendor, sprevi, &c. 

Representation: (i) of Greek i. tt (pb for ^): e.g. irvevfia- 65 
riKosy pneumaticus; IlroXc/iaTor, Ptolemseus; ifuiXXo), psallo; &c. 

2. rarely /3; e.g. Bplafipos, trlumpus (later trluinplius). 

3. frequently <^; e.g. irop^vpa, purpilra; Ai(l)iKos, ndfw^tXof, 
^iKoveiiais, DiptUus, Fampllus, FUdnlces; ^apvdKns, Famaces; 8cc, 
almost always in inscriptions before cir. 660 u.G (see § 13 a). 

^ In the following account of each letter, the term Representation 
has been confined to the way in which one language transcribes the words 
borrowed from another : Correspondence to the etymological correspon- 
dence, i.e, the shape which the same stem, though forming perhaps a 
verb in one and a noun in another language, assumes in sister languages. 
The instances of correspondence are almost all selected from Curtius, 
Griech. Etym, 2nd ed. Influence is used for the way in which a letter 
affects others, weakness for the way in which it is affected by others. 
The sound is inferred from the facts here collected. Throughout, great 
help has been obtained from Corssen's Aussprache, &c., Rnd in some 
parts from Luc. Mtiller's De re metrica. 

Chap. Vl^ Labials and Labiodentals, P. 25 

^) in Greek by tt; e.g. Fapirlus, Uaireipios (also IlaTripiof); 
caidtcdiiim, KouriTaXiov] Spurina, 2n6ptos] ApplTis,''A7r7rtof ; &c. 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European p. 66 

a. to Greek IT ; e.g. r&plo, dfyir-aCco] aeptem, iTrrd'^ pac-lacor, 
WUifif-o^pUf-nuH, 7n/y-ia;fti, aor. cTroy-jyv; pater, Tran^p] Imple-o, ple- 
mw, Trl'fi-frXrj-fu, ttXtj^o); pannus, Tnjvos'y pullus, ncakos] palma, 
vakofiri; ndpos, neptlB, ai/e^iof) pisum, frrcroff;pllleus» ttiXo;; pliio, 
irXeco, 7r\vp&] pfls, pnteo, piltris, irvov^ ttvOco] pulmo, nvevfiav, ttXcv- 
fwy; 8cc 

3. to Greek 0; e.g. c&pnt, c&pillas, K€<t>aKi]] ops, a<t>€vos. 

4. to Greek j3 in pasco, p6a-K<a, 

5. rarely to Greek k. So probably Iftpus, Xv/co^; spdllum, 
cjcvXoy; BSBpes, prsBsepls, oijictSf. 

Posably these Latin words may have been borrowed from the 
Umbrian or Oscan, in which p often corresponds to an original k. 

Substitution: p is often a substitute for b; e.g. sup-porto 67 
for BUb-porto; op-timns for ob-timus; scrip-sl, scrip-tus from 
lerlb-o; op-sides (in early inscriptions) for ob-sldes; &c. 

Influence: i. before p the prepositions sub, ob, ad become 68 
sap, op> ap in pronunciation, though not always in writing; e.g. sup-^ 
porto^ OP-Portnnus, ap-pello; &c. Possibly this was the original 
form of sab, ob (compare super, eVt). 

2. requires a preceding nasal to be m, not n; e.g. impar, 
oom-porto; &c. ru-m-po compared with fa-n-do. 

Weakness: i. changed (cir. 650 u.c.) to b before 1 in the 69 
word publicns, for popllcus, from populicus (old form poupllcos). 
So PabliUB is IlojrXtoy in Polybius and Dion. H.). 

2. becomes m before a nasal suffix; e.g. som-nus compared 
with sQp-or, sOp-lo. And comp. trdpldus with trdmo. 

Insertion : i. P is naturally pronounced in passing from 70 
m to t or 8 or 1 ; e.g. sum-p-tus, sum-p-sl ; em-p-tus, em-p-si ; tem- 
p-to for the (etymologically better) form ten-to; Uem-p-B for biexns; 
ezexn-p-lnxn, from ezlm-dre; tem-p-lum, comp. re/xei/o;. In amp- 
tanoti, am-p-lns, the p may be for b in amb-. 

a. In late imperial language we have dam-p-num, calnm-p- 
oiare. Sec 

26 SOuKDS. ' [Book I, 


Character: similar to modem B. 7« 

Sound: the flat labial mute; English b. 72 

In later Latin inscriptions, not frequently before the 4th* cen- 
tury A.D., words were written with v for b, chiefly between vowels 
(e.g. devltunL, sivl, Lesyla, verva), and l> for v (e.g. l>olo» toerlMi, 
bixit; hence Danublus for the earlier and correct Dannirlus), one 
or both having then perhaps the sound of labial v. The confu- 
sion is also found in the MS. of Gains, and in the Florentine MS. 
of the Digest. Flablo, JubentiLus are rare instances from the and 
century after Christ. Besblus (cf. § 90. 3) for Vesavlus in Pompdan 
inscriptions. . , 

Position: Final only in al), suli, ob. 73 

It can stand immediately in same syllable before 1 or r; e.g. 
blandus, brdvls, brilma, 8cc, 

Representation (i) in Greek by )5; e. g. Al>origli»im, 74 
^A^opiyivav] Umbrid, '0//^piKo/; BovUlanl, BotAXavot; &c. 

(ii) of Greek: i. ordinarily j3; fiatris, Tiasls; Boiorot, BoBOtl; &c, 

a. For (f) and n Ennius always used I), at least in the words 
Bxirrus for Uvppos, and Bruges for ^pvyes (Cic. Or. 48, § 160). 
Probably Ennius was following the etymological correspondence 
(see next section). 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European \> or Till, 75 
or, in the middle of a word, to an original dh. 

a. to Greek )3; e.g. teevls, ppaxvs] bulbus, fiokpos] batexe, 

3. to Greek tt; e^g. ab, dno; buxua, ttv^os; carbasus, Kapnar 
(TOf I lambo, l&bluxn, XoTrro), \a<l>vcr<r<a* 

4. medial b to Greek (p (frequently); e.g. amb-, d/x^/; ambo, 
iip.ffi<o\ labor, aX^-ai;©; umbo, umbilicus, o^KficLkos'^t ntlb-es, viffi^os\ 
orb-us, 6p<p-av6sl sorb-eo, po<^€o}\ glflbo, yKvcf^a', scribo, ypacjxo* 
So probably the derivative suffix -ber (comp. fero) to -<l>6pos (<t>ep(o) ; 
e.g. saltl-ber, cand§la-brum. 

5. medial b to Old Italian f; e.g. trXbus, Umbr. trefu; sta- 
bolujn, Umbr. stafu; tlbl, Umbr. tefe; sibi, Oscan sifel. 

Substitution: i. It is in several words a substitute for an 7* 
earlier dv. Thus bis, bellum, Bellona, BelliuB, bOnus are for dvls, 
dvellum, Dvellona (so in S. C. de Bacchan. '568 A.u.c), DvelliUB, 
dvonus (dvonoro i.e. bonorum in epitaph on Scipio, son of Barbatus^ 

C^iap. Vl!] Labials aiid Labiodentals, M. 27 

cir. A.u.c. ^00). C. Duellius the consul of 494 A.U.C. is said to have 
been the first of the family called Bellius^ (Cic. Or, 45, § 153)' 

a. In a few words, it stands for medial v in order to avoid 
the combination uu. Thus bubile, bubulcus from bovlle, bobulcus, 
when was giving place to u (§213); deferbui from deferveo; 
jtbeo from a rootjou- (comp. old perf. Jousl, Jitro). 

Influence : It requires the preceding nasal to be m; e.g. com- 77 
Imro conlpared with conduoo; im-buo with In-dno; im-berbls, com- 
Ubo, &c. 

Weakness: i. Before a sharp (b or t),b is sometimes changed 73 
top; e.^. scrip-Bl, scrip-tus from scrlb-o; op-sequi for ob-sequi; op- 
ttniiBofbr ob-tineo, &c. In compounds with sub, ob, the inscriptions 
before cir. 650 U.c. have p; later inscriptions and MSS. oscillate. 
So occasionally urps, pleps for urbs, plebs. But in os-tentnm, sus- 
dpere, sustoll, asporto, &c. b in obs, subs, abs is omitted. 

a. Before c, g, p, f, sub and ob are assimilated; e.g. snc-curro, 
PC-combo, suggero, suppono, suffero, &c, 

3. Before f, ab takes the form an; e.g. auftiglo, aufero (but 
abs-tuli, ab-latum); or b is dropped; e.g. aftii, afOre. (On af see 


4. In Omitto, Operlo, oportimns (if they are compounds) the b 
is omitted. [Some consider the dat. abl. in -Is to have arisen from 
an omis^on of b (or bb), fllils being for filiabus.] 

5. b becomes m before a nasal suflix; e.g. sum-mus for sub- 
muB (for sup-imus) ; scam-num compared with scab-ellum; sam- 
oiiim (17 SowiTtff Polyb.) with Sabinl. So perhaps gWmus is for 


Character: In a few of the oldest inscriptions before 500 u.c. 79 
the modem shape with the middle strokes not reaching to the 
bottom is found, but not afterwards. The usual form has the four 
strokes of equal length and all inclined, not vertical. Verrius 
Flaccus (in Augustus' time) wished to use only half the ordinary 
letter as its sign at the end of words before an initial vowel, on 
account of its faint sound. 

Sound : the labial nasal; English m. 80 

At the end of words it appears to have been scarcely audible. 

Position: very frequently final: viz. i. in accusative and 81 
neuter nominative singular, and in genitive plural of nouns: a. in 

^ In Polybius, I. 22, 23, we read BiXtos; (but th^MSS. have A//S^s 
or *AriXios Alfiuis), Diodorus (xi. 68) has AovlWios, 

28 Sounds. [Book /. 

I St person singular of verbs; 3. in some adverbs; e.g. turn, qnam, 
nam, clam, autem, enim, partlm, &c. 

Never before or after another consonant as the commencement 
of a syllable. 

Representation: (i) in Greek by ft; e.g. Kardiuby MapKios, 83 
Viminalis by Oviiuvakios ; &c. 

(ii) of Greek fi] e.g. MapaBmv, Uarathon; irpayfiariKosy pra«- 
maticus; &c. 

Correspondence: i. to Indo-European m. 83 

2. to Greek /i; e.g. slmul, BlmUis, afia, oftolot, o/uuiXoff; 
Ydmo, cpeo) (ff/i); mOl-lls, fiakaKos^ me, fie, €/if ; magniu, mftgls, 
fieyatf ii€yiaTosy mel, fieXi^ mdr-lor, mor-tuus, mar-ceo, /tAop-cuvtfy 
fipoTos (for fiporos) ; xninuo, fuvvBm ; tUn-eros, Sfios ; &c. 

3. but in inflexions final m corresponds to Greek y ; so in the 
ace. sing, and gen. pi. of nouns and in the ist pers. sing, of verbs: 
e.g. n&vem, vavv] musarom, iiov(rc9v] slm, siem, ctqp ; ferel)am, €(f)€pov» 

Substitution: i. for p or l) before a nasal suffix; e.g. som- 84 
nuB, comp. sdp-or, sOp-io; scam-num compared with 8cal>-ellum; 
Sam-nium with Sab-inl; sum-mus with sub or sup-er. 

2. for n before a labial ; e.g. im-pello for in-pello; &c. Compare 
ru-m-po with fu-n-do. 

Influence: i. often occasions the assimilation or omission 85 
of a preceding consonant, especially if three consonants would 
otherwise be together: e.g. flam-ma (flag-); ez&-men for ezag-men; 
JfL-mentum (jiig-) ; tor-mentum (torquSre) ; la-men (lilc-ero) ; ful- 
men (fulg-ere) ; csa-mentum (csdd-ere) ; rft-mentnm (rftd-ere) ; sum- 
movere, sum-mus (sub); contir-mlnare (contag-); s6-mestrls (sex). 

But seg-men from sec-fire; ag-men from ag-6re; &c. 

So n becomes m; e.g. Im-motus for in-motus; Imus, Immo for 
Inlmus, Inlmo (superlative from preposition In). 

2. prefers a short tl (instead of 6 or i) before it; e.g. doc-n- 
mentum (doc-e-); monumentum (mon-e-). So till Caesar's time 
dectlmus, facillilmus, durissilmus, marlttUnus, &c. Similarly sastiUno, 
lacrHma, and in Greek words the short inserted vowel is u; e.g. 
Alciimena, drachilma, Tecumessa (compared with tecina, &c.). 

Weakness: i. Final m having a faint sound fell away; in ist 86 
pers. sing, of present, and perfect indie, and future in -bo of all 
verbs; e.g. amo, amavl, amabo; the words sum and inquam alone 

Chap. F/,] Labials and Labiodentals, V. 29 

retaining it Cato is said to have written reclpie, dice, &c. for reci- 
plam, dicam (redplem, dicem?). Cf. Qumtil. 1. 7, § 23 ; ix. 4. § 40. 

2. In nouns early inscriptions frequently omit final m, but not 
regularly. Thus in the oldest Scipionic inscription Luciom is found 
by ade of Corsica, olno (for unum), Sclplone, optumo (all accusatives), 
dnonoro Tfor boaomm). The omission is rare in the legal inscrip- 
tions, and in others also after 620 u.c, but is found in the vulgar 
wall inscriptions at Pompeii ; and towards the end of the third cen- 
tury after Christ becomes frequent again (even in words which are 
not nouns; e.g. meco, dece, oU for mecum, decern, olim). 

Hon is for noBnom (xie-oinom, i. e. ne-uniun). 

3. Before a vowel, a final syllable in m was disregarded in verse : 
and com in composition droppe^d its m; e.g. co-Ire, coMbeo, coheres, 
ooopto; oOgo (com-affo)i cOperlo (com-operlo), cOmo (com-emo). 
But m is retained in c6mes, com-itliun, coxnitor ; 06m-ddo. 

So circu-itns; but drcum-aco. 

4. Before most consonants except the labials p, l>, m, m becomes 
n; e.g. an-ceps, prln-ceps, nunc (nmn-ce), tantundem (tantmn), 
ean-dem, eonm-Hlem, con-sul, con-fero, con-Juz, con-venlo, septen- 
trlo, aliquan-diu, &c. So quonlam for quom Jam. 

In a few compounds of com m is omitted ; e. g. co-gnosco, co- 
gnatns, cO-necto, cOnltor, cOnXyeo, cOnubliun. So in old time cosol 
for consul and this form was retained in the abbreviation cos; also 
in inscriptions cosentlont, &c. Cf. §§ 168, 167, 2. 

5. m before r became b; e.g. hlbemns is for Memrlnus (cf. 
xci/icpcvpf). So in Greek Pporos from root fiop~, morior. 

V as Consonant. 

Character: always v, whether as vowel or consonant. 87 
(Throughout this article v is used for the consonantal sound, u for 
the vowel.) 

Sound: as the English w, or perhaps, at least originally, the 88 
more vocal Fr. on in out 

Position: always before a vowel. Not after any consonant, 89 
except q, g, 8, 1, r; e.g. qvls, plngvis, svavls, salvus, servus. 

Representation : (i) in Greek^, i. usually by ov (which 90 
was also the usual representation of v as vowel) ; e.g. Servlus, Sep- 

^ The Oscan v was represented in Greek by the digamma ; e. g. 
Joveis, Aiovfei ; Clovatius, kkoFdnai ; tovtiks, toFto. Quintilian says 
iEolica littera;, qua * servum,* * cervum'que dicimus, etiam si forma a 
nobis repudiata est, vis tamen nos ipsa persequitur (xii. 10. ag). 

^o Sounds. [Book Jl 

ovios'i VenuBia, Ovevova-ia (Polyb.); Veil, Ovi]ioi\ Volsd, Ot/oXcicoc 
(Strab.), OvoXova-Koi, (Dion. H., Plut.), Ov6\o<rKoi (Plut); Qyintt- 
liu8 VanUi KovivTiKtos Ovapos (Joseph.); Juvenalia, *lovov€vaKta^ 
<^rad^atU8, Kovabparos (Dio Cass., Epit.) ; JEquum FallBCiun, Ai- 
Kovovfi<f)d\i(rKov'y Svessula, Soveo-orovXa (Strab.); &c. 

2. after q, before I, also by v or o ; e.g. Qylntiu, Koivros (Polyb., 
Diod., Dion. H.), Kmvros (Dio Cass.); Qyintiliiu, KoivriXtos 
(Mon. Ancyr.\ KvivriXios (Dio C); Nonls Qvintllil)ii8, KvivriXlais 
^6i/vats (Plut.); Aq^num, ^Aicvivov (Strab., Plut); &c. 

But Qvl=icu, e.g. AqvUlius, 'AkvXXioj; Qylrinus, Kvplvos'y QuI- 
rites, Kvplrat (but Kviptrm, Dio); Aq^^ela, *AicvXi;ta; Taxqviiiiiu, 

3. by j3 rarely, except in Plutarch, who has for Flaviiu 
ifXa^ios (also ^Xaovios) ; LlvitiB, Ai/Stoy (also Polyb.) ; Varro, Bap- 
pcav] Folvius, ^ovX^ios] ServUla, 2€p/3tX(a, (Servlllas, Sf povtXXtor ) ; 
Voconius, BoKwwos; &c. So Pulvillus, lloXjStXXos; Flavus, Flaylas, 
*Xa/3or, ^XajStos, also *Xaoutoff X^^i®"- ^O? Yesuvlug, BcV^toy 
(Dio G. App.), but Oveorovoutoff (Diod.^ ; Beneventmn, Bev^fieirrov 
(Appian), but Bcveovcirrov (Appian, Strabo), Beneventana, Oveuoav^ 
Tavrj (Polyb.). Nerva and Seyerus in contemporary inscriptions are 
Nfpoua, Nep/ya; ^fovrjpos, SejS^pos. In and after the sixth century 
after Christ j3 appears frequently for v. Compare § 72. 

(ii) of Greek, V as consonant is never found in transferring 
a Greek name into Latin, the digamma, which alone had the same • 
sound, not being in use in the time of the Roman writers. 

Correspondence: 1. to original Indo-European V: sometimes o» 
(e.g. in first four instances given infr. 3) to G (where Greek has j3). 

2. to Greek f , which often fell away without altering the word, 
sometimes was replaced by o or v; e.g. sBvum, alFes. del] dvls, 
oris'i ftvifl, ol(ovos (,oFi<ovos)'i Cvum, oiFop] silva, v\rj (for vXfa); 
sY&Yis (for svad-vls), svadns, i^8vs (for o-f »;St;y) ; vallus, F7jXx)5 ; vel- 
lUB, YillUB, Fepiov, €fpoff; vftliere, Foxos^ vSnunj, vSn-ep, avos\ v5r, 
Feap^ yp'^ verbum, fepeo), prjpa] vesper, Fea-irepos'i veatls, Fev-wfu, 
eV^s; v6tus, FItos (a year)] videre, ftSeii/, (Lac.jStSetv) olSa; 
viglnti, FfUoa-L, Bceot. f tKort, (Lacon. ^eUaTt) ; vi61a, Fiov ; vltu- 
lus, f iraXos ; "ntex, vi-men, fireo; vdmere, fe/x-eTv; volvo, fcXvo), 

vah, V88, od, oua/; "vimun, otvoy; vicus, olkos- The noise of 
frogs is represented ► by Kod^, which Ovid imitates by ' sub aqua 
sub aqua maledicere temptant.' {Met. vi. 376.) 

Arvum, dpoco, apovpa] nervus, v€vpov\ vSreor, ovpos, a ^joatcher 

3. to Greek /3; e.g. v6n-io (bSto, perbito, Osc.beiiust=venerit), 
SaiVo; vivo jSio?, /Stoo); v6ro, jStjSpcoo-ica}, /Sopa; ervum, opo^os] 
severus, ae^as, ae^ofMai ; vdlo, jSovXopat 


Chap, y/J] Labials and Labiodentals, V. 31 

Substitution : In verse the vowel u is sometimes hardened into 92 
the ccxisonant v. Thus in Plautus, tvos, svos, tvl, svl; &c., fTit, 
pm, prtila, dYomm, (comp. above § 76 dvonoro, dvello); in dactylic 
poets, Bvo (Lucr. twice); genva (Verg., Stat); pltvlta (Hon), 
patrvl (Stat), sinyatis, Binvatur (Sil.). Also larva, larvatis (Hon), 
for ISrna, laraatiff (l^Iaut) ; milvus and reliqvuB after the 8th cent. 
U.c. for the earlier ndltitis, rSUctltlB. In tenvlB, tenvla, tenvior, the 
consonantal v seems to be the regular pronunciation : Statius s use 
is peculiar.' See § 142. 

Influence: i. The vowel 6 when following v (consonant 93 
or vowel) was retained till the Augustan age and later, though after 
other letters it had usually changed to u; e.g. servos, nom. sing., 
iMiTom, &c Vorto and derivatives are said by Quintilian (i.y.aj), 
to have been changed to verto, &c. by Scipio Africanus (i.e. 
minor), but the forms with e are not usually found in republican in- 

a. medial V causes omission of preceding consonant; e.g. s6- 
▼Ooo for sed-YOCO; sSvlrl for sezvlrl; pavi from pasco (for pas-sco). 

3. The consonantal character of v is shown by its use in metre 
(a) in not causing elision, e. g. dlcerd Ywl)a : 

(Jf) in lengthening with another consonant a preceding short 
voweL Comp. yoIvo, vdlutus. But it has not this effect when fol- 
lowing q; e.g. &qva. 

Weakness: i. y between two vowels usually fell away, or 94 
resumed its vowel power and formed a diphthong or long vowel 
with the preceding vowel: the succeeding vowel was absorbed in 

(a) in perfect suflix; e.g. amSxam for amSlvSram; fleram for 
myeraiii; nOram for nOYdram; plul forpluvi; audieram for audiv$- 
ram; amasse, for amavlsse; petiit, peUt for p^tivit; fSv^for fdv-vl; &c. 

(b) nauta for n&vita; auceps for ftviceps; cautor for cd,vitor; 
cauiMUi for caYo ne eas (Cic. Di'v. 11. 40) ; Qnsdus for Cnaivos ; 
pnades for prssvIdeB; atas for a vitas; prsaco for pr»vIco (voc-Sxe), 
lioraimi for ho-vorsum; homus for lio-ver-nus;.cimctus for co(m)- 
YlBCtas; prfidens for prOvidens; Jupplter for Jdvlpater; Jilcundus 
for J6Yi<nmdus; Jtinior for JtLvSnlor; flpllio for dvipllio (cf povno- 
Xos); nflper for ndvumper; bbntus for oblivltus; rursum for re- 
Yennim; brllnia for l)r6vlma; nOlo for nSvdlo; neu, seu for neve, 
slYe (neve, seve old). 

So in Plautus, Jdvem, 6vls, bdves, brjBvi, and (after Greek model) 
nftvem are monosyllables, and ftvonculus, obHvisci trisyllables. 

2. Y, after any other consonant than q, g, s, 1, or r, was vocalised : 
e.g. YacatiB for (old form) v6cIyos. (Plautus wrote always vadvos 
or YOdYOS.) Compare conspicuus, arduus, annuus, noctua, with 
longlnqYUS, ctuyiib, falvus. (But also st^iis, irriguus, patrtlus,) 


32 Sounds. [Book L 

Poets, rai-ely after Augustan age, sometimes vocalised a (usually) 
consonantal v. Thus siUUleo, sfiSsco (Lucr.); silSmnt (Cic.S; 
BilStus (Lucr., Hor.) ; consecue (Lucr.), acL8ecue,ol)8eQauin(Plaut.); 
&ci&ai, &dl89 (for aqvsd) Lucr. So also sdl&o, dissdlilo, &c. (Lucr., 
Cat., and elegiac poets) ; vdlilo (elegiac) ; i^tLa (Hon), 

decuria, centuila, ctlria are by some supposed to be for deo- 
ylr-ia, oent-ylr-ia, co-ylr-ia. 

3. V fell out in some few words; e.g. sftvlam for Bvaviiuii; 
tlbi, te for tvll)i, tve; irngo, tlngo, urgeo for ungro, tingvo, urgyeo. 

In slave names, e. g. Fublipor, Harcipor, por is for xmer, probably 
' e 6 being extruded). 

So also qum, qur is sometimes written for quom, quor, or 
Gnu, cor. 

4. Apparently an initial v has fallen off in some words begin- 
ning with r and 1; e.g. rdsa, pohov^ EjA, ^poBov, rigare, pptYtw; 
radix, pi(a, Lesb. Ppia-Ba', l&cer, pcucos, ^ol. ppaKos'i Itlpus, Grerm. 
wolf; laqueus, ppoxos* (Compare our pronunciation of ivreck^ 
<ivreakj wrong, <wrougbt^ &c.) 

5. V after d hardened to 1), and then d feU off; e.g. du^nm, 
belliim, &c. (see § 76). 

In a few words medial v changed to 1>; e.g. deferbul, bubile; 
see § 76. a, and compare the examples in § 90. 3. 

6. On the confusion in late Latin of v and 1) see § 7a. 


Character: before 500 u. c. sometimes |>, which is also 95 
found in (later) cursive writing ; e.g. the wall inscriptions at Pompeii. 
(See also E, § aa6.) The sign F is the -Solic digamma, which the 
Latins adopted instead of 8, which form was used by the Etruscans, 
Umbrians, and O scans. 

Sound: a sharp labio-dental fricative formed between the upper 96 
teeth and under lip: English F. The dental element appears to 
have been predominant. 

Position: never final except in the old rarely used form of at), 57 
viz. af 1. Can stand in the conmiencement of a syllable before 1 or 
r; e.g. fluo, frango; but not after a consonant 

Representation: i. in Greek by <^; e.g. Fablns, *aj3toy; 98 

^ This word, apparently an Italic form of the preposition &b, is 
found only before consonants, chiefly in Republican inscriptions; e.g. 
af Capua, af vobels, af solo. Corssen holds af, At) and au (see § 78. 3) 
to be all three of distinct origin {Auss/r, i. 15a — 157, ed, 2). 

Chap. VI.] Labials and labiodentals, f. 33 

Ftetuna, ^opTovva\ Furius, ^ov^io^\ Fldensd, ^ihr]vr\\ prsefectonun, 
irpat<f}€KT&v (Tolyb.) &c. Quintilian (i. 4, 14) says the Greeks used to 
. |Mx>nounce tne Latin f with an aspiration, and instances Cicero's 
ridiculing a witness for not being able to pronounce the first letter of 

a. of Greek <^, not until 4th century after Christ So in the 
MS. of Gains, elefantis, cblrografls, &c. 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European lib. and dlL 99 

a. to Greek initial (f) (which was tt followed by an aspirate, 
not Englidi ph orf); e.g. fa-ri, fJUma, ^awxt, 6jiitj\ fOr, ^oJp; 
Uro, <f>€p<o ; fluo, ^Xva> (bubble) ; fr&tSr, (jiparrfp (clansman) ; fa-i, 
^vfi>; fttlium,' ^vXXoi/; farclo, ^pd<rcr(Oj ftUt&f ^vyi]'^ £rIgo, (fypvyco; 
Ogaa (beecb), ff>fjy6s (pak)\ fallo, a'<^aXK<a\ fcmgus, <r<^6yyos\ fanda, 

3. to Greek p (rare); e.g. fr&no, PpfiMo; flascXno, Paaicaiva; 
fSdrlo, p6B~pos» 

4. to Greek ;f (which was k followed by an aspirate 1) ; e.g. Mo, 
Xpuuf] f^) XoXif; ffirxnes, f9r-tisco, x^^or, xar(^a>; frSnum, x^^tpos; 

111111% (TXOIVOS' 

5. to Greek digamma, later an aspirate; e.g. frango, Fp^yvvfu, 
piyyvfu] ftigeo, firigus, piyea), ptyos* 

6. to Greek initial ^ (which was r followed by an aspirate, not 
English tb)-^ e.g. fis-mlna, ^^-Xv?; -fen-do, dciVa); lera, 61^ p, MoL 
^p; f6rl8, 6vpa; fCl-nms, Ba1)-fi-o, Ovfios, Svco, ^eXXa; fingo, 
flj^vzay Oiyydvo, Olyfuu Also to medial ^ in rOfos, cpvO-pos* 

Substitution: i. for d in preposition ad; e.g.. before al^ zoo 
teo, af-fitim, &c. 

a. In ef-fSro, ef-fatiis for older ecfero, ecfieitns, the first f may 
periiaps be only a mark of a long syllable for Sfero, Sfatns. 

Influence: i. requires a preceding nasal to be n; e.g. In- lox 
ftro, con-fero, &c an-ftactos for aml^-ftactus. 

3. nf lengthens a preceding vowd ; See under N (§ 167. 2). 

Weakness : Parts of the stem fti- are supposed to have been ^m 
modified and used as a verbal suffix, viz. ama-vi to stand for ama- 
fld; amarbam for ama-foam, ama-bo for amarfnlo. But see Preface. 

^ In English we substitute f (in speaking) for the gattoral gli in 
iSM^ cougA, (rvugA. 


.'34 Sounds. [Book I. 


E, C. 

Character : as above, except that c was in early inscriptions «>3 
•sometimes angular ^. 

k went out of use at an early period, probably before the 
decemviral laws, almost entirely, except in a few old abbreviations; 
e.g. in republican inscriptions, K. for Essso; k. k. for kalnmntm 
isausa; XVIR. SL. IVDIK. for Decemvir stUtil)iis (litibus) Judicandls; 
K. or KAL. for Calendss; INTERKAL. for intercalares ; HERE, for 
Hercatus ; and in later times E for caput, cardo, castra, carus, and 
EAR. for Carthago. In early inscriptions the words Eastoros (Cas- 
torls), Eorano (Coranorum ?) ; Essl. for Cslius ; Dekem. for Decem- 
bres also occur. There was a tendency with some grammarians in 
,Quintilian's time (i. 7, 10) to use k always before a. 

Sound : E always as the sharp guttural mute : i. e. English k. 104 

C was used indiscriminately for both the sharp and flat guttural 
mute, till the beginning of the sixth century u. c, when a modified 
form (G) was introduced for the flat sound. A few instances, pro- 
bably accidental, are found in later inscriptions. For Qaius and 
OzLsaus the abbreviations always followed the old form, viz. C, Cn. 
C had not the sound of s (as in English). Nor does cl before a 
vowel appear to have been pronounced as ah, except provincially, 
"before the 6th or 7th century after Christ (see § no. 4). 

Position: never final, except in a few words from which a 105 
short 6 has fallen off: die, due, fae, ae, sle, hie, illle, &c. for dice, , 
duee, &c. Also usually lac for lacte (nom. sing.). 

It can stand in the commencement of a syllable (i) before 1, r ; 
e.g. damoj crimen, Sec: (2) afters; e.g. scindo, scribe, Sec. 

Representation : (i) in Greek by k always ; e. g. Gampanl, 106 
"KafiTravoi; Lucius Csdcilius, Acvkios KatKiKtos; centurio, Kcvrvpicov; 
Curlus, Kopios} .Cornelius, KopwJXtoy (all in Polybius): pontULees, 
irovri<f)i.Kis ; l^umicius, "i^ofiiKios ; Cicero, KiKepav \ Compitalia, Koii- 
TTiroXca; &c. 

Chap. FI/.] Gutturals and Palatals, K. c. 35 

(ii) of Greek i. jc; e.g. Xvyicot, lyncis; K<Xi^, Clllx; Kv- 
Kkioy^t Cyclops ; UepBlKKas, Ferdlccas ; KlfKov, Cimon ; Kod/iof, Cad- 
mus; &C. 

a. also in eariy times x'l ^- &• Bacas, (i, e, Baccaa) for BaKxas 
in the (so-called) S, C de Bacanalibus^ A.U.C. 568; and in later 
inscriptions Clio for XiXooi/; Antiocus for 'Avrioxos; &c. But the 
h was usually written in Cicero's time (Or, 48. § 160). 

Correspondence : i. to an original Indo-European k. 107 

a. to Greek le ; e. g. arx, arceo, apKiosj apKe<» ; decern, dcKa ; 
^Doo^ male<Uc-us, BeUvvfit, dUrj] ddcet, SoKfZ; centum, cKarov (i.e. 
ev-KOT-^v one hund-rea)\ sdcer, eKvpo?; c&dus, Kaho^\ cSJare, ca- 
leoyd89,]iomenclfttor,/caX€(2/,KXT;-ra}p; c&reluruni, icapa; c&put, Ketp-aX^ ; 
ibluo, cU-ens, ludiitus, kXvo), kXvt6s\ c&niB (for cyanis), Kva>v; 
fipScdo^ crxoTreu/; ciicilllUB/icoKiKu^, cuckoo; sciplo, a-KJJjr-Tpov', &c. 

3. to Greek TT (cf, § 118); e,g. voc-are, v5x, ctt-w ftTrov, Syj/ 
{stem fcB--); 6c-tilus, 07r-a).;-a, eSi/r; sHcus, Bd,pio, oTrof; J6cur, rJTrap, 

Substitution: i. for g before a sharp; e. g. actus from ag-o; 108 
pimctus from pungo; rezi=rec-8lfrom reg-o; &c. 

a. for iL before t^ e.g. trac-tus from trah-o; vec-tus from 

3. frequently written for final consonant of ob, sub, ad, Id, in 
composition before c or q; e.g. oc-curro, suc-curro, ac-curro, ic- 
drco, quicquid, acqulro. So also ecce, ecquis for en-ce, enquis, 

4. cu for quo; e.g. cum, cuius, cui, cur, &c. for quom, 
quolus, quoi, quor. Sec; cotidie for quotldie; quicumque for qui- 
qnornqne; allctibl for aliqudbi; (cus, cdcus, Mrcus, »cus, antlcus, 
dblleus, for equos, coquos, birquos, sequos, antlquos, obllquos (all in 
nom. sing.); secuntur, locuntur for sequontur, loquontur. Both 
forms were in use from the later part of the republic, till after the 
middle of the first century after Christ, when quo- began to give 
place to quuj the forms with c however remaining also, and being 
often found in our earliest MSS. Quum appears to be not earlier 
than the fourth century after Christ; and to have been sounded 


Influence: i. changes a preceding flat consonant in prepo- log 
sitions and pronouns to c ; e. g. ac-curo, Ic-drco, 8cc, § 108). 

2, occaaons oitiission of preceding dental ; e. g, ac for ate, 
; hoc for hodce. 

3. changes preceding m to n (sounded here as the guttural 
.nasal § 162): e.g. bunc, nunc, tunc, for bum-ce, num-ce, tum-ce; 
anceps for am-ceps; prln-ceps for priml-ceps; sinciput for semi- 
baput; See. ' 

36 Soui^DS. \BaokL 

Weakness : i. c is omitted before m, n, t^ the preceding «<> 
vowel being lengthened to compensate ; e. g. IfL-XLa^ In-mmi, com- 
pared with IfLc-eo; dS-ni (for dScini) from d6c-em; qnXnl (for 
qulndnl) from qulnque; lSaa» ISnugo compared with Xa;(-i/i;; arft-> 
nea with dpaxvr} ; llmus, slant, with Utibaus, crumpled^ obllq-wu, 
Xe'xpts, XtK-pMs] pi-nua for pic-nus (pXc-, nom. pix), YfiriiiiB 
compared with Yac-uus; au-tamnuB from aug-eo; dllmSta for 
dnmec-ta; sStius for sectlus; nltor for gnic-tor, comp. nixosy 

a. c is often omitted when preceded by 1, r, n, and followed 
by a consonant; e.g. ar-tus for arc-tus; feur-tus for farc-tns; 
ful-tuB for folc-tus; iil-tus for ulo-tus; quln-tns (usually) for 
quinc-tus; nac-tus as well as nanc-tus; nasturtimn for nfts-toro* 
tiiuiL; ftamentum from falc->lre; mul-si, mulsum from mule-fire, 8cc 

3. Initial c is sometimes omitted before 1, r, n ; e. g. ISmentnm 
compared with clftmare; Isona with ^Xaiva; &l&pa with KoXaxf^s 
(a. Syiacusan word ?) ; raudus, rOdus with crfUlus ; nXdor with lawrtu 

4. cl (before a vowel) is often confused with tl in the 
spelling of derivative suffixes, partly from doubts as to the etvmology 
of a word, partly from the palatilisation of both cl and tl (=Bh) in 
times when the MSS. were written, cl for tl does not appear, till 
an African inscription in 3rd century after Christ ; and not numer- 
ously before Gallic inscriptions and documents of the 7th century 
after Christ, tl for cl is not certainly found before end of 4th 
century after Christ. In certain proper names (e.g. Maidns, 
Martlus) both forms appear to have existed as separ^e names with 
difierent origin, and then to have been confused. 

The following appears according to inscriptions to be the correct 
spelling of certain disputed words : dido, condiclo, 861aciiun, patrl- 
doB, trlhimlclus; 

contlo, nuntlus (and derivatives), fStlalls, Indutto, Otliim, negO- 
tlum, s6tlU8. 

Both Buspldo and Buspltlo, conviclnxKi and oonvitliim are found 
in good MSS. ; neither in inscriptions. 

This character is a mere abbreviation for cs. It is first found in m 
a single sexto, referred to times before the second Punic war, and 
afterwards not until S.C, de Bacc. 186 B.C. (The inscriptions 
before this date are but few.) 

In inscriptions at all times (perhaps from regarding x as a mere 
guttural like Greek ;^) zs is often found instead of x; e.g. exstrad^ 

Chap. VI I\ Gutturals and Palatals. X. Q. 37 

(m S^CLde BaccJ), taxsat, less, prozsmntui, ezslglto, delzserlt, by 
side of eadipatiir, ezteranmi, taxet^ &c. in laws of Gracchus' time. 
So in Greek Sc^os and Sefroc . In the Augustan age and sub- 
sequently, the simple z is the more frequent 

Influence: Words beginning with s, if compounded with ox, "2 
usually dropped the s, but the retention is not unfrequent ; e. g. 
azUiiiin, also exsilimn; ezpecto, also ezspecto; 8cc 

Weakness: Before semivowels, liquids, nasals, and flat mutes, 113 
MX and ex in composition usually dropped x; e.g. sSylrl, sSJiigis, 
■fimestrls, sSdecim, sdnl, Sduco, esceado (but exsto or exto); 
flvftdo, ejuro, imer^o, ellclo, Snormis. So also e for ex out of com- 
position, after (rarely in inscriptions before) Augustan age. 

' Before c, sex became see ; e. g. sescentL 

Before t^ ex sometimes became (or reverted to) ec; e.g. ecfarl, 

Before 1 and m a medial x was sometimes omitted ; e. g. tSla for 
teccnla; sulytSmen for subteximen; subtnis for subtexilis; mSJa 
for inaxnla ; lAiiliigfor pauxUlus; SJaforaxula; &c. 

Character : In one or two very old inscriptions Q is like 114 
the Greek Koppa with a short vertical stroke: its normal form in 
the best period was with a horizontal stroke to the right. 

Sound: the same as k, the sharp guttural mute. It is always X15 
followed by the consonantal u, except in some old inscriptions 
where it is immediately followed by the vowel u (§ 119). Qu was 
probably sounded as it is in English, i.e. as kw, and was regarded in 
prosody as a single sound. But see App. A. xx. 

Position : never final, or followed immediately (with or with- ne 
out the consonantal n) by any consonant: nor preceded immedi- 
ately in the same syllable by any consonant except s; e.g. squama. 

Representation: (i) q in Greek by «: qu by kov, kv, or ko, xi: 
see §90. 

(ii) of Greek. Q is not used in writing any Greek woid. 

Correspondence : i. qv to original Indo-European kv (so xis 
Lepsius, Donaldson, Grassmann,L. Meyer); or to k, to which a 
parasitic ▼ very early festened itself (Curtius, Corsseu). Some 
lai^iages exhibit the labial, some the guttural. 

SS Sounds. \JSwk f. 

2. to Greek tt, Oscan p; e.g. cruo-d? <iuo? cnia-ntmr? qva-lls? 
770-61, wovy TTo-arosi tto-Tos^ lonic koBl, kov, Koaros^ k6ios\ ciyliM|iie, 
TTcpre, Mo\. wcfiire (cf. TrefXTT-ros), Osc. pomptls; c6qvo (also written 
qydqyo), cdqvlna, TreVooj (Oscan?) p5iri[na; Unqyo^ re-Uqv-iJS, Xcittco; 
B6qv-or, err-a) ; fiqvus, tniros ', torqv-eo, rpcVo). Probably also In- 
qvUinus, c&lOnuS) cdlere, ttcXo), TroXevo), TroXoy. 

3. to Greek t> Osc. Umbr. p; e.g. quia, rts, Osc. Umbr. pis; 
qnisqnis, Osc. pit-pit ; -que, re ; quattuor, rea-aapes, -^ol. mavpesy 
Umbr. petuT. 

4. to Greek k; e.g. qui-aqfon-lfiB, Ko-o-tcvk-fiaTia; qulesc^ 
(cn-bo, cVLnsBi), Kclfxat, kolttj ; oc-ciU-o (oquoltod for oecidto S, C. de- 
Baec^j dam, cGlare, /caXiWo), icpuTrra). 


Substitution : Q is found before u in inscriptions (rarely be^ in 
fore A.UX. 6a o), in words which commonly have c; e.g^ pequnia 
(frequently), pequlatus, qura, mlrqurios (for mercurius). Quer^, 
quetum also was found for quercetum. 

Influence: i. changes a precedmg d to c; e.g. ac-quiro foriac 
adqulro; quicquam, quieque, quicquid for quidqiaam, &e. 

a. changes a preceding m to n; e.g. con-queror, coB-q[iilro» 
con-quiesco; an-quiro; taii-qiiani» nunquam. Before -que, and 
usually in compounds, as quiquomque or quicumque, utrumque, 
utrlmque, quotiescumque, the m is generally written. 

Weakness : i. When d was changed to u, qu passed into c; 121 
e.g. 6cuB for Sqvos; cOcus for qvOqvos; cum, cur for qvom, qvor; 
see under C § 108. 4. So perhaps stercus for sterqvos, comp. ster- 
qvninium; csenum, cflnire for quenum, comp. inqvlnare. But 
sometimes q is found without v; e.g. qum, qur, &c. See above 


a. Before a consonant qiU changed to c; e.g. coctum, cozl 
(=:COC-Bi) from coqu-o ; relic-tus from rellnquo. 

3. Q fell away in certain forms of the pronoun qui (stem quo-), 
and, as the short 6 past into % the semiconsonantal u then fell 
away also. Hence tibi, titi, titer, unde, for quObl, qudti, quoter, 

So vftpor for quapor, comp. kottvos. 

4. -qye and -pe appear to have been collateral forms. Cf. 
§ 517, and above, § 118. 3. 


Character : a slightly modified C. The earliest inscnption ^^ 
in which it is found is that on Scipio Barbatus, inscribed probably 
soon after 500 u.c. Plutarch ascribes its invention to a Spurius 

Chap. VIZ] Gutturals dfid Palatals, o. 39 

Carvilius, who, if the freedman of Sp. Carvilius Ruga is meant, 
kept a school probably twenty or thirty years later. See under C 
(§ 104). 

Sound: the flat guttural mutfr— English hard 0. There ap- 123 
pears to be little, if any, evidence of its ever having the soft sound 
(jS in gentle) at least before the sixth century after Christ. 

Position : never final. As initial it stands before vowels and Z24 
the liquids 1, and r, and in a few words before n ; e.g. glans, grus, 
gnams, &c. (See below § 129. 3.) 

Representation: (i) in Greek, by y; e.g. Verglnlus, Ovfp- ^25 
yivcof ; Sergliis, 2epyco$; Qaliis, Vai.os\ Onsaus, Vvaios't Oabil, Va^ioi', 
GeUiiu, T€KKlos\ Sec, 

Cn) of Greek y; e.g. TpaiKos, Qracus; ^pvyts, Pliryges; 'A^a- 
(ayopaSi Anaxagoras; &c. 

Correspondence : i. to original Indo-European g, and me- 126 

a. to Greek y; e.'g. &go, ^yo); S«rer, aypor; arg-entum, arg- 
Ula, Apyvpos, apyiXos; gaudeo, yav-posy yrj-Oioif yd-irufiaL; gigno, 
ginns, yiyvofiai, yevos; gus-tare, yeu-ofiat; gnosco, ytyv<a(r«o] genu, 
vow ; urg-eo, ei/jy© (pepy-) ; rego, opey© ; fulg-eo, c^Xcyo) ; vig-eoi 
vyt^£] xnulg-eo, a/ieXya>; gazrlo, gairulus, yrjpvsj yrjpv<o] Sec, 

3. g medial, or before r, to Greek ;^; e.g. ango, ayx<»; rlgOj 
fip€xo>; anguls, a n g nill a , exts, eyx-fXvs; lingo, Xeixo); grando, ^a- 
^Ca\ gratiis, gratia, xaipto, X^P^^i unguis, ow^ (o>^X')i ^^* 

4. to Greek k\ e.g. vlgintl (but vlciea), fucoort, Boeot. pt'cart; 
gnbemator, Kv^eptnJTTjs'^ miigio, pvKaouai] Gnossus, Kj/axro-os; gum* 
mi, jco/x/ii; Saguntum, Za/cav^a (Polyb.). 

5: ' to old Umbrian k; e.g. IguYlni, Umbr. Hmvinl; tergean- 
tup, Umbr. terkantur. (The old Umbrian like old Latin had no 
separate character for g as distinguished from k.) 

Substitution: for c in the word nee; e.g. neg-o, neg-otium, 127 
nag-lego. So probably glOrla, from duere. 

Influence : i. turns to g the final consonant of sul), ob, and ia8 
ad; e.g. suggero, suggredior; oggannio; agger, aggredior, aggravo, 
agglomero, agnoscor (for ag-guoscor), &c. 

Ez in composition before g appears as e (perhaps for eg- from 
eo-) ; as e-gelidus, egero, egredlor, Sec, 

40 Sounds. [Book I. 

2. always gives a guttural clang (as English ng) to a pre- 
ceding nasal; e.g. con-gero, in-gredior, &;c. were sounded as coog- 
gero, Ing-gredlor, &c 

Weakness: i. Medial g before a sharp consonant (t or b) »as 
is changed to c; e.g. pimc-tniu, punzl (=imiiC8l) from pung-o; 
auc-tum, aiud from aug-eo; mulctnim from mulg-eo; &c. 

a. Medial g drops away in several cases, viz. 

(a) after 1 or r and before s; e.g. mvl-sl, mTdsnxn from 
mnlgeo; mer-si, mersum from mergeo; spar-si, sparsnm from 
8parg-o; &c. 

(b) after u; e.g. flu-o compared with flac-tns; Btmo with 
Btruc-tns; firuor with fnio-tas, fringes; stL-men from sug-o; jtl- 
mentum from Jmigo (Jug-) ; fl-mor compared with vy^s. 

(c) before v; e.g. vivo (for gvlgvo) compared with vio-tuB» 
vSxi (cf. Engl, "the quick and dead"); nlvis with nix, ningult 
(it sno^ws); conlvSre with conizl, nlxus, nic-to; brfivis (for breg- 
vls) with ^paxvs'j 16vls with ikaxys] mAlo from xnSg-v51o. 

before m in a few words; e.g. contft-mlnare, comp. contSg-es; 
flft-men, a priest, comp. flag-rare, ftilg-Sre, flamma; ezamen for 
ezagmen; sfL-men for sflg-men; u-mor for ug-mor (of. vy-po?); sti- 
mulus for Btlg-muluB (comp. in-stlg-are). (But augmen, coagmen- 
tum, fragmen, eagmen, tegmen, 8cc, preserve the g.) 

(d) before i in derivatives with stem mag-; e.g. miElJor, m&- 
Jestas for mdg-lor, mag-lestas; and perhaps in ajo for ag-lo, comp. 

3. Initial g before n was rarely retained in classical times; e.g. 
nascor, i^atus for gnascor (i.e. gen-a-scor), gnatus (which is found 
in Vergil and in compounds cognatos, prognatus, &c.); nosco for 
gnoBCO (which is found in S. C, de Bacc. and also in compounds 
cognoBCo, ignotus, ignominla) ; n&roB (C. Or, 47) for gxi&ras (so 
often written: also in comp. ignarus) ; h&vub for guftvus; nlxuB lor 
gnlzoB (from gSnu, the knee)\ norma compared with yv<6p-tfios» 
(Comp. English pronunciation of gnaw, gnat, gnarly knee,) In the 
proper name Gnsaus (which abbreviated is written Cxl) the g remained. 

Also before 1; e.g. lact-is compared with yaXa«-os. 

Character as above. 130 

Sound: the rough breathing, as in English. 13* 

Hx, ch, th, were not sounded either as in English or as in 
German; but as p+h, k+b^ t+h; i.e. a rough breathing imme- 
diately after an ordinary p, k, %, 

Chdp4^ VIIJ] Gutturals and Palatals, H. 4^ 

Position : never final, either of a word (except a few interjec- 13a 
ticHis) or syllable; and never before a consonant. 

After the consonants p, c, t^ r it is found chiefly in Greek 
words. Insaiptions of the ytii century u.c. give it, though rarely 
until cir. 660 u.c. After cir. 700 u.c. they give it regularly; e.g. 
]>hll08Qpliu8, Achilles, Thyrsls, &c. Cicero (On 48, § 160) says that 
at one time he spoke as the old Romans did, piQcros, Cetegos, Ear- 
taglnwni trlumpos: afterwards he conformed to the ordinary prac- 
tice, and said Fhzyges, Fsrxrlius (not Bruges, Burros, as Ennius 
wrote); but still sepulcra, coronas, lacrimas, Otones, Matones, 
OnplonM. Catullus wrote an epigram (lxxxiv) ridiculing the 
pronunciation of chommoda for oommoda, tlnBldlas for Insldlas. 
See Gell. 11. 3, xiii. 6, where Nigidius is quoted: "Rusticus fit 
sermo, si aspires perperam." According to Quintil. i. 5, ao, some 
inscriptions had chorona, chentuilones, prsechones. 

Representation: (i) In Greek, by the sign of the rough ^33 
breathing; e.g. Horatlus, 'OpaTios\ Hemld, ""Epi/tice;; HostUlus, 
'OortXiof; &c. 

(ii) Of Greek rough breathing; e.g. 'Hpodoros, Herodotus; 
ij/wff, hSros; 'PodoTn;, Bbodope; Uvppos, Psrrrlius; &c. 

]ih, ^ th respectively for <^, x> ^; ^-S- *A/Li0t7roXtff, Amplilp61is; 
Xms, Chios; eco-oroXo/, ThessaU; BaKafioe, thalamus; 8cc, 

Correspondence: i. to original Indo-European gh. 1154 

a. Initial h to Greek x'l ^'S* pre-hendo, ;^ai/dai'a>; helvns, 
]^6^f X^oJ-poy; hfirl, hes-ternus, x^^s (where the ^ is parasitical); 
lilanips, hXb-emus, j(*^p, ye^pov, x^giieptvos] hlr (old word used by 
Ludlius for bollow 0/ Sand), x€ip] htnmdo, xeXidcoi^; hira, hilla, 
IdLm-vpez (but see § 136. 4)9 x^^''if X^P-^^i ^^) IoIbqo, ^atVo), x^' 
CTJtco ; hortns, oors (for cohors), xopros ; htinil, ;^afia(. 

Medial h to Greek x '^^ y^-o, vec-tus, ex^> ox^o- 

3. to a Sabine f^; e.g. hsedus, Sab. fsddus; harl61us, Sab. 
fluloliui; hftrSna, Sab. fiGUwna; hordeum, Sab. fordeum; hircos. Sab. 
flzevs; hostts, Sab. fostis. Qmntilian attributes fordemn, fosdos 
(HBBdos, Halm) to the old Romans (I. 4. 14). 

So foxctus and horctns are said to have both been used with the 
meaning of bonus; and horda to have been an old form for forda, 
pregnant. Perhaps horreum is connected with tKC, 

Influence: none. ^35 

^ So Spanish has h for Latin f ; e. g. hijo for Alius. 

42 Sounds. [Book L 

Weakness: i. changes (or reverts?), after a vowel, to c (before 136 
t or s); e.g. v61i-o, vectus, vexi (=Yec-Bl); tr&h-Oi tractus, trazX. 

a. h was not a consonant, so as to affect the quantity of a 
preceding syllable or prevent the elision of a preceding final vowel ;' 
e.g. InMbet; tOlUt hilmO; taiUte hilmO. 

3. H between two vowels dropped out, and the vowels if like 
one another coalesced. Thus Plautus uses deMbeo, pr»hil)eo, for 
which afterwards dSbeo, prsBbeo. So comprehendo, comprendo; 
cdhors, cors; ahinuB, aS-nus; vehSmens (always two syllables only 
in verse), vemens; nUill, nil; mlhl (and not very frequently), ml, 
existed side by side. Deliinc as monosyllable sometimes in Augus-* 
tan verse. MeherctQes as trisyllable (mercules) in Phaedrus. 

Incoho is an older form for which Inchoo is found as early as 
the second century after Christ at least. 

4. In several words the pronunciation appears to have been 
uncertain, and the spelling varied accordingly; e.g. Mrimdo* 
h&rSBa, hSres, li61us, hordeiim; arospez, SdSra, el (interjection), 6nuv 
erclscundse, timdrus, tlmor (the preferable spelling is here given). 
Gellius (11. 3) speaks of li being formerly found in halludnor, 
heluor, honera, honustum. Late inscriptions insert and omit ta 
almost at random; e.g. Mditus, hll, hauctorltas; dminl, ftbltat^ 
Inosplta. In modem Italian li is not sounded. 

In foreign proper names both spellings often occur; e.g. H11)eniB, 
Iberus; Hirpinl, Irpinl; Hannibal, Annlbal; &c. 

J i.e. I as consonant. 

Character : same as the vowel I. In the middle of words 137 
Cicero is said to have written the 1 twice; e.g. Allax, Maila. In- 
scriptions of the imperial time, rarely any of earlier date, use a tall 
I for the consonantal 1 between two vowels. The form J is modem. 

Sound: As English y. In the middle between two vowels it 138 
probably gave a sound to the preceding vowel, as if forming a 
diphthong with it, besides its own sound of y. Thus Ailax or AJaz 
would be sounded as (English) Ay-yaz; Pompeilus or Pompejus as 
(English) Fompa-yos; quojiis as Engl, quoy-jrus; cnjus as Engl. 

For J after consonants in verse see below, § 14a. a. 

Position : never final. I is consonantal (i) when it stands 139 
as initial, before any of the vowels a, e, 0, u, in Latin words (except 
lens from ire, to go) ; e. g. Jaclo, Jecl, Jovls, Jugum, &c. 

(a) when it stands between two vowels, in Latin and some 
Greek words, viz. : 

Chap, VII?\^ Gutturals and Palatals* J. 43 

aj-; Gajus (but in Martial, nom. caiiLs; vex:, aai), Trajanus, 
BaJSB, Gajeta, bajulus, major, ajo; Achaja, Maja, Ajax, Qrajus. 

ej-; Aquileja, Vejl, pulejum, legulejus, plebejus, Jejimus, pejor. 
ejus, ejulo, mejo, pejero; and proper names, as Pompejutf (voc. 
Pompei as trisyllable in Ovid; as disyllable in Hor.). 

oj-; qnojus, Troja, Bojos (ace. pi.). 

nj-; cujus, liiijus. In tenuia, tennior, assldular, 1 is a vowel, 
u consonantal. For compounds of Jaclo see below. 

Representation: (i) in Greek by i; e.g. Junius, 'lovwor; 140 
JuUuB, 'lovXtos; Vejoa (ace), Ouiytovr; Gajus, roior; Pompeju^, 
Ilofiinfiof;- Appulejus, 'ATTTTovXi/tof ; &c. 

(ii) of Greek i, which sometimes forms a diphthong with the 
prece<ung vowel; e.g. Aiar, AJax, or (Cic.) Aiiax; Tpoia, Troja; &c. 

Correspondence: x. to an original Indo-European J. 141 

a. to Greek f (perhaps Engl. dy)\ e.g. Jugum, fvyoi/; Jupplter, 
JoylB, ZeiJs (i.e. Ajcvs); Jus, brotb^ fa)-/xos. 

3. to Greek h\ e.g. Jarin, S»}. 

4. to Greek rough breathing; e.g. jdcur, ^Trap; Jtlvenls, iy^Si;. 

Substitution: i, for di, gl (the i first becoming J, and then 14a 
pushing out the preceding consonant) ; e.g. major for ma^lor; Janus 
ibr Dlauus. 

9. In verse the vowel 1 becomes sometimes hardened to J. Thus 
in Plautus in scjo, djes (sdo, dies) ; fUjo, otjum: in the dactylic poets, 
azjetat» aijetltms (Ver^Stat. Sil.), abjete, parjete, parjetibus (Verg. 
Sil.), flftjonmi (or flvuiommV st^o, omnja, precanija (Verg.); 
TlxuUmjator, Nadldjenl, and (in alcaics) consUJum, prinelpjum 

?ior.); abjegnss (Prop.), antjum, promuntorjum (Ovid, but see 
940); lucrum (Juv.), So also in words compounded of semi- 
(e.g. semjanlmus, semjesus^, unless the 1 be really elided (e.g. sem- 
anlmls, semesus). In Statius tSntUa, tSntUore (or tdnvla, tdnvlore ?) 
appear to occur; for tenvja, 5cc. seem impossible. 

In conublum probably the u is short in the numerous cases, in 
wluch the metre has been supposed to require conubjum. (See 
Luc. Mailer, p. 25 8, and Munro on Lucret. iii. 776.) 

Influence: i. caused the oniission of a preceding conso- 143 
nant; e.g. p^or for pM-ior, lonuer (compare pes-simus, pessiuu); 
pSJteo for pexjero (in good MSS.\ later per-jliro; di-Judico, trft-mttto, 
&c. for disjndioo, transmitto (en 168. 3); rSJectus, rejecto, for red- 
jMtog, nd-Jecto; 86Jt&gi8 for seijugls; Jftnus for BJftnus (for 
Dlaniu); see§i6o.a 

44 Sounds. [Book J. 

The effect attributed to J by the old grammarians that it 
lengthens a precedmg vowel is usually explicable either by the ab- 
sorption of a consonant, or by the vowel being long independently; 
but the pronunciation (§ 138) may have had some effect; e.g. in 
hoiuB, quoins (hHJus, ctUns). 

a. At a late period of the language it caused, (when followed by 
a vowel,) the assibilation of a preceding c, g, t, d; viz. ci, tl=clii, 
or Bhl; gl, di=Ji (either with French or English pronunciation of 
j). This assibilation is not proved for any period of Latin proper 
before the 3rd or 4th century after Christ. Instances of it are 
found in old Umbrian and Oscan. 

Weakness : i. J was vocalised (rarely), when occurring be- 144 
tween two vowels, and absorbed the succeeding vowel ; e. g. biga 
for bl-JUga. 

2. Before another 1 in the compounds of Jaclo, it was omitted; 
e.g. fidlcio, c5nIclo, prSIcio, delcio: but the preposition remained 
usually long, though, in and after Ovid, sometimes short; e.g. &dlcl. 
Sometimes the vowels were contracted; e.g. race (Verg.), adLt 
(Lucr.) : and in the Augustan and prae-Augustan period Jado in 
composition was sometimes written Jecio (e.g. reJScit, adjddt) in- 
stead of ido. DiB-Jado became diislcio; poxjado, porrido. So a)o, 
ftis, 9it. 

In the same way the 1 of eapio, fOglo, &c. dropped away before 
-l8, -it; e.g. capis, capit (for capiis, 5cc.). 

3. In late imperial inscriptions z is sometimes written for J; 
e.g. Zesns, Zanuari f^r Jesiu, Januari: or 61; e.g. Glaauarla, Qioye 
for Januaria, Jot9. 



Character : as above, but with the top stroke sometimes 143 
slanting, and sometimes mainly or entirely to the right or left of 
the vertical stroke. 

Sound : the sharp dental mute : Engli^ t. 146 

Position : frequently final, bdng so used in verbal inflexicHis 147 
of the third person. Also in some conjunctions. 

Chap. VJII.'\ Dentals and Linguals, T. 45 

As initial it can stand immediately' before r, and in the oldest 
language also (rarely) before 1; e.g. Uatum, stlis. In Greek words 
before 1 or m; e.g. Tlepolemus, Tmessus. It can also stand imme- 
diately after an initial s; e.g. sto, strayi: and in Greek words after 
p; e.g. PtolenuBus. 

On its aspiration see under H (§ 13 a). 

Representation: (i) in Greek by t\ e.g. Titus, TiVos; Pala- 14s 

tlimi, IlaXarioi/; &C. 

^) {a) of Greek t; e.g. AtrwXo/, iEtoli; MtXTtaSi^y, Miltiades; 
acrrpoVf astrom; 8cc, 

(3) of Greek B, in early period (see § 13a); e.g. Kopivdos, Co- 
rlntos; Bwarpov, teatnun; Biaa-os, Uasus; &c. 

(f) of Greek d, only in two or three of the oldest inscriptions; 
e.g. 'AXcfai/d/x>v, Alize&trom; Kao-o-oi/dpa, Casenter. (Comp. Quin- 
tiL I. 4, 16.) 

Correspondence: i. to original Indo-European t. 149 

ft. to Greek r; e.g. ten-do, ten-eo, reiW; taurus, ravpos*^ to, 
tauB, rit Dor. (crv Att.), reof ; tiili, tollo, toleraro, roX-/iao>, rX^-i/ai; 
temiinuSy ripiia't tero, ter-es, trua, rcipoiy rpl^iOy Tpvjxa] torr-eo, 
ttptrofjuu'^ sto, Bisto, arcKTis, tarrjfii] dl-fltlng-uo, 'ariy-fxa, crr/fa); 
Btamo, 8tr&-tnis, tdros, arop-evwixij arpco-fxirq ; stella (for ster-ula), 
a<m7p(d<rr*p-); t6go, (rrcyo>; ety.lri; peto, prsspes, Trerofiaiy Tri-flro); 
pateo, Trer-canrviii \ &c. 

3. Bt sometimes to Greek (nr; e.g. stiideo, cnrevbto'^ sotalpa, 
(nroXa^ (also a-KoKoij/) ; torgeo, oTrapycuo (the 8 having fallen off as in 
tegO, oTrye>) ; &C. 

Substitution: i, ford (in the preposition ad) before t; e.g. 150 
at-tiseo for adtineo, 5cc. Also, in the old language, cette for 
cMite, from imperative c6d0. 

2. for final d in a few words (in inscriptions) in and after the 
8th century u.c; e.g. apnt, alint, aultquit, It; and in and after, 
rardy before, 4th century after Christ, set, at (for prepoation 
ad). Bb.u% is found in republican inscriptions. Vt is probably for 

3. For confusion of tl with d see imder C (§ no. 4). 

Influence: i. changes a preceding l>, g to p, c; e.g. scrip-tun 151 
from BcrltH); ao-tnm from S^^. So the prepositions ad, ob, buIb 

^ Lachmann (Lucr. p. 54) generalizing from Gellius' statements 
(IX. 6, XII. 3), lays down the following rules for the quantity of the 
Towel in past participles and frequentatives. Stems in b, ff, d and u (for 

46 Sounds. [Book I. 

were changed (in pronunciation, though the spelling varies); e.g. 
at-Uneo, optlmo^ supter, &c. 

a. A preceding d or t is softened to s before a suffix com- 
mencing with t, if it was important to preserve the suffixal t; e.g. 
tonB-trlz from tond-eo (tonsrlx was almost unpronounceable) ; ras-* 
tnun from r&d-o; eques-tris from eqult-, nom. eqnes; est, eat^ for 
edt ri.e. edit* the t being preserved as the sign of the 3rd pers.). 
(See oelow (§ 15a. 3) for another coui-se which the language adopted 
in order to avoid the double dental.) 

3. retains a preceding original s, which before a vowel has 
passed into r; e.g. ns-tus from ur-o; tos-tus (comp. tes-ta) from 
torr-eo; mses-tus from msdrere; arbns-tum n-om arbos, arbor; 
bones-tus from bonos, honor; sceles-tua from scelus, sceler-is; &c, 

4, requires the insertion of p, if m would otherwise have 
preceded it; e.g. em-p-tus, prom-p-tua from emo, sumo. The p is 
involuntarily pronounced, as the organs change fi'om pronouncing 
m to pronouncing t (or s, § 70). 

Weakness: i. Initial t fell oiF before 1; e.g. lis for sills; 152 
locus for stlocus; latum for tlatum. 

a. Drops away or is assimilated before s; e.g. misi from mltto; 
percuss! from percutio ; &c. • 

At the end of a word one s only is retained, and the preceding 
vowel, if short, usually remains so; e.g. virtCls for vlrtut-s; regens 
for regent-s (originally regentls, § Z45. a); sors for sort-s; eqnfis for 
eqnet-s (equit-); compds for compot-s; damn9.s for damn&t-s; &c. 
But pariSs, abiSs, aries for parl3t-s, &c. 

3, The initial t of a suffix is changed (but see § 151. 2) to s 
after t, d, Ig, rg, 11, rr, and in a few other cases, the last letter of the 
stem being then assimilated or omitted; e.g. casmn for cad-tum; 
divisum for divid-tmn; messum for met-tmn; mer-sum for.merg- 
tum; pul-sum from pello, (but in expultriz compared with ezpulsor 
the t resumes its place in order to prevent the combination sr). 

So also Ylcensmnus or vicSsimus for'Ylcent-tiimus; tricensumus 
or trlgSsimus for trlgent-tftmus; pes-simus for ped-timus ; &c. 

On eques-tris for equet-tris, see above § 151. a. 

4. tn, tm were not allowable combinations in Latin. (£tna 
is Greek.) Hence e.g. vicS-nus for yicent-nus; sezagenus for 
seza^^t-nus ; &c, 

gu) lengthen the preceding vowel (e.g. fictus, strtlctus from 8go, struo) : 
in c, shorten it (e.g. dictus from dico); in p, t, are short except missus, 
fiSnsus : in m, n, ^ r, s, b, retain quantity of present tense. 

Chap. FIIL'\ Dmtals and Linguals, D. 47 

5. Final t had a weak position. Thus it fell off: 

{a) in Umbrian; e.g. lLal)e, facta for habet, faclat; 

(3) in the oldest Latin inscriptions of Picenum; e.g. dede for 
dedet ^.e. dedii). ^This is the only word in 3rd pers. sing, which 
occurs in these mscnptions.) 

(r) in vulgar inscriptions on walls of Pompeii ; e.g. ama, valla^ 
pard for amat^ valeat, pardt, (but the t is much oftener retained) ; 

{d) frequently in inscriptions of fifth century after Christ and 
later; e.g. fece, qulesce, xnilltavl, vizi, for fecit, quiescit, xnllitavit, 
vlzit, 5cc. 

6. nt fell off in 3rd pers. plur. perf. in Cato, Sallust, dactylic 
poets, &c. (Cic. Or, 47, § 157); e.g. scripsSre, amavere for scripse- 
nmt, amavemnt. 

In late inscriptions sometimes fecerun, vivon, &c. are found for 
fecenmt, vivont (vivunt). 

7. A long vowel preceding a final t was shortened; e.g. am&t 
compared with amd.s, amS^tis; amardt compared with amares, ama- 
retis; &c. 

Character : as above. 15.1 

Sound : the flat dental mute : English d. di -before a vowel, 154 
at and after the end of the 4th century after Christ, was pro- 
nounced *CTim sibilo,' i.e. probably as ji or as J, with English or, 
perhaps, French sound of J. (See below under Z, § 195.) 

Position : final only in sed, liaud, ad, apnd, and the pro- 'ss 
nouns Id, quod, istnd, illud, aliud. (Often final in >early Latin, see 
below § 160. 6.) 

Never immediately precedes another consonant in same sylla- 
ble, except in a few Greek words, and Drusns (said to be from the 
Gallic, Suet Ttb, 3); and see § 158. 

Representation: (i) in Greek by h\ e.g. Decius, Ac/cioy; ^^ 
OsBdlcius, Kaid/iciof; Doxnltius, AojLtmo^; Fideiua, ^ihr\vr)\ &c. 

^) of Greek h\ e.g. dpiiravov, Brepanum; ArjiioaBcvrjs, Demo- 
Btiiexies ; ^iaira, dlata ; &c. 

Correspondence : i. to an original Indo-European d, and 157 
(medial) dlu The final d of the ablative corresponds to an ori- 
ginal t. 

48 Sounds. [Book L 

%, (a) to Greek d; e.g. ddmfire, SafidCm', daps, dairroi, d«- 
TTvov] densus, Scurvsj dOmus, bcfio), bofios', dexter, dc^ios] d&re, 
d&tor, ^r77p, Bibaiii] dOlus, doXof ; dno, dis-, diiblus, dvo, dtV, dtcr^ 
(Tos; 6do, es-ca, c8<o, ea-'Blca] dens, 68oiSs (odovr-y^ op-pldum, pe(d)s, 
Trebov, Trod', (ttovs); sclndo, crxtfo), (r;ti8a^; nnda, vdcap; &c. 

(^) to Greek medial $; e.g. fido, fldes, Trelda, maris; gau- 
dSre, yjjBelv; va(d)8, Yad-imoniimi, a€6-\ov. 

Substitution : i. for tv before r in words derived from 158 
quattuor; e.g. (luadraglnta, quadra, quadrapes, quadrldnum (not 
quatriduum), &c. 

2. once (in a very old vase inscription) for final t: fedd for 
fecit. (The Oscan had sometimes the 3rd pers. sing, in d.) So in 
the Mon. Anpyr, adque, allquod, for atqne, aliquot. In late imperial 
inscriptions occasionally capud for caput; reliquid for reliquit ; &c. 

Influence: i. requires a preceding consonant to be flat; e.g. ,59 
8Ub-duco, ab-do, &c. 

2. changes preceding m to n; e.g. con-do (for com-do), &c. 

3. changes a following t to s, and then is as^milated or 
omitted; e.g. divi-sum for divid-tum; scan-sum for scand-tnm; 
fossa from fOd-io ; &c. (For d before tr see below.) In the prae- 
Ciceronian language cette for oddite is found. 

Weakness : i. Initial d before ▼ dropped off, the v be- 160 
coming b ; e.g. duonus becomes bonus. See § 76. 

a. Initial d before J dropped off; e.g. Jdvis for (old) DiOvis; 
JSnus for Diftnus ; Jiiyenls, Jllnius from stem diu-; Jacio compared 
with d(a}/ica>, diaitrcop ; &C. 

3. Before the initial tr of a suffix, d changed to s. (The t ' 
was retained because sr was unpronounceable.) e.g. tonstrix for 
tond-triz; <flaus-tmm for daud-trum; rfts-trnm for i&d-trum; ros- 
trum for r5d-trum; ftus-tra for fi:aud-tra ; &c. 

4. Before the initial m, 1, n of a suffix, d fell off or was assi- 
milated; e.g. C8d-mentum from cssdfire; rft-mentum from r&d-ere; 
r&-mus compared with r&diz ; &c. 

Bcft-la (for 8oand-la) from scand-Sre; nitela or nitella for nitS- 

fl-nis (for fld-nis) from findo; mercennarius for meroednarius. 

5. Before s, d is as^milated or falls away; e.g. ces-si for 
ced-si; ten-si for tend-si ; &c. See also § 159. 3. 

At the end of a word, the d bdng assimilated, one s only re- 
mains, and the preceding vowel, if £ort, remains so; e.g. inctlB 
for IncfLds; liSrSs for IifirSds; lapis for lapids; compds for oompedB; 
[p5b, v&s (from stems pdd-, T&d-), are long as being mono- 

Chap. VIII?[ Denials and Lingual s, D. 49 

6. Final d fell off at an early period from the ablative case 
of which it appears to have been the characteristic. It is not 
found in any inscription later than the S. C. de Bacc. 186 B.C. 
and is not found constantly even in the earliest inscriptions. The 
Oscan shows this d: the Umbrian and other Italian dialects (Vol- 
scian, Sabellan) do not, though some inscriptions are much older 
than the Latin. Plautus probably used it or not as he chose. 

This ablatival d has dropped off also from the adverbs supra, 
Infira (suprad, infirad), &c., and probably from Intereft, posteft, 8cc. ; 
also from the particle red, and the prepositions, sed, prod, antid, 
postld, except sometimes in composition ; e.g. sed-itio, red-eo, prod- 
est, antidliac (for anteliac) ; 5cc. So also facUiuned (S,C, de JSacc), 
for later facilllme. 

The pronouns me, te, se (both accusative and ablative) were in 
early times med, ted, sed. 

Of the final d of the imperative (also retained in Oscan), one 
eicample remains in Latin; estod (Fest. p. 230) : perhaps also facitud 
for fiEuslto. 

7. In the particle red in composition, the d was frequently 
either assimilated, or fell off, the vowel being lengthened to com- 
pensate. Thus reddo, recldo, or reccido, rSJectus always : reddnco 
or rSduco in early poets including Lucretius; reliquiae, rSUglo, 
rSUcuos in Lucr. ; (rfiliquise, 8cc. in iambic &c. (Plaut. Ter. Phaedr. 
Sen.); rSUcus in Persius and later poets;) receptus, rSlietus (Lucil.); 
rellatiis and reiatus (Lucr.). The perfect stem has always a long 
first syllable in repperl, reppull, rettuli, rettadi, probably as a joint 
effect of the original red and the loss of the reduplication. In 
other words the d is lost without compensation. 

8. The preposition prod always drops the d in composition 
except before a vowel; e.g. prodeo, prodest, but prCsum, produce. 
But the o is always lengthened, except in a few words, viz. prft- 
otila, prdnepoB, prOneptlB, prdtervus, and before f (except prOfero, 
prtificio, prGfllgo, prOflo); usually prdpa«o (noun and verb), prd- 
cnro, and, rarely, prdpello, Frdserplna. (In Greek words prd is 
always short, except prSlogus and sometimes prSpino.) 

9. D in the preposition ad is usually assimilated to a follow- 
ing p, c, g, t, 1, r, n; e.g. apparet, accipio, aggero, attlnet, alloquor, 
aniplo, annuo (but adnepos). It is usually omitted before gn, sp, 
fo, 8t; e.g. agnoBco, asplcio, asclBco, asto. It always remains be- 
fore l»,J»T,m; e.g. adMbo, adJuYo, adyena, admlror; and in inscrip- 
tions before 4, f, 8^; e.g. adquiro, adfero, adsigno. 

* The retention of the d is not a proof of the pronunciation, as we 
see from the pun in Plaut. Pcen, i. 2. 67. ML Adsum apud te eccunu 
AG. Sgo tflxna lis volo. The pronunciation was assum. 

50 Sounds. [Book 2. 

For the more usual atque, ad-(iu<9 is found in the Mon. Ancyr 
and frequently in other inscriptions. 

10. Final d in old Latin sometimes changed to r. Thus in ad * 
in composition, chiefly before ▼ and f ; e.g. arvocatos, azTorsum, 
arreho, arrena ; arfines, arfiaxl, arfaisse. Hence arbiter from ad-* 
T)eto, arcesso for ad-cesao. 

So also merldies for medi-dies (according to the Romans); 
T^iTinTn on old coins for Larlnum; apor (in Festus) for apnd. 
Comp. aud-lo, aur-is ear. 

11. In quicquid, quicquam, cette (for cSdlte), d is assimilated. 

In qno-circa (for quod-ctrca, comp. Idcirco), lioc (for liodce), d 
is omitted. 

For the more usual haud, are found haut, and in early Latin 
(and in mss. of Livy and Tacitus) before consonants hau. (For 
aput, set, &c. see § 150, and for the practical omission of d in apud 
in the comic poets, see § 295. 4.) 

Character: as above. ,e 

Sound: both (i) dental, and (a) guttural, nasal. le 

I. as dental nasal usually, like English n. 

a. as guttural nasal ("n adulterlnum") before a guttural (0, q, 
g, x); sounded like English ng, (or n in inky, finger), Varro {ap. 
Prise, I. 39) said the oldest Roman writers followed the Greek in 
writing g for n before c and g; e.g. aggulus for angulus (comp. 
Greek ayKvKoi) ; aggullla (comp. ty^^^vs) ; agcora (comp. ayKvpd)\ 
agcepsfor anceps; aggens for angens; Iggerunt for ingerunt. 

Position: final, only i. in nom. ace. sing, of neuter nouns in 16 
-men, and a few others; e.g. gluten (n), &c.; tlWcen, comicen, 
tnblcen, fidlcen (for tiblcinus), &c. 

a. in some adverbs ; e. g. In, an, sin (for sl-ne), qnln (for qul-ne), 
tamen; also vlden, andin, &c. (for vides-ne, audls-ne). 

3. in Greek words; e.g. splen, slndon, &c. 

Never after another consonant in an initial combination (§ 11), 
except in a few words which in the older language began with gn 
(see § 149. 3). Never initial before another consonant. 

Frequent before t and s at end of a word (§371). 

Representation: (i) in Greek by i/, or, before gutturals, by x6 
•y; e. g. Faunus, ^aOi/of ; Numitor, Nf /i/rcop ; ClndUB, Kiyxioy; unda, 
ovyKia or ovyyla\ Longus, Aoyyos; &c. 

CJiap, VIII.'\ Dentals and Lingtials, N. 51 

(ii) of Greek y, or, before gutturals, y; e.g. yp(6fia>v, gnomon; 
Hov, Fan; Scipi^i;, Siren; * Ay-v ia-ijs, AncMBes; airoyyiaj spongia; 
ConmcaainB, KopoyKwios (Polyb.) ; &c. 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European n. 165 

2, to Greek v, or, before gutturals, y; e.g. animns, anima, 
Sye/jios^ gtoa, yiws't an-hSlo, avd\ in, cV, €is (for eVf); m&neo, 
me-mln-l, mens, &c., /Ltei/o), fii'^fiovaf fiev^os, Sec. ; N6ro (a Sabine 
word), di^p (owp-); nfivus, veos {veFos)'^ ftnas (auat-s), vrjinra] nix, 
nlT-lB, nin-gnlt, vli^erof, vl(l)€i,f nim-c, vvi/; ungnis, oi/v^; nuo, co- 
nlveo, v€vci>f pvcrrdio). Sec, 

Substitution: i. For m before all but labial consonants; e.g. t66 
eon-con, con-^gero, conjnz, &c. (see under m, § 86. 4). 

2, nnfornd. There is some evidence for forms distennlte, 
dlspennite for distendlte, dlspendite (PL Mil, 1407); and tennitur 
for tendltur (Ten PJb, 330). 

Influence: i. causes c, s, t, d, m to fall out before it; e.g. 167 
U-na for Inc-na; pdno for posno; ylc5niis for yieentnus; fl-nis for 
fld-nl8 (findo); septenus for septem-nus; novSnus for novem-nns, Sec, 

a. ns, nf lengthened the preceding vowel. See Cic. Or. 48, 
§ 159 : ** * Indoctus' dicimus brevi prima littera, * insanus' producta, 
^inhumanus' brevi, * infelix' longa ; et ne multis, quibus in verbis eae 
primae litterae sunt, quae in sapiente atque felice, producte dicitur, in 
ceteris omnibus breviter.^' So Gonsus, Gonsualia, consules (ace), 
floniillia, GonsidlUB, are written K&vaos, Ka>i/(rovaXca, Kava-ovXas, 
Ktovaikia, Kava-idLos (Dionys. Hal.) ; Consentia, Kmva-evria (Appian), 
Hmtrevria (Strab.); Gonstantinus, KtovoTavrtvos (Dio Cass.); cen- 

Weakness: i. changes to m before a labial (p, b, m), though its 
the change is not always marked in writing; e.g. imperator, Impe- 
tlum (sometimes Inperium); compleo (conpleo), Imbuo, commuto, 
Immortalis (often Inmortalls) ; Sec. 

a. In drops its n in composition before gn ; e.g. l-gnavus, 1- 
KnaniB, l-gnosco, 1-gnominia. (Compare § 86. 4.) 

3. Before s it frequently falls away, sometimes is assimilated: 

(a) in adjectival suffixes; e.g. formosus for fonnonsus (Verg.); 
TeKracoMniB, Imperloesus (Augustan inscript.) ; Malnginesis (ib.) ; 

4— a 

52 Sounds. [Book L 

Thermeses (also Tliermenses, Termenses, in some inscr. A.U.C. 
683) ; Piaaureses (very old inscr.). Cicero is said to have writ- 
ten Megalesia, Foresia, Hortesla. So 'OpTria-Los for Hortezudiu. 

In late inscriptions also in pres. part.; e.g. doles, lacrlxnas for 
dolexis, lacrlmans, &c. 

(^) numeral suffixes; e.g. quoties, ylcies, xnillies, &c., vlcSBbniu, 
millesimus, 8cc. are post- Augustan forms for qnotieiui, fldeziBy 
vicensumus (or ylcensimus), &c. 

(c) in stems; e.g. cSsor, in pne-Aug. inscriptions for eensor; 
moBtellaria from monstrom (mostmm, Verg.) ; toslUn (C. N,D, 
2. 54) for tonsiUs; trimestrls for trimenstris; ttLsns, passns, 
fressus, also tonsus, pansus, frensns. So elephas for eleplLans; 
trastnmi (Verg.) for transtrom. 

4. n final (or ns?) falls away always in nom. case of stems ni 
-on; e.g. homo, cardo (homOn-, carddn-), sermo, ohliylo (sermGn-, 
ohlividn-), &c. So ceteroqui, alioqni, for prae-Augustan csdtero- 
quin, &c. 

Insertion: i. Athamans, Indigens in Augustan inscriptions 169 
for Athamas, Indiges, &c. Also thensaums (tezLsauros?) in Plautus 
for 0rj<ravp6s» 

2, in verbal forms; e.g. tango (see Book II). So also con- 
junx, conjugis from Jug-, Jungo. 


Character: always as above, after 570 or 580 A.u.c. Before 170 
that the earlier form (with the bottom stroke not horizontal but 
forming an acute angle with the other), once exclusively used, was 
still in use. 

Sound: as in English. 171 

Position: final only in a few nouns in nom. and neuter ace. 172 
cases sing. It can stand immediately before a mute at the end of a 
syllable; e.g. scnlptns, calx, &c. ; and immediately after p, b, c, g at 
beginning of a syllable; e.g. pluma, Ulandus, damo, glans, 8(c. 

Representation: i. in Greek by X always; e.g. Publius 173 
Lentulus, IIoTrXtos AevrovXos (Polyb.), UovttXios AcVXoy (Appian) ; 
Popillius, UottlWios] Latini, Aarivoi; &c. 

2. of Greek X; e.g. x^aM^^? chlamys; *vXXir, Phyllis; 'EXtinj, 
Helena; &c. 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European 1 or r. 174 
[Some (e.g. Schleicher) consider 1 to arise always fix)m a weakening 
of an original r]. 

€>hap, VII I ^ Dentals and Unguals, L. 53 

.a. to Greek X; e.g. ftlins, oXXo?; dulds, yXvKuy; volvo, cXv© 
(feX-); oleum, eXmoi/; calx, Xa^ (for /cXa^); Iftna, Xa^i^; 16«o, 
Xryo; leo, Xtf, \ifi>v\ Ino, Xvci>; l&vo, ad-luo, Xova>; tUtUo, oXoXv^o); 
fUlo, <r0<iXXa); pfilez, i/rvXXa; ulna, iSkivr\\ vdlo, /SovXo/xat; &c. 

3. to Greek p (rarely); e.g. vellua, Ylllus, cpor (ionic), fpiov\ 
iMllras, fiappapos ] Ulium, Xeipiov* 

4. to Greek d; e.g. lacruma, Soicpvoi/j levir, Sd;}p; 61eo, 6dor, 
2ftt (per£ od-a)d-a), od/ii;. 

Substitution: for m, d, n or r before 1. See next section. In 17s 
compoation com- generally became con-, sometimes col- ; e. g. colle- 
gium; &c. In inscriptions conlegium, conlega till about end of 
Augustus' reign; then collegium, &c. (Momms. Ephsm, i. p. 79.) 

In usually remained. Ad generally became al; e. g. alloquor, &c. 

Influence: i. Assimilates to itself or omits a preceding 170 
c, d, n, r, B, X, an intervening short vowel being omitted; e.g. 
'paullus for pauculus; lapiUus for lapid-ulus; sella for sedilla; 
corolla for corOn-tUa; Catullus for Cat5n-tUus; Hlspallus for His- 
pfinulus; Asellus for Asin-ulus; prelum for pren-lum (from pre- 
mo); agellus for ager-lus; quSlus for quas-lus (comp. qu&sillus); 
Ca for ax-la (or axilla) ; velum for vex-lum (or vexlllum). 

a. 1 preferred 6 or il before it; e.g. salto, Insulto, compared 
with tracto, detrecto; poctUlum with pulcdr (old polcer); &c. 
(§ ao4. a, ^.) 

n preferred e; e.g. vello compared with vulsus; fiscella with 
JiMlna; &c. (§ 213. 5.) 

3. caused the omission of a preceding initial t or guttural; e.g. 
latUB for tl&tus (toUo); lis for stlis; lOcus for stlOcus; lamentum 
compared with damo; lac (lact-) with yoXoKT-; or the insertion 
(or transposition) of a short vowel between; e.g. scalpo, sculpo 
compared with ykcKJHOy yXvc^o) ; dulds with yKvKvs (for dXu/cvs). 

4. caused the omission of a preceding short vowel after c or p ; 
e.g. Tifdum, Badum, peridum, lierde, disdplina, manlplus; for 
TinciUum, &c. ; publicus for popullcus. 

5. threw off a following s; e.g. consul for consuls, b61 for sols, 
&c. Tlgil for Ylgills. In velle a succeeding r is assimilated (vdldse 
becoming ydere, yolre, velle). 

6. Ig, U, changed a following suffixed t into s; e.g. mulg-, 
imilBus; yell-, vulsus. 

7. changed a subsequent .1, in suffix -511, into r; e.g. famularis, 
palmarls, vulgaris compared with talis, animSJis. ftugSlis, augurftlis, 
adflUfl, &c. 

54 Sounds. \Book I. 

So also a preceding 1 is changed into r; e.g. ctamleus from 
csBliim; Paxllla from Pales. 

Weakness : In some words the spelling varied between a angle 17 
and double 1, viz.: 

I. if 1 (not being a case-inflexion) followed 1, the granmiarians 
held that single 1 should he written ; e. g. xnille, xnllla (Mon. Ancyr. 
has millia); Messalla, Mess&lina; villa, vHicns; but stiUicldlum 
(not BtUicldium) usually. So inscriptions give both Amulliis and 
Amullius; Petilia, Petllllus; Popillus, Popillins; &c., but -ilius is 
much more frequent than -lllius in most words; Polllo however is 
more frequent than Polio. 

a. the suffix -51a is in good MSS. written -ella after a short 
syllable; e.g. lOqnella, quSrella, mddella; suftdSla, tUtSla, cox^uptSla. 

Character : usually as above, but in early inscriptions the 17! 
right hand lower limb is very short. 

Sound: the sound made by vibration of the point of the 17 
tongue: rather the Italian or German r, than the English. 

Position: frequently final; viz. in nom. and neut. ace. sin- is. 
gular of nouns, and in ist and 3rd persons singular and plural of 
passive verbs. It can stand inmiediately before any final conso- 
nant; e.g. ars, arx; and immediately after an initial mute. 

Representation: i. in Greek, by p\ e.g. Roma, *Pcu/ij?; 18 
Trebia, Tpe^la', Tiberius, Ti^epios] Heniici,*Epwic€9; Brutus, Bpow- 

TOS'i &c. 

2, of Greek p] e.g. KpaTrjp, crater; piyrcDp, rhetor; Uapn, 
Pari^; &c 

3. of Greek A ; e. g. Kav6i]\ios^ cantfirius. 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European r. is 

2. to Greek p; e.g. ar-ma, ar-mus, ar-tus, ars, dp^^ dpapia-Ka>, 
apdpovi aprios', 8x0, arvum, apoo), apovpa] rfttis, rS-mus, ipicrua, 
ip€Tqs^ cperiJLos] ardea, cptoStos; 6rl6r, opvvpi', rapa, pairvs, paKJya- 
vosj rfipente, pcTTO) ; frigus, plyor; radix, p/fa; rixa, €pLs ^(epib-) ; 
rivus, peo), peva-ts] wro, sertum, series, servus, clpa (ep-, fp-), 
<r€Lpd, opfios] &c. 

Chap. VIIL'] Dentals and Linguals, R. 55 

3. to Greek X (rarely); e.g. grando, x°^«C«» lilrundo, xe- 
X«do»y; strlsUlB, Btrlngo, arkcyyis, areXyisj OTpayyeva'j hSxu-spex, 
WUftj Xo^*f» Xop^v; curvuB, Kvp-ros, icuXXos. 

Substitution : i. R between two vowels is frequently, and 183 
final r is sometimes, a substitute for an earlier b^ But this substitu- 
tion was prior to any inscription which we have, and may probably 
be referred to the fourth century B.C. on the ground of Cicero's state- 
ment {Fam, 9, 21), that L. Papirius, consul 336 B.C. (=418 u.c), 
was the first of his family who ceased to be called Papisius. (Cf. 
Pompon. Dig. i. a. § 36.) 

This change is noted in 

(a) stems; e.g. lares for lases (in song of Arval brothers); 
aras for asaB; ferlas for feslas; arena for asena. Compare 
n&r-lB, nfts-us; hSri, ^^fs, hes-temus; pner, ptLs-uB; 6r-am, 
6r-o, BTun (for 6s-um); g3ro, ges-tum; tlr-o, ns-tiim; &c. 
qusero, (lusBBO. 

(b) darl for dasl; dlrimere, dlrblbere from dls-. 

(c) noun suffixes; e.g. pigndra, pignus; onSra, onns, onustuB; 
▼etfira, vetus, 8cc. ; Veneris, Venns ; CerSrls, Ceres ; pulver-is, 
pnlYlB. So also honor has old form honOs ; arbOr, arbCs ; robnr 
had once abl. robOse, and apparently nom. robus. 

So also adjectives; e.g. Papirius for Papisius; Val6rlus for 
ValSsliis; Veturlus for Vetuslus; Numdrlns for Numlslus; ne- 
fSrliiB compared with nefas-tus; Etrurla with Etrus-cl; me- 
llOrem for niell5s-em (comp. neut. melius) ; plurlma for 

[The genitive plural suffix -nun is generally held to be for -sam ; 
and the r of the passive voice to be for s; i.e. for se, the passive 
having been originally reflexive.] 

(d) T before m and n appears to have sometimes arisen from b; 
e.g. carmen is connected with casmena (old form of camena). 
So Toter-nuB (for veter-lnns) from vetus; dlur-nos compared 
with interdlUB, nndliis. 

a. For d in the word ad (in composition), and apnd, see 
§ 160. 10. II. 

3. For 1 in suffix -ails, after a stem containing 1, see § 176. 6. 

* In some Greek dialects (e.g. Laconian, Elean, Eretrian) p is found 
ioT final i', e.g. rotp, rip, for rots, tIs ; and for tr before consonants; 
e.g. KopfirJTai for KoafiiJTai ; but not between vowels. See Curtius, Gr» 
Etym, p. 396, ed. 2. 

56 Sounds. . . [Boa^ I. 

Influence: i. assimilates to itself the final letter of the pre- 184 
positions com, in, ad, sub; e.g. corripio, irrogo, arrlpio, Burriiiio. 
(No instances in republican inscriptions.) 

2. Changes a preceding tv to d, in quadridunin, quadrupes, &c., 
from quattuor (§ 158). tar, later dr, is found in some eariy tran- 
scriptions of Greek words (§ 148. ^). 

3. dislikes short I (for 6) to precede it ; comp. legls, lafl^t, 
legltur, with leg&ris, legdre, legSrem ; Num6riu8 with Namlsias ; 
confSro, contdro compared with coUIgo, corrlgo ; pario, pep6ri, com- 
perio compared with c&do, cecldi, concldo; pulTls, cucumis with 
pulv6rem, cucum3rem; anser, anseris with ales, allUs; ftmiui, 
fiinerls with liomo, homlnis; 8cc, 

The only Latin words in which r is preceded by a short I are 
vir, Tiridis, vireo, &c.; Qvlrites, Qvirinus; plrus, pirum; blnindo, 
Mrttdo; and dir- for dis- in composition; (e.g. dirlmo). Comp. 
also Hirrus, hlrrlo. In vir, virtus, &c. i is said by the Roman gram- 
marians to have had the sound of Greek v. Cf. § 237. 

4. prefers a vowel before it, instead of after it; e.g, cer-no, 
certUB, compared with Kplvoo, crSvi, cre-tum; serpo, repo; sorbeo, 
po(f)i<o\ porrum, TTpacroi/; bardus, /3pa5^ff ; tertlus, rpiVos ; corcodllUB 
(sometimes), KpoKoh^CKos't caro, camem, Kpias\ tarpessita (some- 
times), TpaTTeCLrqs ; faxclo, (f>pd(r(r(o ] Tarsumennus, also Tr'asiunen- 
xiTis. This metathesis appears to have been common to the Latin 
with the ^olo-Doric Greek. (Ritschl, Optuc. ii. 531.) 

5. occasioned the omission of a subsequent s, or of s preceded 
by a short vowel; e.g. puer for puerus, tener for tenenis, orator for 
orators, &c. 

6. rr, rg converted a subsequent suffixed t to s; e.g. curr-o, 
cur-sum; merg-o, mersum; &c. (see §52. 3). 

Weakness: i. is assimilated to a succeeding s, and then 1S5 
often omitted ; e. g. prCsa, for proversa (oratio) : rusum (also 
rusBum) for rursum (reversum) ; Tuscus for Tutbcus (comp. Etrus- 
cus) ; tos-tus for torstus from torr-eo (which was for tors-eo, comp. 
Tepa-ofiai). Pono for por-sino, pos-sino, posno. (Corssen.) 

2, is omitted (sometimes) when the following syllable contains 
r; e.g. mulie-brls from mulier-; fune-bris from ftmer- (funos-); 
febris from ferveo; pe-Jerare for perjerare. 

The same dislike of the repetition of r is seen in the retention 
(or preference) of -Slis instead of -Sxis as a suffix when an r pre- 
cedes; and in the rare occurrence of the future participle (except 
futurus) in the genitive plural. Neue (11. 46a) mentions only ven- 
turorum (Ov.); iturarum, exiturarum, transituraxum, moriturorum 
(Sen.); periturorum (Sen. Quintil.). 

/- I jxjL^c <^ ki.-C^a - 

Chap. VII l!\ Dentals and Linguals. s. 57 


Character: as above; but the older form was angular. »86 
Other Italian alphabets, viz. Etruscan, Umbrian, and old Sabellian 
had two characters, 2 (or an angular s) and M, for sibilants, ap- 
parently the sounds s and all. The Samnite (Oscan) and Faliscan 
agreed with the Roman. 

Sound : a hiss, as English initial s (e. g. in sin), i. e. s sharp. 187 
At one time s between two vowels was probably soundni, as medial 
and final s is often sounded in English (e. g. reason^ rose) ; i. e. s flat, 
which is same as z: hence the change of s to r (§ 183), the posi- 
tion of the organs being very similar for z and r. Final s was at 
one time not audible. 

Position: very frequently final both in nouns and verbs. It 188 
never stands (in Latin words) immediately after an initial con- 
sonant ; but often before p, c, t. 

Representation: (i) in Greek by y; e.g. Sergins, S/pyios; 189 
SporliiB, STToptof ; Kssso, KatVcai/; CrasBus, lLpa(Tvo^\ Sec, 

(ii) I. of Greek £ ; cro</)ioTiJs, sopMates ; ctttX;;!', splen; &c. 

a. of Greek initial f before Cicero's time; e.g. Z^Bos, Setus; 
Cfoinjf sona; &c. 

3. w for Greek medial f before Cicero's time; e.g. fia^a, 
massa ; ica)/xa^a>, comlsaor ; /xoXaict^o), malacisso ; ^AttlkI^oo, Attlcisso ; 
&c. ^In the Tarentine dialect such forms as XaKricr<ro), a-aXTria-a-a) 
are said to have occurred.) So the Etruscan Mezentlns was in 
the older language Messentius. 

Correspondence : i. to an original Indo-European s. ,go 

2. to Greek y ; e. g. sum (for es-um), et/nt (for ea-fii) ; vestls, 
€<rBrjs, cvwfu ; Bftnns, a-dosf a-cis ] sils, oils, vs ; vesper, eaircpos ; 
fcfltmn, a-KVTos] S(^pio, a-Kfjirrpov; sporta, oTrvpis] Sec. 

. to Greek rough breathing; e.g. sal, SXs; sSJlo, aWofiai; 

t( ; septem, cWa ; sSdeo, s6des, €(ofiai, €8os ; se, suns, c, cr^e 
^or o-fc), iosf cr<^o?; serpo, rgpo, cpTro); simplex, dirkoos] silva, 
vKrf; Blsto, larrjfii; sOluB (old soUus), 6\os] sdpor, somnus, vnvos] 
■6cer, (Kvpos't snb, vtto] super, wcp; &c. 

Substitution: i. st for tt or dt, if. the last t was to be pre- X91 
served; e.g. dLaustrum from clando; tonstriz ft-om tond-eo; eques- 
tris, equester from eques (dqudt-) ; Sec, Cf. § 151. 2. 

58 Sounds. [Book I. , 

2. 88 (or a) for ts or da; e.g. clau-sl for claud-sl; mi-al for 
9;iit-sl; equfis for equSt-s; es-se for ed-se (i.e. Mere to eat)] trona 
for firont-8 and for fromd-e; &c. 

So also n (sometimes) and r (rarely) are asamilated to a follow- 
ing 8, and, it may be, subsequenuy omitted; e.g. form5sii8 for for- 
zuon-su8 (Verg., Ov.); ImperiOsus or -ossus for Imperion-BUB; viciSs 
for vlciens; ▼leSsamus for ylcensmnus; trlgesumuB for trIgexiBiimas 
(see below 4) ; mens&s (and other ace. plurals) for mensams (mensaiui); 
dispesBus for dlBpan-sus; mostram from monBtnun (see next §). 

Frdsa for^proversa (prorsa); prOsuB for prorsnB; rtlsus (orras- 
bub) for ronms. But mer-BUB, ver-sus, &c. (see next §) remain (§ 42). 

3. 8 for t after Ig, rg, 11, rr; e. g. mul-Bimi for mnlg-tiun; mer- 
sum for merg-tum; cur-simi for curr-tum; pul-Bum for peU-tum, 
8cc. (Quintilian, I. 4. 14, speaks of mertare, pultare, as being the 
old forms for mersare, pulBare.) Rarely after single mutes; e.g. 
lap-sum for lab-tum; &c. (see § 705 and Preface). 

4. SB (or s) for dt or tt; (i. e. dt, tt, become ds, ts as in pre- 
ceding paragraph, and then by assimilation ds, ts became ss, of which 
one s was after Cicero's time omitted^; e.g. cessum for ced-tum; 
c&sum (cassum Cic.) for cad-tum; mis-sum for mitt-tum; sen-sum 
for sent-tum; dlvlsum (dlYlssum Cic.) for dlvld-tum; &c. vicen- 
siimus for ylcent-tflmus ; trigensumus for trigent-tiimus (see above 
2); &c. 

5. -iss for ifis (cf § 242) in adjectives of the superlative degree; 
e.g. durissimus for durldsimus; doctls-slmuB for doctiOs-Imus, &c. 
See also the next paragraph and the Preface. 

6. SB in prohibesslt, levasslt, &c. appears to be only indicative 
of the length of the preceding vowel. Possibly there may have been 
some confusion with such forms as complessent, recesset, levasse, 
&c. which contain the perfect suffix -is. Moreover an s left single 
would have formed an exception to the general law of Roman 
pronunciation which changed such an s to r (§ 183). 

For the etymology of arcesso, capesso, &c. see § 625. 

Influence: i. Changed a preceding flat consonant to sharp; 19a 
e. g. scrip-si from scrib-o ; rexl (i. e. rec-si) from reg-o. So (in 

1 Quintilian's words (r. 7. 20) deserve quoting; "Quid quod Cicero- 
nis temporibus paulumque infra, fere quotiens s littera media uocalium 
longarum uel subjecta longis esset, geminabatur? ut 'caussae,' 'cassus,' 
*diuissiones:' quomodo et ipsum et Vergilium quoque scripsisse manus 
eorum docent. atqui paulum superiores etiam Ulud, quod nos gemina 
dicimus * jussi,* una dixerunt." 

Chap. VIIL'\ Dentals and Linguals, s. 59 

pronunciation at least) op-aequor, sup-slgno, though b in sub (subs) 
sometimes fell away; e. g. suspicio (§ 78). 

3. changed a preceding m to n; e.g. con-scrlbo, consul, &c. ; or 
required insertion of p; e. g. Memps for blems; sump-si for sum-si; ' 
ficc. (but pres-sl (for pren-si) from prSm-o). 

3. Completely assimilated, or threw out, a preceding d or t 
(always), n or r (sometimes) ; e.g. ces-sum for ced-sum, forced-turn; 
&c. See § 191, 2. But mens for monts ; ars for arts. See § 42. 

4. ns lengthens a preceding vowel : see § 167. 2. 

Weakness: i. Initial s has fallen off before a consonant in 193 
Bome words; e.g. fallo compared with ot^aXXo); fongus with 
<r0oyyoff; tfigo with oreyo); tdrus with stemo, orop-i/v/ii, oTpoJj/w/xi ; 
taiio with arevd); &c., but in most stems the Greek and Latin agree 
in this matter, and the omission is discernible only by comparison 
with other languages; e. g. nix, plcftei compared with snoiv; taurus, 
rmpos with steer; Umus with slime; &c. 

a. Medial s fells away before nasals, liquids, and other flat 

(a) before m; e.g. dflmus for dus-mus (comp. ha(Tvs)\ Camena 
for CasmSna; pOmerium for posmoerium; trirSmis compared 
with triresmos (Duillian inscript.); dimota for dismota; tr9.- 
mitto for transmitto; &c. 

Qi) before n; e.g. pSno for posno (comp. pos-ul and § 185); 
•vld6n for vides-ne; In (Ter. Eun. 651) for is-ne, art going f'^ 
satin for satis-ne; ae-num for aes-num (ses-). 

(f) before d; e.g. Jii-dex for Jus-dex; Idem for is-dem; tre-declm 
for tres-decim; diduco for dis-duco. 

(d) before 1, r; e.g. dilabor, dirlpio for dis-labor, &c. 

3. 8 between two vowels almost always changed to r in early 
times, see § 183. Consequently no Latin words exhibit s between 
two vowels. 

Except {a) where s is not original, but due to a substitution 
(often indeed standing for ss); e.g. prSsa, hse-sum, estlries, 
ausim, causa (caussa, Cic), formSsus, &c. where it stands for 
dor t. 

(Jf) compounds of words where s was initial; e.g. de-sillo, po- 
situra, pr»-sentia, bi-sextus, &c. 

(c) the following words (some of which may perhaps fall under 
the foregoing classes), viz. &slnu3, bSlsium, csss&rles, csesius, 
c&sa, cftsens, cisium, fOsus, l&ser, miser, nftsus, pasiUus, qu&- 

6o Sounds. [Book I, 

Billiim, qusdso (also qiuaro), rdsa (comp. poBov), T&sa; and 

some proper names; e.g. Casar, Eeso, Lausus, Pisa, Flsaurom, 

Slsenna, Sosia (gsBSum is a Keltic word). 

4. Final s became r; (^a) in the nom. sing, of stems in 8 (in 

compliance with the change in the other cases?) ; e.g. arbor from ar- 

b5s-; honor from honSs-; robor from robds-; melior from mellOs-; 


(b) where a vowel originally followed; e.g. puer for pueonu, 

originally puesus. The characteristic r of the passive voice is 

generally held to be for se. 

5. Final s after a vowel at an early period of the language 
was frequently not pronounced, and thus frequently omitted in 
writing also. (In the 4th century after Christ the same tendency 
recurred and remains in Italian, &c.) Instances are 

(a) nom. sing, of -a stems; e.g. nauta, scriba, &c. compared 
with vavTTjs, &c.; luzuria, spurcltia, &c. with luxuries, spur- 
citles, &c. See Book II. 

(b) nom. sing, of -0 stems; e.g. Ule, Ipse for lllns, Ipsus. So 
perhaps the vocatives domine,'fill ^=fille), &c. which however 
most philologers take for the stem itself weakened. 

So, frequently in early inscriptions, Comello, Fourio, Herenlo, 
6cc. for Comellos, Fourlos, Herenlos (nom. sing.), the forms 
with s (both -08 and -luT) occurring likewise at the same time. 
In later, chiefly imperial, inscriptions occur, e.g. Fhilarguru. 
Secundu, 8cc. 

8 with the preceding vowel (6 at that time) fell off in puer for 
puerus, tlblcen for tiblcenus, &c. Inscriptions (e. g. S. C. Bacc.) 
give Claudl, Valerl, &c. for Claudios, Valerlos (nom. sing.), 
which some refer to a shortened form Claudls, Valerls, as alls 
'for alius ; some take to be a mere abbreviation. 

(r) pote (all genders) for potls; mage for magls (adv.). After 
1 and r we have vigil, pugil for vlgills, pugUls (nom. s. masc. 
fem.); acer, equester, saluber (m. nom.), &c. for equesterls, 
saluberls; &c. 

{d) The nom. pi. of -0 stems of all kinds in early inscriptions had 
frequently s final, which the ordinary language dropped; e.g. 
Minnclels, Vitiules, Italicels, virels, publlceis, conscrlptes, helsce, 
blsce, &:c. See Book II. 

(<?) The ordinary genitive sing, of -a, -e, and -0 stems, e. g. famlUs 
or familial, diel or die, domlnl, is either formed by omission of 
a final s as in old genitives, famlll9« (for famlllaes) ; dies, rabies, 
Ullus (for illo-lus) ; or is a locative form in -1 (so Bopp, Mad- 
vig, and others). Only in late inscriptions occur tntegrltatl, 
Isldl, &c. tor integntatls, Isldls. &c. 

Chap, Villi] Denials and Linguals, z. 6t 

(/) In verbs (2nd pers. sing, ot passive voice) axnabaxe, loquerere, 
co]iaA)er8, &c. for amabarls (old amabares), &c. So the impe- 
rative present (unless taken as the bare stem, cf. 5. K) is 
formed from the indicative present; e.g. ama, axnate for azuas, 
amatis, &c. 

The old imperative forms prsafamino, progredixnlno, &c. are for 
prsBfamlnoB, progredimlnos, having same suffix as rvTrr-o/ufi/of, 
and therefore belong to {b), 

(g) In the early poets, so also frequently in Lucretius and once in 
Catullus, the final s before an initial consonant was treated as 
omitted; e.g. at end of some hexameters, quoted for this pur- 
pose by Cicero {Or, 48, § 161), Qui est (mmilra' princeps; 
Vita Ula dignu' locoque. Compare Vergil, ^n, xii. 115, Soils 
equl lucemque elatSs narlbus efllant, copied, with a transposi- 
tion on this ground, from Ennius (p. 85, Vahlen), fUnduntque 
elatls narlbUB luoem. 


This letter was common in Umbrian and Oscan. It is found »94 
for instance in the Latin transcription of an Oscan law of the time 
of the Gracchi {Corp, Inscr, Lat. No. 197). It is also found in an 
extract from the song of the Salii given by Varro {L.L, vii. a6^. 
In Latin it appears first (unless the above be an exception) m 
Cicero's time, merely to write Greek words, which were before 
written with a or ss. 

The introduction of z into Plautus must therefore probably be 
due to a later recension. 

In the writers of the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ z is 195 
used for dl in the words zaconus, zabulus, zeta, &c. for bioKovo^^ 
diafiokos, diatra, &c. So in an Algerian inscription (198 A.D.) 
Azabenico for Adlabenico. 

The converse is seen in manuscripts giving glycyrrldia, gargarl- 
diare, Uedlentlus for yXvKvpptCay yapyapiCetv and (Etruscan) Me- 


(In -^olic dialect of Lesbos fa is found for §m; e.g. (a wktos'^ 
and so in tragedy, (anvpof, Cdxpvo-os, &:c. So Trtfor for Trtdios, 
&c.). It seems probable that f, and, if so, then Latin z, was (at least 
sometimes) sounded like English J (which sound soon rises out of 
dy) or French J; but Curtius, Corssen, and others (not Key or 
Donaldson) assign it the sound of English z, as in modem Greek. 

62 Sounds. [Book Z 



The Latin vowels will here be treated in the order which ap- iq6 
pears to have been followed in the development of the language ; 
viz. a, o, u, e, 1. That is to say, where one vowel has given place 
to another, it has been in the direction of a to i, not i to a. Thus a 
was capable of changing to o, or u, or e, or i; o to u, or e, or i; 
u to e or i ; e to i. Changes which prima facie seem to be made 
in the reverse direction are the result of our regarding, as the 
standard form, what is really a later development^: e.g. mare, from 
the stem (as we now call it) marl-; effectus from effXcio, &c. (See 
Ritschl, Rhein. Mus. (1859) ^^V. p. 406. Optuc, ii. 62a, n.) But 
see § 234. 5. and 244. And the priority of e to 1 in the -1 stems 
rests on but little positive evidence. 

Character: usually as above, but all positions of the middle 197 
stroke are found ; e. g. bisecting the angle, or bisecting either side 
and parallel to, or touching the bottom of, the other. 

Sound: as Continental a; viz. long ft as in psalm; short as the 198 
broader pronunciation of pastime. 

Position: frequently final xgg 

I. in nouns; as nom. (&) and abl. (ft) singular, of a- stems, and 
nom. ace. neuter plural (ft) of all stems; 

a. in verbs; only and pers. sing. pres. imperative (ft) of a- verbs. 

Representation: (i) in Greek by a; e.g. Marcus, Map/cos; 
Fabius, OajStor; Publicola, TL<m\iK6\as\ Alba longa, *AX/3a Xoyya 
(Dionys. H.); &c. 

(ii) of Greek a; e.g. ^AKKfujvTj^ Alcumena (Plaut.); 'Aya/ie/ii/wv, 
Agamemno; ^oXayf, phalanx; TrapaTrrjyiia, x>aTapegma; &c. 

of Greek at; e.g, KpaijraKrj, crfipula. 

* Corssen contests this, arguing for the priority in some cases of e 
to u, and of 1 to e. AV//. Beitr. p. 546 foil. So also Schleicher, 
Ver^l. Grant. § 49, ed. 2. See also Corssen, Aussprache^ ii. 226, ed. «. 



ChapJlX.\ Vowels, A. 63 

Correspondence 1; i. To an original Indo-European A. 

a. & to Greek 5 (usually); e.g. &go, ay©; angor, ayxo\uii\ ftllns, 
AXor; &l>, otto; ftrgentum, apyvpos\ d&ps, da7rdv7f\ l&tSre, Xa^eli/; 
p&ter, TTori/p; cftlftre, icaXeo>; sal, B&lum, aXr, (toKos] Sec. 

3. & to Greek «; e.g. angustos, eyyvr; c&put, /ce(/>aXi7; magxms, 
firyo^; B&llz, eX/iei;; ]>&teo, nerdptwfii] ciuattuor, T€(r(rap€s\ mSJieo, 
;icy«k>; zn&luB badf fiiXas^ Sec, 

4* ft to Greek o (rare); e.g. salvus, oKoos, comp. oXoo'c^pwv; 
Um-spez, ;^oXaf; to a>; e.g. c&pulum, kcotd;; &m-&ras, co/ior. 

5. ft to Greek d, Doric and, after p or a vowel, Attic; other- 
wise Attic 1;; e.g. BU&Yis, dbvs, j/fivr; dftvis (icXaf-), #cXd/£, /cXj;/^; 
mftlum, affp/e, fxaXov, fxrjXov] mftter, fxarrjp, p.riTrjp\ PlS^, TrXdya, 
wXi/yi}; firftter, (^pari^p; ift-rl, 0a/it, <^?;/ii; ajo, 77/ii; fardo, <j)pd<ra(ii>\ 
stftre, lord/At, ton/fii; xnftcero, /ioo-crca; pannus, 7rai/o&, tt^vo^. 

6. ft to Greek o; e.g. Iftbes, Xoi^S);; ftcer, 5cior, (okv^, 

7. In suffixes, to Greek a or 1;; e.g. ama-,, rt/iato, 
rifii^co); legfttls, Xeyi/re; carltfts, ^(Xo-Ti;r; musa, pjovaa'^ serva, 
dovXi;; nauta, vavrrjs {vavTaSi Dor.); magna, /xeyaXa (neut. pi.); &c. 

Contraction, Hiatus, &c.: i. Hiatus is rare; e.g. Gains, &c. 20a 

(§ 139)- 

a. ft + 6 to a; e.g. mag-vdlo, m&lo: (on the omission of the g, 
see § 129. c), 

3. ft + radical u to au (which then absorbs a short I); e.g. ga- 
Tldeo^ gaudeo; c&Yltnm, cautum; ftylceps, auceps; Sec, 

4. ft + d to ft; amftvenmt (later axnavSrunt), amftront; Sec. 

5. ft+i to 8; e.g. amSitls, amStis; Sec. 

6. ft +1 to ft; e.g. prima-Iniui, primftnus; ama-Itls, amfttis; 
am&YiBse (with I ?), amftsse ; Sec. 

Change of quantity: i. in the radical vowel of derivatives; 203 
e.g. plftcere, pl&cfire; ftgere, amb-ftges, ft-ctus (§151, note); s&gax, 
sftgiu, prsBSftgire; fr&g-ilis, sulfrftgiuxn; fl&grare, flfie^Uiim, flftgito; 
tAg-, tango, contftges; l&b&re, Iftbi; cftrSre, c&ms (comp. C&ristia); 
Bft^, Bfttor, Sfttumus; f&teri, ffttum, t&rl; p&g-, paago, pftci- (paz), 
V9uoaxe, compftges. 

* The instances of correspondence of vowels, throughout this chapter, 
are taken from Curtius* paper, Ueber die Spaltung des A-Lautes. {BericMe 
d. k. sdchsischen CeselUchaft jSt'c, Leipzig, 1864.) 

64 Sounds. [B^oJ^ 7. 

2. Lengthened as a means of inflexion; e.g. c&yeo, perf. c&yI; 
fiveo, f&vl; j^reo, pSlvl; l&vo, Iftvl; (perhaps however for oav-nl, 
&c.) ; 8C&bo, BcSlbL (For J&clo, Jecl, &c. see below § 204.) 

3. Lengthened in compensation for extrusion of a consonant; 
e. g. Iftna comp. with Xd^vrf ; ar&nea with dpaxvq ; mSJor for m&g- 
lor; oftsnm for cassum (cJUl-tiim) ; &c. 

4. In final syllables often shortened; e.g. in nom. sing, of -a 
stems mii8&, Bcrib& ; &c., which were probably originally long, and 
are sometimes found long in Plautus, Ennius, &c. So tedrnft for 

Before -t; e.g. aiii3>t, audi&t, reg&t, Sec; all originally long. 
Also calc&r, pulYinSr, for oalcSre, &c.; Udentftl for bidentUe ; &c. 

Change of quality: i. Radical a changed and lengthened 204 
by way of inflexion; e.g. J&do, JScl; c&pio, c5pi; f&cio, fid; &go, 
Sgi; pango, pSgi. 

a. Radical a changed after a prefix: 

(a) ft to 6 before two consonants or a final consonant; e.g. 
carpo, discerpo; spargo, aspergo; farcio, confertus; rftplo, correptns; 
J&cio, rejectus; c&pio, Inceptus; pasco, compesco; scando, conscendo; 
danmo, condemno; tracto, detrecto; p&tro, perpetro; s&cer, con- 
secro; fallo, fefelli, refello. 

Ars, sollers; pars, expers; barba, imberbis; ftgo, remez; Iftdo, 
artifez, effectus; cftput, anceps; c&plo, mimiceps; cftno, comicen, 
concentus; annus, trlennliim, perennis; castus, Incestns. 
(But abstractus, subactus, ezpando, ezaggero, Incandesco, dec.) 

(b) a to e before r, or (rarely) some other single consonant, 
e.g. pfttior, perpetior; grftdlor, ingrddior; ffttisco, defdtiscor; ffttlgo, 
defltigo (also defatigo); paciscor, depeciscor; pftro, impSro, sequi- 
pdro; p&rio, pepSri, compdrio; b&lo, anlxSlo. (But compare subtrabo, 
and words compounded with per, post, circum, &c.; e.g. per- 
facllls, permaneo, postbabeo, 3cc. Also repftro, ez&ro, 3cc.) 

(r) ft to i before ng; e.g. pango, Impingo; frango, confringo; 
tango, attingo ; &c. Before z ; e. g. lazus, prolizus. 

(d) before a single consonant, except r; e.g. r&pio, abrlpio; 
Bftpio, deslplo; c&plo, Inclpio; ftpiscor, indlpisaor; b&beo, problbeo; 
8t&tuo, Instituo; f&teor, infiteor; l&teo, delltesco; &go, prodlgo; 
J&clo, inXclo; f&do, Inflcio; t&ceo, contlcesco ; c&no, concino ; mfineo, 
ixninlneo; c&do, Incldo; s&lio, insillo; Sec. (But ad&mo, adj&ceo, &c.) 

tango, tdtlgi; c&do, cecidl; c&no, cednl; pango, pepigi. 

r&tus, irrltus; d&tus, condltus, condltor; p&ter, Jupplter; c&put, 
sinolput; Bt&bulum, prostlbulum; &2nlcu8, inlmlcus; f&cetus, InfXoe- 
tUB; f&cies, superficies; f&cilis, difflollls. 

CJiap. 7X] Vowels, o 65 

{e) & to ft, only before labials, or before 1 with another conso- 
nant; e.g. c&pio, auciip&rl, occiip&re; r&pio, subriipio (early Latin); 
tiUDema, oont1il>eniiiiin; l&vo, dlltivles; salto, Insulto; calco, incnlco; 
laiBiu, Ixuralmu. So also qn&tio, conc&tio, (on account of qu). 

3. Radical a to in derivative; e.g. pars, portlo; sc&bere, 

4. & as final vowel of stem is changed to I before a suffix 
commencing with a consonant; e.g. dom&-, domltuxn, domltor, 
dominiu; cab&-, cubXtum, cubXculuxu; lierb&, berbldus; stelUl, 
ittUIser; tab&, tnbicen. 


Character : In early inscriptions the is frequently not quite 205 

Sound: Probably varying between aw English and au French. 206 
Compare the modem Italian. These sounds are heard short in 
English not and omit. 

Position: Frequently final; viz. i. in dat. abl. sing, of nouns 207 
with stem in -0; e.g. domino, &c., and in nom. sing, of nouns with 
stem in -ogdt; e.g. lectio, sermo, margo, &c. and the words, duo, 
ego. In the older language was even more frequently final, 
owing to the omission of m and a; e.g. optumo, Comelio, &c. 
for optumom, Comelids (nom.). 

2. In first pers. sing, indie, act of verbs; e.g. amo, axnabo, 
amaTero, &c.; and in 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, future imperative 
active; e.g. amato, &c. 

3. In adverbs; e.g. dto, pro, modo, quando, &c. 

Representation: (i) in Gi-eek; 5 by <», 5 by o; e.g. Kseso, ao8 
KatVttv; CapitolinuB, KaTrircaXtvor ; Roma, *V<a\ir\\ Fostumius, IIo- 
aTf](v^%m\ Com^us, KopyijXio^; &c. 

(ii) I. of Greek o> and o; e.g. Acucfbalixovos, Lacedsamdnic ; 
apKToy, arcton; arofiaxoSi Btomadms; Hapfievav^ Parmeno; TpmoSf 
Troliu; 'Podoff, RbodOB (or Rbodus); &c. 

2. 6 of Greek v; e.g. Xayvvor, lagGna or lag092ia. 

3. 6 is inserted in Latin of second century B.C. where in Greek 
two consonants touch; e.g. ^AyaOokk^Sy Agathocolea; Uarpoick^Sf 
Patrlo^Xes; 'HpaicKfjs, Hercoles (later Hercules) ; &c. 


66 Sounds. [Book I. 

^ ' 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European A. aog 

a. 6 to Greek o usually; e.g. twftre (bovtoe Enn.), P6av\ -vdrus, 
vorftre, -jSopor, Pippma-Kciv] MviB, /3ooff (gen.); dMns, doXor; ddmus, 
^ofiosi Incfilliinis, KoXovoa; cdma, ico/n?;; corvus, Kopa^; coxa, Ko^avrj; 
mdrior, fiporos (for fiopros)] 6dor, of©* 6viB, ois; octo, dicra>; 6c- 
ulUB, oTT-cwra; orbus, op<j}au6s] os, oot€oi/; vox, o^; portus^ jrop- 
^/io^; pdtis, TToo-i^; sorbeo, po<^ea>; cdritun, scortum, ;^op(oi/; hortus, 
;^opros; rdsa, podov] 5rlor, op-ioz/u; porro, ir6ppa\ ab-61ere, a7r-oX- 
Xvi/at; &c. 

3. 5 to Greek a; e.g. ddxn&re, bafiav; ddceo, dtdacricfiv; doxmio, 
^apdaj/a>; JficoriB (gen.), rjiraros', cordis. Kaphas] conras, Kpavovy 
16qaor, Xa/celi/; xnarmor, fidpp.apos'^ (Viattuor, rea-a-apes') &c. 

4. 6 to Greek €, chiefly before or after v; e.g. sOcer, itcvpos; 
volvo, eiX© (fcX-); vdlup, cXTroftat; v6mo, cfieta] ndvem, eW/a 
(for vcFa)] db, eVt; comu, Kcpas] ndvus, v€os] cdqvo, rreo-a-o^ 
torqyeo, rpcTro). 

5. 6 to Greek v; e.g. nox, vv^\ m61a, /luX^. 

6. 3 to Greek ©; e.g. gnosco, ytyvda-Kca; nos, i/©; voa, o-c^fij;^ 
Cvum, ^01/; ambo, ap.<j)<o] umbo, ap.^a)v\ dOnum, dapov] OcLor, 

7. in suffixes: to Greek 5; viz. -Or- to -op-', e.g. oratSris, 
prJTopos] but also -fjp-] e.g. datOrls (gen.), dor^por; auditorium, 
uKpoaT^piov] Sec, 

-iOr- to -toj/-; e.g. maJOris, fiel^ovos] Sec, 

Substitution: i. for au; e.g. ClOdius for Claudius; olla for 2«o 

aula; plostrum for plaustrum; Sec. So after a prefix; e.g. plaudo, 

ezplOdo; fauces, suf-fOco; Sec. (See § 249.) 

a. for a in derivatives; e.g. portio from pars, scObis from 

' 3. for 6 (?) in derivatives; e.g. tOga from tfigo; pondus from 
pendfire; &c. (§ 234.5)- 

Contraction, Hiatus, &c.: i. o + a and o + S remained a" 
without contraction; e.g. co-5gi, co-9.ctus (but this may be due 
to the m in com). 

a. o + i (probably I) occurs in cases of stems; viz. gen. sing, 
e.g. domino-i, domini; dat. e.g. domino-i domino; nom. pi. e.g. 
dominoes, dominois, dominL Quoi, proin are monosyllabic, though 
it^ie vowels remain. 

Chap, IX ^ Voufels, o. 67 

3. + 0, ore, or 1 becomes 0; e.g. copia for co-opia, cOperio 
for cooperio (but coortus remains uncontracted) ; coventio, contlo; 
retro-yorsiu, xetrorsiu; cobors, core; co-igo, c5go; moylsse, mosse; 
mOvltor, mOtOr; &c.; prObeat for proUbeat; comptus for coemp- 
tiu; prOsa for proversa. 

Sometimes where a v has stood between the vowels, the resulting 
contraction becomes H; e.g. noyendlnso (noundlnso old), uundlnsB; 
miWIto, mtLto; bflbuB (rarely bObus) for bdvibus; &c. 

Change of Quantity: i. in stems; e.g. mdlestus, xnGles 212 
(? cf. § 789) ; vdcare, yOcem (from vox) ; sdnus, sdn&re, persSna; 
i4por, Bdpire; udta, nOtos (but agnltus), ndmen. 

a. lengthened in compensation for an extruded consonant ; e. g. 
pQno for p63-no; glSmus for gldb-miui; cSnubium for com-ntibluxn ; 
]i3C for hodcd ; &c. 

In formOsuB for formonsuB; dominSs for dominoms; &c. the 
length of theo is probably due to ns. Cf. § 167. 2. 

3. A final is sometimes shortened (see § a8i) ; 

{a) in the nom. sing, of proper names; e.g. Sdpid, &c. So 
also mentid. 

(^) in the ist pers. sing, active present indicative; e.g. vet6, 
pitt6; rarely in other parts of the verb; e.g. dabd, C8Bdlt6, oderd; 

(f) in a few other words; e.g. eg6, cit6; and sometimes in 
porro, Intro, mod*. 

4. in final syllables of Latin words followed by a consonant is 
regularly shortened; {a\ in nom. sing, of stems in -or; e.g. hondr, 
•orOr, oratdr, xnajdr; (i) in ist pers. sing, of passive voice; e.g. 
amdr, amabdr, audldr; &c. (r) in 2nd and 3rd pers. sing. fiit. imper. 
pass. ; e. g. axnatdr, &c. 

CiiAXGE OF Quality. The general change of to u took 213 
place about the same time as that of 6 to I, see § 234. But it was 
retained after v till later (§ 93) and always in suffix -61us after I or e 
(infr. 2^). 

Thus I. to u (usually) before two consonants (mn, nc, nd, nt, 
It, 8t); e.g. {ci) in 3rd pers. plural of verbs; e.g. dederont, dedro 
(old), dedenmt; cosentiont, consentiiLnt; legunt compared with 
\iyovn (Att. Xtyovcrt). So vivont, vivunt; loquontur, loquntur, 
later loqunntur; coxnfluout, confluimt; &c. 

(^) in final syllable of stem; e.g. colomna (old form: comp. 
TVKTOficvos), colmniia; tirOn-, tlrunculus; qusBStiSn-, quastiuncula ; 
liomdii-, homimciilas; arbos, arbustum; minor (for min5s), minus- 
cnlns; noctumus compared with vvKTcop] 8cc. 

68 Sounds. [Book I. 

(c) sometimes in root vowel; e.g. hone, hunc; poplicos, 
pnplicus; Foplius, Publius; Folcer, Piilcer; moltaticod, mnltatioo; 
oquoltod (S, C. de Bacc.)^ occulto; volt, vnlt; adolesco, adultns; 
conctos, cunctos; sesconda, Bescuncia; nontlata, nuntiata; nondlxraxn, 
nundinimi; &c. 

2. 5 to ft, (a) before a final consonant; e.g. donom, doniim; 
locom, locum; duonoro, bononun; Alios, fllluB; Comello, Oom^us; 
equos, ecus, later equus; quom, cum; mortuos, mortuue; femor-, 
femur; corpos-, corpus; cosol, consul; majos, majus (neut.); illo-, 
lUud; &c. 

But remained in sequor, maimor. (In uxor, honor, momeor, 
major, &c. the o is properly long, and hence is not changed.) 

(b) in a suffix before 1 unless followed by 1 (infr.5); e.g. popOlus, 
poptilus ; parvdlus, parvtQus ; sing61is, slngiULs ; tabdla, tabiUa ; semftl, 
slmtll; concillabdleis (a.u.c. 632), condliabtUis ; Hercdles, HerdUes; 
&c. (The 1 in singulis &c. is only inflexional.) But after e, 1, or 
y, the o was often preserved; e.g. aureolus, flllolus, Scavdla; &c. 

3. The root vowel is changed in adiUescens ft-om addle-, 
tilll for older tdli, I bore, (But stultiloquus, concolor, benivoluB, 
inndcens, dissdnua, &c. ; ftrrogo, evomo, &c. retain 0). 

4. o to e, {a) (sometimes) before two consonants (st, nt, nd) ; 
e.g. honds-, honestas; maJSs-, majestas; tempds-, tempestas; fimte-, 
fonestus. So in present participle and gerundive ferenti- compared 
with cftcpovr-; faciendus (and faclundus), with presumed common 
original faciondus; (cf. § 618) &c. 

(b) as final vowel ; e. g. censuerd (in S. C. de Bacc.) for censueront 
(censuerunt) ; ips6, istfi, 1116, for ipstis (old ips6s); &c. So the 
vocatives; e.g. taure for taurds or taurd-; and adverbs; e.g. bdnd 
for bonod; cert§ and certS; anxie for anxiod; &c. (In other words 
where is final a loss has already taken place (of. § 42); e.g. 
cardo, for cardons; rSgo for r6gom; &c.) 

(r) After V the republican language (but see § 93) showed o in 
some words, where later e was usual; e.g. voster, vorto and its 
derivatives, vorro, v6to; later vester, verto, &c., verro, v6to. 

5. 6 to 6: (a^ before 11; e.g. velle for volfire; vello, pello, 
-cello, compared with p^ptQ-i, vnl-sum, (volseUa,/»/«r<frj), -culsum; 
ocellus (for dcdldlus) from oculus. (But lapillus from lapid-, Sec. ; 
ille for oUus; toUo compared with tull. In corolla, olla, Folllo or 
Folio, Marullus for marSnulus, &c. the is long.) 

(b) before r followed by a vowel ; e. g. foederis compared with 
fo9dus; funerls with funus; vulnero with TUlnus; &c. (0 is pi-e- 
sumed as the common original ; cf. ytvos-) 

CJiap, TX\ Vo7vcls. u. 69 

(f) before a single consonant and after 1; e.g. socio-, Societas; 
plo-, pidtas; &c. 

6. 6 to (usually) I; in final stem syllable, before a single 
consonant followed by a vowel, except 1 not followed by 1, and 
except before r; e.g. leglmuB compared with \eyoficv and volflmus; 
carddn-, cardXnis; homdn-, lioinlxilB; csbIo-, csBlitus; alto-, altitudo; 
iKmo-, lK>nlta8 (compared with to-on;;, &c.); axnico-, amicltia; 
uno-, unlcus; armo-, armlpotens; fato-, falildlcas; fago-, faginus; 
stereos-, sterqniliniam; Incola, InquXlinos; homo-, humllls; slxnol 
(later slmul), similis ; flcto-, flctilis (compared with crusto-, crus- 
ttUum, &c.); &c. 

So also senatuos, senatuis; Castoris compared with Kaaropos, 
old Lat. Kastorus. 

Omission: aj)parently o in victrlx, compared with victCr-; 214 
tonstrina with tonsOr-, cf. § 209. 7 ; neptis with nepOt- (nepos). 


Character: In inscriptions always as English V: the rounded 215 
form is found in MSS., the earliest extant being the papyrus from 

Sound: as Italian u; i.e. ft as English u in brute (or 00 in pool^ ai6 
fool) ; ft same sound shortened. An owl's cry is written tutu in 
Plant. Men. 91. 

Position: fl never final, except in inscriptions, chiefly post- 217 
Augustan, in which a final s or m has been omitted, fl is final only 
in some cases of nouns with stems in u; and the adverbs diu, 
noctu, slmltu. 

It is frequent in suffixes before 1, unless 1 is followed by 1 (see 
Book III). 

Representation: (i) in Greek; i. usually by ov whether the 218 
Latin vowel be short or long; e.g. Regfilus, 'PjjyovXos; Venusia, 
Ov€vov(ria; Posttlinius, Uoarovfuos', StLperbus, ^ov7r€pfios'^ Vibula- 
nus, Om^otikavos', Vitulum, OvltovXov; Belluti, BeXXourov (Dion. 
Hal.); Novum Comum, NojSov/xKoJ/zov/Lt; Mantua, Mai/rova (Strabo) ; 
ApptUeius, ^ATTTTovkriios {Mon, Ancyr,)\ &c. For H in suffixes, 
see § 220. For v after s and g, see § 90. 

a. ft by o, chiefly before X, p or a vowel (see § 213. a. b) ; e.g. 
Axnulius, 'A/X0XX109 (Appian), 'A/xouXtos (Plut., Polyaen.); Ltlcullus, 
Aev/coXXop and AovKouXXoff; Cluentius, KXoeWtoy (Appian); CtLrlus, 
Kopioff (Polyb.), KovpLos (Plut., App.); Fulvius, ^oXomos (also 
^ovXovLosi ^ovXovios, <>ovXj3toff) ; Conmcaiiius, KopoyndvLos (Polyb.), 
KopovyKavtoi (Appian); Satuminus, ^aropvlvos and ^arovopivos'i 
Mummius, M6p.pios (Plut.Y Movfip,Los (App.) : &c. UottXios (Polyb.) 
really represents the early form Poplius, not PubUus (lIovTrXios). 

According to Dittenberger (Hermes, VI. a 8 a) inscriptions before 
Christ always give o, not ov. • 

70 Sounds. [jBook I, 

3. by v; e.g. Taxnns, Tvpwj; Tullins, TvXXtor (Dion. H.); 
Capaam, Kottvi^v (Polyb., Diod., &c.); Bozuulos, *Pco/ivXoff (Dio 
G.) ; &c., but also Toupj/oy, TovXXtoy (Dio Cass.) ; Lutatlus, Avra- 
Tios (Polyb.; others have Aovr.). Bulla is always SvXXar. 

4. by c; only in some non-Roman names, e.g Bnmdnsiiun, 
Bpfi/TcViov; BruttU, BpcTTWi (but App. also BpvTTtoi); NllmerluB, 
I<€fiepios (Inscr., Nov/iepto£, Dio, Plut.) ; Humltor, Ncficrwp (NofuJ- 
Ttpp, Plut., Nov/Atra>p» Strab.). 

5. sometimes omitted; e.g. LentiUns, AciaXor (Appian, Plut.); 
CatUuB, KarXoy (Appian, Plut.); Tuscfilum, TovokKov (Strabo, 
Plut.); FiguluB, ^tyXor; &c, cf. infr. § 225. 

6. fl (sometimes) by tv ; e. g. Lucius, AeiJictor (^Mon. Ancjr,, PluL) ; 
LucnlluB, AevicoXXos (Appian); Lucani, AtvKavoi (always); &c. 

(ii) I. of Greek v before Cicero's time (see § 56) ; e.g. Uvppos, a«9 
Burrus; ^pvy€s, Bruges (Ennius); rXv/cepa, Glucera; 'Horvxtov, He- 
sucUum; AvKiovst Lucios; ^ikapyvpos, PUargums, PliUaigams ; 
^vposy Sums ; all in Republican inscriptions. So trutlna for Tpxyrcan), 
Similarly Plautus must have written sucopanta for {rvKo<f>ajmfs; 
inuropolss for /xvpoTrc^Xat ; 8UinlK>lum for crvfiPo\ov\ 8cc, Compai'e 
Bacch. 362, " Nomen mutabit mihi, facietque extemplo Crucisalum 
me ex Crusalo {xpvaaKos)^ 

2. ft of Greek a in suffixes before 1; e.g. KpaardKijy craptUa; 
o-KVTokrij scuttUa (later scytale). 

3. ft of Greek o; e.g. KoBopvos, cothurnus; dfiopyrj, amurca; 
7rop(f)vpa, purplira; cVioroXi;, episttUa; #coXeor (l^P* /covXeor), 

4. ft of Greek ov; e.g. AvKovpyos, lycurgus; Heo-tnvovs, 
Pesslnus; ScTrot);, Sipus (Lucan: but Sipontum, Cic). 

Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European u; and a** 
to a. 

2, to Greek v; e.g. mftcus, mungo, '^va-a-to, fiv/cnjp; Iftpus, 
Xu/cor; fty-idus, ftmor, vypor; cftbare, KVTrro}] glftbo, y\v(t)a>\ fOmus, 
Bva>, 3vp,os', ecfdtio, Aittllis, ^v-f x^^i Xpo'i^'^ cluo, Indfttus, fcXvca, 
#cXvroff; cucftlus, KOKKv^ (KOKKvy); Iflceo, lux, dpijii'XvKij, Xvxvos; 
Jftgum, (vyov] Iftgere, Xvypos] fui, </)i5a); sus, vs] mus, p.vs\ rflfus, 
rttber, ipv6p6s\ 8cc. 

3. to Greek o; e.g. bulbus, jSoX/Sor; upftpa, «ro^; nummus, 
ropo^; umbilicus, op^aXdr; unguis, ow$] sftcus, otto?; ftter (for 
quoter), Trorepoy; fungus, crt/xJyyoy; luxus, \6$os] uncus, oyxoy. 

In suffixes; e.g. gdnus, yewr; Iftpus, Xvicoy; Idgunt, Xcyovo-t 
for \tyovTi, 

to Greek ©; e.g. cftneus, /ctSw^; fOr, </)<5p; ulna, oJXc'j^; 

Chap, IX.I Vowels, u. 71 / 

5. to Greek o; e.g. umbo, ayJ^<iiv\ utbub, apKTog\ VT^er^naU; 
httmly yofiat; sturzLus, ^ap* 

6. to Greek e; e.g. miilgeo, a/xeXyo); ulcus, cXko^; buub, ecr; 
taus, rcop. 

7. inserted between two consonants in early Latin in words 
obtained by oral tradition, not through literature^; e.g. Alcflmena, 
'AXicfu/vi;; JSscnlapius, 'Aa-KXqnios] HerciUes (also Herooles), 'Hpa- 
Kkqsy TecOiueBBa, TeKfirja-o-a; dr&c&xna or drachuma, dpdxfirj. 

Substitution: i. for a radical a (after a prefix) before labials, 221 
or 1 with anotl^ consonant; e.g. t&bema, contftbemlum; salto, 
Insulto; &c. (see § 204. 2. e). 

1. ' 11 for au; after a prefix; e.g. causa, ac-cUso; daudo, 
ezdlldo; &c. FJrild&re, clfldus, &c. seem to be earlier forms for 
fiwvdaxo, daudus. 

3. for o before two consonants, or a final consonant, or a suffix 
beginning with 1; e.g. hone, himc; robor-, robur; slngdlus, slngtUus; 
&c. (see § 213). 

4. 11 for older oi or oe; e.g. oinos, oenus, flnus; oitile, Utile; 
mirinldplels, moenla, mflnlciplls, mUnla; &c. 

5. 11 for older ou ; chiefly after the time of the Gracchi ; e. g. Jus, 
judex for Jous, Joudex; abdiicit for abdoucit ; (see § 251). 

Contraction, Hiatus, &c.: u+e and u+l are contracted 22a 
into n in some cases of substantives with u stems; e.g. senatuis, 
aenatns; senatul, senatu; gradues, gradOs. In the words hulc, cut 
(for hole, quo!) and interjection hul, ul is a single syllable, probably 
pronounced like French out or Engl. <we. 

Before other vowels, and before these in other cases, u remains, 
usually as vowel, but sometimes as consonant: see § 92. 

Change of Quantity: i. in root syllable; e.g. rildis, cradus; 223 
pilBillas, pIlBlo; fltlvlus, fltivldus and fliiyidus (both in Lucret.); 
Iftcema, Iflceo, lux (lAc-); diic- (dux), dILco; Jftgnm, Jfigerum; 
r&ber, riUtiB, rObigo ; ptitrls, pHteo, pHtidus; ruxnpere (riip-), rflpes. 

2. lengthened by way of inflexion in perfect tense; e.g. ftiglo, 
fUgl; ftindo (f&d-), fadi; ruxnpo (riip-), riipi; Jftvo, Jflvl (for 
Jftvul?). The u in perfect of verbs with u stems is probably long, 
but becomes ^ort before the following vowel; e.g. plUo (for 
pltkvo, cf. plflvla), perf. plfli (for plflvl), usually pltd; &c. (Corssen 
considers the u in the present also to be properly long.) 

* Ritschl, Ojfusc. II. 4Qb, 

72 Sounds [Bo^Jkl. 

3. lengthened by compensation for an extruded ccmsonant; e.g. 
dfUnuB for dus^mns (comp. daa-vs)' 

Change of Quality : i. The short vowel before a suffix m4 
commencing with m, p, or f, is usually written ft in prae-Augustan 
inscriptions, 1 afterwards. Thus in prae-Augustan inscriptions max- 
tUnvs, optflmns, inroxsilimLB, ■anetlssftmns, Tlc«n8ftmus, decflmiUk 
marltiixniiB ; aesttLmo, rec&pero ; aurftfex, pcmtftfex; &c. Jul. Caesar is 
said to have first written I, which is somewhat* i^are in Republican 
inscriptions, but is exclusively used in the Monum. Ancyr., and is 
most usual in and after the Augustan age. Quintilian (i. 4? 8) 
describes this vowel (instancing optimaB) as intermediate between 
u and i. In Greek almost always c, never v; e.g. Maft/xor* Aeiu/ior, 
noi/rt<^t/c€ff ; but also in inscr. Aeico/jnr, AtKovfios, Srnrov/Ae. Au- 
gustus is said to have written sXmus for smmui, *we are. 

The dat. abl. plural of stems in u probably had the ending 
-Hbus in all origuially, which soane retained always; e.g. actibus, 
arcnbus, &c. ; (but manlbus, exirdtlbus, &c.) 

Similarly cllipeus, manc&pem, lUbens are earlier forms than 
dlpenB, xuanclpem, Ubens ; &c. In Vergil obstlpul for obstfipul. 

a. Before suffixes not commencing with labials, IS becomes 1; 
e. g. comu-, comlger ; gelu, gelldus ; arcus, arcltenens ; 8cc, 

Oaptitalem (S. C. de Bacc.)^ xnanftfdBtDB are earlier forms than 
capltalem, manlfestus. 

3. For some other words (e.g. ftmua, fa]i6r-4s; VQlrgiim, yello; 
&C.) in which u appears to have been only a transition vowel, see 
§ 213. 5. For gerundus &c. see § 618. 

Omission : The suffixes -ciilo-, -ptUo- were shortened to -do-, 225 
-plo- sometimes in prose; e.g. Asclanl for Asculanl; vlncliim for 
ylncnlum; nudeuB for nUciUeaB (Plaut.); hercle for hercftle; and 
often in verse; e.g. manlplus, drclua, Bsediim, peridom, orftdum, 
spect&dum, tom&dTun; &c. So usually asseda, nomendator; and 
always, dlsclplina, slmplus, duplus, 8cc, Lucretius has (once) 
copl&ta for c5piU&ta. Instances of -glo- are rare, e.g. figUnus for 
flgnliniui often ; slnglftriter for BlngtUftrlter once (Lucr.). Plautus 
has always cdumen for (later) oulmen. Comp. § 218. 4. 

Character : as above, but with the horizontal lines sometimes 226 
very short. In the very oldest inscriptions probably before 500 u.c, 
another form, 1 1, is found frequently, but not exclusively. It is also 
conmion in the cursive writing of the Pompeian inscriptions, though 

1 The earliest instance Infimo in an inscription of the year 623 u. c. 
(Corp. /. J?, 199), which everywhere else has Infumo^ is perhaps a slip 
of the stonecutter. 

CAap.IX.] Vowels. E. 73 

rare in any other inscriptions, at least of republican times. (See 
also P § 95.) 

Sound : 8 probably varying between e and e French. These 227 
sounds are heard short -as • in Engl, net^ and (the first) a. in aerial. 

Position : frequently final ; ^dz. 6 in gen. dait abl. singular of 228 
noun stems in -e, and in and pers. sing. pres. imper. act. of verbs 
with -e stems: also in pronouns me, te, se, preposition 3, conjunc- 
tion ne, and adverbs (e.g. docte). 

• is final in abl. sing, of nouns with consonant, and (often) -1 
Items (e.g. patre, puppfi); in nom. sing, of neuter -1 stems (e.g. 
marS); in voc. sing, of o stems (e.g. taurd), and nom. sing. masc. of 
some pronouns (e.g. 1116) ; in many parts of verbs, especially the and 
person (e.g. regd, regltd, reg6b&rd, reg&rd, regSrd, regard, and 3rd 
pers. rezfirS, &c.); also some adverbs, prepositions, &c. (e.g. bend, 
Indd, -que, antd, &c.) 

Medial e is frequent before two consonants, or 11; e.g. perfectns, 
Tdl6j and before r. Cf. § 204, a, h\ ai3. 5, h\ 434, 3» ^* 

Representation : (i) in Greek, 6 by »;, 6 by « ; MdnGniuB, 229 
M€vi7vtoff; Comaliiis, Kopi/i)Xeor; Veturlus, Ovcrovptof; Tll>erlus, 
Tc^cpAor; MetelluB, McVeXXor; &c. 

• by a in Calendn, KoXovdai (always) ; by c in Puteoll, TLorlokot 
(Inscr. always). 

(ii) z. of Greek 1;, and f ;,e.g. 170)0; j£^., e^o? Att., eSus, dOus; 
A$/iyor,Lemno8; cXXe/3opoi/,lielldl>0rum; IIcpo-e<^'ovi7,Persdpli6n8; &c. 

a. before vowels, of «; e.g. j8aXai/etoi/, baUn^imi; TrXareto, 
l^latta; AtVeta?, Aeneas; 'AXefai/dpeta, Alexandrea (Cic); Aajpetor, 
Buwns (Cic.) ; &c. But 'AXf ^audpi^a, &c. are found in papyri. 

3. of Greek t; e.g. Kox^las, cochlea; vava-ia (Att. i/avrta), nausea. 
Correspondence: i. to an original Indo-European a. 

a. • to Greek € (usually); e.g. fir^mo, ppetiio] gdnus, yeVor; 
■Ueo, cdof ; Mo, cda> ; sex, e| ; septem, eWa ; serpo, cfyrrca ; est, 
ffVTi ; M, en ; eervus, Kepaot ; Idgo, Xeyo) ; leo, Xeiov ; mel, ^eXe ; 
mMoor, ficdofuu ; mddius, /xecror ; men8,/Lici;or; pfito, TreVofiat; rdpens, 
pcVfi) ; Bdyeros, a-f^ofAcu ; qu6, re ; hdrl, ;^dey ; &c. 

to Greek jy ; e.g. ttra, ^p ; Jficur, ^nap. 

3. • to Greek a; e.g. Inrdvls, Ppaxvs (§ 129. a. f ) ; centum, 
Ikotov ; ctoehrum, icapa ; dgfinus, aymvla ; Idvis, eXa;(Vf ; per, irapa ; 
prd-liendOy j^ovdovo) ; stemuo, irrapwio ; Hher, ovBap ; venter, yaan^p. 

4. • to Greek ©; e.g. gfinu, yow; dentls, ofioin-oy; fel, x^^os] 
Imtei <t>opPij I sdrum, opo; ; pddem, Troda. 

5. B to Greek i;; mensls (§ 167), fii^v; ne, tn}; lien, cnrXiji/; 
sfertnnuB, orpijvijr; sSml-, i^fu-: to Greek €*, e.g. iq5, |i.«\ \A^ a** 


74 Sounds. [Baoi / 

6. 6 to Greek o ; e.g. ySnniii, Jj/of. 

7. In suffixes 9 to c; e.g. legd, Xcyc; legltd, Xrycrc; genArls, 
y€V€os ; dextfir, dc^/rcpor ; &c. Compare also md-mlnl, u^-uova 
(cf. § 665). 

d to a ; e. g. nomfin, ovofia (pvofiar-)* 

e (old ft) to o; legent-, Xeyoi^r-; &c. 

Substitution : i. e, for radical a after a prefix, is found before 931 
two consonants or a final consonant, or r, or sometimes other angle 
consonants; e.g. tracto, detrecto; pars, ezpers; cftno, comioea; 
p&rlo, pepdrl; gr&dior, liigrddlor; &c. (§ 204). 

a. for radical o, before 11 ; e.g. vello compared with tuM; 
ocellus for ocoIoIub; &c. (§ 213. 5): and after y in Tteter, verto, 

&c. (§ 93). 

3. for suffixed o (§ 213) ; 

(a) before r followed by a vowel, or after 1 before other single 
consonants; e.g. generis from genus (ycvos); soddtas from BOdxu 
(stem socio-) ; &c. 

(B) before two consonants; e.g. fadendus for fodundus, older 
faciondus ; tempestas from tempos- ; 8cc. 

(c) in final syllables; e.g. censuere for censneront; Ule for 
Ulus (illo-) ; &c. 

4. for ae, not frequent till in and after third century after Christ 
(see § 26a). 

Contraction, Hiatus, &c. : 

1. e + e to S; e.g. delgyerunt, delSnmt; deldvSrat, dd6rat;333 
deerat, deesse, deest always to d6rat, dSsse, d6st ; nd hfimo (old for 
homo), n§mo ; pr§liendo, prendo ; &c. 

2. e + 1 to e, or (especially if the contraction was not constant) 
el; e.g. deleylsse, delesse; dSMbeo, dSbeo; mone-is, monSs, 

dein, deinde, deinceps, (never uncontracted till late) ; debinc as 

monosyllable occasionally; el (also 51), eidem (dative), often. 

So also rei, spei, fidel, diei Sec, often written re, spe, fide, die. 

In Vergil, &c. also aurei, aureis, aerei, ferrd ; and Greek proper 

names as Terei, Thesei, Orpliei, Pelei, &c., sometimes written 
Teri, &c. 

In reice for rejlce, eidt (Lucr.) for ejicit, dus (rarely a mono- 
syllable), Pompei (voc.) something of the consonantal sound of J 
may have remained (§ 138). Anteit is used as a trochee, the e being 
elided. So also ante ea becomes antea. 

Ch'af.IX,] Vowels, E. 75 

3. e before a, 0, u, remained usually a vowel, and without con- 
traction; e.g.moneas; saxeo, saxea, saxeum; ennt, earn, eo; &c. 

But in the following, e was probably pronounced as J, so as not to 
form a separate syllable; e^em, eftdem, daedem, ^ondem (Lucr., 
Vei^.); alveo, alvearia, aureo, aureft (Verg.); ostarea, cer«a (Hor.) ; 
alrSO, anzeo, aiiii», aureft (Ov.) : and Greek proper names ; e. g. 
Idomeneos, Peleo, Perseo, Mnestlieo; &c. After the Augustan age 
this use was confined to proper names and the cases of balteuB^ 
inrefos, alveus. 

So, in comic poets, in the cases of the following words, mens, 
dans, eo, earn (both the pronoun and verb). 

It is contracted in neve, neu; ne-uter, neuter; && revorsus, 
nunms; and probably in seorsum (sometimes written soiBUxn), 
deoonnim; omitted in n-uaqyam, n-iLtiqyam. 

Change of Quantity: i. in roots; e.g. r«gere, r6x (r6g-); 233 
Mgare, tSgnla ; Idgere, 18z (16g-) ; sddere, sSdes ; bdrus, hSres. 

a. lengthened, as a means of inflexion ; e.g. 16go, ISgi ; 6do, Sdl ; 
■Meo^ B6di ; vSnlo, vSnl ; dmo, Gmi. 

3. lengthened in compensation for the extrusion of a consonant; 
e.g. dfinl for ddclnl; sS-i^bl for sex-vlri; duingtum for dumectnm; 
&c In yIcISb for yldens; vlcSsimus for ylcenslinus; HcrtSsia for 
Horfeensla; the long e is probably due to ns. Cf. § 167. 2. 

4* In final syllable often shortened; e.g. T}end, maJd, supemS, 
InflBniS, (compared with doct€, &c-)» so in the imperatives cav6, 
Tldl^ (see § 279) ; and frequently in the comic poets, in verbs 
with short penult; e.g. ten6, movd, tac6, mane, vldd, haM, JuM. 

^Itonfit, amfit, regCt, (for monSt, &c.) ; terts, equfis, &c. (for 
tewte, &c.); yld&i(foryld8sne); compos, deste (for comped-s, &c.). 

In the ablative of -1 stems, and of consonant stems; e.g. nubfi, 
porlncipd, the final syllable was probably once in -Sd; e.g. nubed, 
prlndped. The earliest forms actually found in inscriptions are 
airld, aire, patrS, nominid, coventlonid ; and, in and after the time 
<if the Gracclii, e.g. vlrtutel, salutel, lud, deditionl, fontel, onmei, 
parti, Tectlgall, &c. 

Change of Quality: i. e is found in the old language, in 234 
many places where an I is found later. The change began towards 
the end of 5th centiuy u.c, and was completed, with some excep- 
tions, before Plautus's time (Ritschl, Opusc. 11. 623); e.g^ sdmul, 
ftiet, dedetk mereto, tempestateT}UB, c»dete, Fabrecio, &c. for slmul, 
ftilt, dedlt, meilto, tempestatibus, caodltls, Fabricius, &c^ 

76 Sounds. [Book I. 

2. 9 IS found in a final suffix, where i is found before s or d, e 
being according to Ritschl (§ 196) the earlier vowel; e.g. fieudle, 
Cadlis; mard, marls; ma^e, magis; fortasse, fortasBls; pote, potla; 

■ aere, aerid (old abl. but see § 233); r6ge, r€gis; rftge, rSgis; aMia^ 
bare, amabarls; ama1)dre, amalieris; fateare, fotearis; capd, caj^; 

3. 9 is changed to I, in a final syllable to which a letter or 
syllable (one or more) is suffixed ; — 

(a) either if e be final and the suffix begin with a consonant; 
Ule, ilUc (for ilUce) ; Iste, istic (for istlce) ; tute, tuflne, tatlmet ; 
nnnce, nnndtae; sice (i.e. sic), sieine; undo, undlqoe; tnde, tndldem; 
poste (old form of post), postidea ; ante, antidliac, antldpo, antistes; 
bene, benivolus, benignus; male, malificus, &c.; pave-, pavldTis; 
pude-, pudibundus; rube-, rubicandus; mone-, monltus; morde-, 
mordXcus ; babe-, babito ; pate-, patlbuliun ; regd, regite, reglto ; forte, 
fortiter ; radice, radicitus ; babe-, babOis. 

(In niibSs, esurlSs, 8cc, ; amarSs, amSs, monSs, &c., the e is long, 
arising from contraction with the initial vowel of the suffix. So 
originally amSt, monSt ; &c.) 

(b) or, if e be not final, but the suffix begin with a vowel ; 
e.g. alfis, alltls; pedds, pedltis; antistfis, antistlta, antistltem; 
tiblc6n,tibicXnls, tibiclna; agmSn, agmXnls ; semSn, semino ; manoeps, 
manclpem (old manciipem); biceps, bicipitem; vertex, vertlds; 
artifez, artiflcls ; dficem, declmus. 

But 6 remains after the vowel 1, or before r (or tr) ; e. g. arlis, 
arietls; tener, tenera; pIpSr, pipdrls; ansdr, ansdrem; regis, regSris; 
genltor, genStrix; &c.; or if the suffix begin with a consonant; 
e.g. ales for alet-s; obses (for obsed-s); lamella (for lamen-la) 
compared with lamxnina; nutrlmen, nutrimentum (but nutrlmlnis) ; 
senex, senectus; pedes, pedester; potestas compared with potis, 
pote ; patens, compared with patina ; (comp. yidSn for vidSsne). 

Other exceptions are rare; e.g. fssnisex, fsenisScis; seges, segS- 
tis ; (Pndefacio, &c. are not complete compounds, as is evident from 
the accent and vowel a being retained ; e.g. pudefdcis). 

4. Radical 6 changed to I when a syllable has been prefixed ; 
e.g. Idgo, cQllIgo, diUgo, &c. (but Intelldgo, negldgo, relfigo; contego, 
&c.); r^o, corrlgo; dmo, adimo; sSco, subsicivus; t&ieo, retlneo; 
dgeo, Indlgeo; prSmo, opprlmo; tdneo, proflnus; but decem, nnde- 
dm, where the penultimate remains, but the final is changed. 

But not before r or two consonants; e.g. refero, consentio; &c. 

5. The root vowel is (apparently) changed from e to in some 
derivatives; e.g. tdgo, t6ga; sSqui, sOcius; pr§carl, prOcus; pendo, 
pondns; terra, extorrls; sftrdre, sors; perhaps rdgSre, rOgus. Pro- 
bably the o is directly from the original a. 


Chap, IX?^ Vowels. L 77 

6. & to I, frequently through el as an intermediate sound; e.g. 
matre, Uaiirte, Junane in old inscriptions, formatrl, Marti, Jwuml; 
eu n i im rU>l<g, Atllles for conseriptl, Atllll (nom. pi. see Book II); &c. 
lelMr, lellier, Uber. So slbe, quase, are old forms, used by Livy 
(Quint. I. 7. 24); and duovlr Jure dlcundo, tresvlrl auro aere 
ugento flajado, ferlundo, etc. apparently are forms retaining the old 
dative. On the general theory, see § 196. 

Omission : i. 9, in a root syllable which has received prefixes 235 
or suffixes, is sometimes omitted ; e.g. gigno for glgdno (or glglno) ; 
aiiUgiius for xnallgdnus ; gn&tus for g&i&tua. 

a. Before r the vowel 9 is frequently omitted; e.g. September, 
BeptemlnlB ; ftoer, aorls; firftter, fratrem; flger, agrum; infdruB, 
Infira; dextfira, deztra; noster, nostra; ludHxrlum; &c 

3. Final 8 fell off; {a) in neuter nom. ace. of stems in 81- and 
Mx-\ e.g. calcar, laquear ; tribunal, puteal; &c. So also lac (for 
laot, for lacte, nom. sing.) ; v61tlp for volupe ; slmul for simile. 

(Jf) in enclitic particles; e.g. blc, lisdc, hoc, &c. (for hlce, &c.), 
Ullc, Istlc, sic, nunc, tunc; nee, ac, for nece, ace, for neque, 
atque; TldSn for yldes-ne; potln for potls-ne; quin for qui-ne, 
■111 for sX-ne. (In eeu, neu for slve, nlve (old eeve, neve), fill for 
jllto, a contraction has taken place.) 

4. On the omission of e in est and es after a vowel or m, see 
Book II. ' 


Character : as above. In the first century B.C., probably not 236 
before Sulla^s time, began the habit of making a tall I to indicate the 
long vowel. (See § 59. a.) 

Sound: as in Italian, viz.: X as in English machine; 1 same 237 
sound shortened. But in some classes of words, e.g. vir, qvlrltes, 
oxytlmas, there is some evidence for a modified sound of X, perhaps 
a fine Germ. Q. See Preface; also §§ 90, a; 184) 3* 

Position : X is never final ; except x. in quasi, nisi, slcutl ; 238 
and 2. (short or Icmg) in miM, tlbl, slbl, ubl, Ibl. 

I frequently final ; i. in gen. and loc. sing, and nom. pi. of 
o stems (e.g. domlnX) ; sometimes gen. and dat. sing, of a stems, 
• stems and n stems (e. g. mus&I, dl3I, domuX) ; dat. sing, of conso- 
nant stems, and dat. abl sing, of 1 stems (e.g. nomlnX, marl); 
and dat. sing, of many pronouns; e.g. UIX; a. some adverbs, once 

78 Sounds. [Book L 

oblique cases; e.g. berl, yesperl, ubi, uti, si; &c. 3. ist and and 
persons sing. peif. ind. active and present infinitive passive of all 
verbs, and and pers. sing, imperative active of X- verbs (e.g. audivl^ 
audlYlgtl, audlzl, andl). 

Representation: (i) in Greek, i. I by i, e.g. GaluB LMu, sis 
Foioff Ai'iSeof ; Claudius, YXavhios\ Titus Otadlius, Ttror 'Oiera- 
KtXtof (Polyb.); Priscus, Ilpto-icof ; Opiter, *Oir[r<op (Dion. H.); 
Capitoliuiii, KoTriTdoikiov (Strab., Dion. H., Plut.); KamTaXipos 
(Dion. H., Dio. Cass.) ; &c 

In inscriptions are sometimes found (besides forms with t) Tc- 
/3/pioy (so always before Tiberius' adoption by Augustus. Ditten- 
berger, Herm. VI. 133), AcVeSor, Ao/ncViof, and others; often 
KaireToSiXiov, 'Oc^eXXios (but also in Latin Ophellius), Xtyedv, 

By v; e.g. Blbulus, Bv/SXor (inscr.). 

By a in suffixes; e.g. bUcIna, /Svjcowy (Polyb.). 

Sometimes omitted, e.g. Dedmus, AcV/iOf. 

a. I by t; e.g. Capitollnus, KaTrircoXtvor (videsupr.); Alttlnus, 
*\\^LVos] Sclpio, SxtTTto)!/ (Diod. S., Appian, Strabo); TIbur, Tt- 
^ovpa ; Tarraclnam, TappaKivav (Strabo). 

By »7 ; ^' S- Sclpio, 2Kr]7ria>v (Plut.). 

(ii) I. of Greek t; e.g. KaXXiicX^r, Callicles; Ilatyvtov, Paeg- 
nlum; rpaTrffiriyr, trapessita; 'AjSfijyptn^ff, Abderltes; eeVis:, Thetis. 

a. I of Greek a in suffixes; e.g. pxixavd (Dor.), maclilna; rpv- 
rdvrj, trutlna; Karcanrj, C&tlna; &c. 

3. I of Greek ei; e.g. Treipanjs, pirata; NcIXoy, Nllus; dXetTm^r, 
alipta; 'Avriox^ta) AntiocMa; &c. 

4. i inserted in early Latin (cf. § a 20. 7) between kv, x^f /*"» 
e.g. npoKVTff Frocine; kvkvos, cdclnus; teclna, rcxi^; mlna, fivcL 

Correspondence: i. to original Indo-European t; and to a. 240 

a. to Greek t; e.g. die- In-dlco, causldlc-us, dico, Btfcj^ 
bfUwfjLi ; vlglntl, fucoa-i ; do, kicb, icti/to) ; cU-vus, recll-nare, Kkivrj, 
KktTvs ; crl-brum, cer-no, Kpiv<o ; Uemps, ;^ta)j; ; firlo, frico, ;^pta> ; 
stlnguo, stimulus, crriya), ariyp.^ ; tri- (e. g. tria), rpt Ir, rpiros ; 
dlYUS, dies, fiioff, €u-5ia; video, vidi; tS-, etSoj/; scindo, o-xtS-, 
^^X^C^w^P^^^Sj TTiXor; Mffus, piyor; quis, Ttr; vis, ip (ti/-); ^tex, 
vltis, Xtvs ; viola, toi/ ; &c. 

3. to Greek c; e.g. in, indo (old, endo), intus, cV, tvhov^ 
ivTos I rigo, ^p€x^ » strigHis, arkcyyls ; tlnguo, rcyyo). 

4. to Greek ft, ot; e.g. fido, fides, Trfi^o) ; quies, Kufxai, kqIttj ; 
-sro, pic-tura, iroiKlKos \ Unquo, rellquus, XciVw, Xoiiroi. 

Chap. /X] Vowels. I. 79 

5, to Greek o ; e.g. In-, ai/- (Engl, »«-) ; dIgltuB, haK-rvkos ; 
plngiiiB, frajfvs \ Btringo, aTpay^^vfo. 

6. to Greek o ; e.g. dzils, icoj/t; ; ImlMr, ofippos. 

Substitution : i. I for ft in root syllable after a prefix, before 241 
JL single consonant (except r), and before ng; e.g. tango, tetilgi; 
duo, condbno; Ocetus, inflcetus; pango, Impingo; &c. (see § 204). 

a. (a) I for older d in many words* e.g. dedit for deddt; &c. 
(see § 434;. 

(^) I for d in root- syllable after a prefix; e.g. Idgo, col- 
ngo; Sec. 

(c) Also in final closed suffix, and in final syllable of stem, to 
which a letter or syllable is suffixed ; either if e be final and the suffix 
begin with a consonant, or if e be not final, but the suffix begin with a 
Yowd ; e.g. mard, marls ; Indd, Indldem ; ales, alltls ; &c. (see § 234). 

3. I for 6 in final syllable of stem before a single consonant 
followed by a vowel, except before 1 not followed by 1, and except 
before r ; e.g. card6n- cardlnls ; lx>no- iKmltas ; Sec. (see § 213. 5). 

4. I for ti in final syllable of stem, but before m, p, f, not until 
last century of republic ; e.g. coma- comlger ; maximus for maxd- 

; &c. (see § 224). 

5. X appears to have been, at least in many words, preceded by 
B, or el both in root syllables and suffixes, sometimes by both 
(see §§ a65, 268). 

6. I for ai: possibly in the dat. plur. of a- stems: e.g. musis for 
See § 257. 

7. I for SB in root syllable after a prefix; e.g. qnsaro, Inqulro; 
aqinu, tnlquus; &c.; csddo, cecidl; &c. (§262). 

Contraction, Hiatus, &c. : i. 1+1, if one be long, is con- 243 
tiacted to I; e.g. dll, dl; consUll, consUI; petilt, petit; audiis, 
andXs; andlvletl, andlstl; si vis, sis; nihil (ne Mliim), nil; mlhl, 
ml; &c. If both are short, one is dropped; e.g. fogUs, f^jgls; egregl- 
ior, egreglor; navl-llms navlbus; etc. (cf. § 144). But tlbiicen 

a. 1 before other vowels usually remained. It absorbed a 
succeeding vowel in higa for bljtiga; fill for fiUe; sis for sles; 
mftgls for maglos; dnris-slnius for durlds-lmus ; &c., in which 
comparatives 1 is perhaps properly long ; comp. /SeXr-to)!', ^fkriova ; 
&:c. (On minor see § 245.) 

8d Sounds. [Beok f. 

Change of Quantity: i. in root syllable; e.g. Ubet, liber, ^3 
Ubertas; fides, perfidus, fido, fcedus; soeploere, snsplclo; dXo-, 
male-dlc-us, dico; ar-blt-er, per-bit6re; Uqvor, also llqvor (onceV 
Uqvidus and Uqvldus (Lucret. iv. 1259, "Kquidis et liquioa 
crassis"); liayftre, UaySre, Ha^l. 

a. in final syllables; e.g. audit for audit; At for sit (siet); 
yrtit for vellt ; also sometimes audlveris for audirerls (porf. subj. 
see Book II). 

3. final I is shortened in nisi, quasi (comp. slquldem), and fre- 
quently in mihl, tibi, slbl, ubi (always slcubl, necubl, ublvls, but 
ubique), ibi (but Ibidem, alibi). So utluam, utique, from utL 

In Plautus also d&rl, p&tl, IdquI; dddX, stdtl; Y6nl, &bl, are 
found with 1 short. 

Change of Quality: i. to e before a or or 1; e.g. mel, 244 
meo, compared with mis (old gen.), mlhi; qneo, queam, from qul-re; 
eo, earn, from Ire ; eum, earn, compared with Is, id. (But audiam, 
audio, audiit; &c.) Perhaps the e is even here prior to the L 

a. H is found, from stems (apparently) in e or 1, in early Latin 
before m, f ; e.g. testi-, testimonium; ponti-, pontiifex; cazni-, 
camufex; ddc6-, dOdimentum; m6n6-. mdntimentum. The forms 
with I, e.g. testimonium are later (cf. § 224). 

3. For change of i to J see § 142. 

4. For e instead of i, before r, see § 184. 3, 569, 6s6. 

Omission : i. I in suffixes is often omitted between two conso-»45 
nants; e.g. facultas for facilitas; misertum for miseritum; puertia 
(Hor.) for pueritia; postus (Verg.) for positus; repllctus (Verg.) 
for repUcitus; audacter for andSLdter (Quint i. 6. 17); propter for 
propiter; fert for ferit; volt for volit; est for Sdit; yalde for TBllde; 
caldus (Augi^tus) for calidus; soldus (Hor.) for solidus; lanma 
for lammina; alumnus for aluminus; tignum compared with tigU- 
lum; tegmen for teglmen; probably benflcium, &c. (in Plaut, Ter., 
Phaedr.) for benlfLcium; &c. 

a. In the nom. sing, of -1 nouns, but rarely after a short 
syllable ; c. g. ars for artis ; ferens for ferentis ; Arpinfts for Arpinfttts ; 
mendax for mendftcis; nux for ntLcis; &c. (see Book II). 

3. A radical i is omitted in surgo for surrigo; porgo for porrlgo ; 
pergo for perrigo ; purge for purigo ; Jurgium for Jurigium (Jus, 
agere) ; surpdre (Luc, Hor.) for surrlpere. 

4. In minor, minus, I is apparently dropped (for mln-ior, mlniiu). 

Insertion: 1. 1 is apparently inserted between consonant stems, 
and derivative suffixes, e.g. ftUtus from ftl-6re; t^glmen from t6g-&re ; 
ftOlflnlcus from full5n- ; hSrSdltas from MrSd- ; &c. But see § 746. 

a. in words from Greek. See above, § 239, 5. 

CJu^* -XI] Diphthongs. AU. OU. 8i 


Sound: as in German; i..e. nearly as English ow'^xxi cow^ town. 

Representation: (i) in Greek by ou; e.g. AunmculeluB, 247 
AJfKnryicovXi^M)? ; Auliis, AvXor; &c. 

^) of Greek av; e.g. AvTOfi€b<ov, Automedon; &c. 

Correspondence: to Greek av; e.g. augeo, av^dvco; aurora, 248 
avtos Moh, (rjcis Att.); naiita, vavrrjs] taurus, ravpos] caiills, 

Substitution: i. for av before a short vowel, which is then 249 
absorbed; e.g. cautum for cavitum; fautor for f&vltor; auceps for 
avlOQiw; &c. 

3. for ab before f; e.g. anfoglo, anfero compared with absttdl, 
aMatmn. But see § 97 n. 

Change of Quality: i. to in the older language, but the 25c 
same words are more frequently found with au retained; e.g. Olodius 
for daudluB; copa for caupa; codex for caudez; Plotus for Plautus ; 
plostnim for plauBtmm; lotus for lautus; rOdus, (rtldus, mdus- 
onlnm) for raudus, raudusculum; olla (ola?) for aula; &c. So 
(according to Festus) in the country dialect orom, orlculas for 
aumm, auriculas. In Plautus ausculor for osculor (cf. Suet. 
Vesp. aa). 

explode from plaudo; suffocare from fauces; &c. 

a. into tl; e.g. fmstra from fraus; firudare, flrude old forms for 
frandaxe, fraude; excludo from claudo, sometimes dudo; accuse 
from causa; &c. 


Sound: probably that of the Southern English «, which is really 251 
a diphthong formed of and u. Cf § ai. 

* In Phaedr. Append, ai, A raven {corvtis) is said to have cried 
ave (ah- we, or au? cf. § 94). We represent a raven's ordinary cry by 
caw. But Pliny (H. N. 10, § 121) tells of a raven who sermoni adme- 
/actus, Tiberiiim salutabat; and a trained raven is bad evidence. 

82 Sounds. - [Book L 

This diphthong is found in inscriptions in a few wcHxls regulariy 
before the seventh century u.c, and frequently until after the mid- 
dle of the same. Afterwards 11 became exclusively used in its place. 
Thus Fourlus, Loucanam, Loudna, abdouoit, plonmrna, pcOoucta, 
poubllcom, pious, jous, jooslt (Jussit), Joudex, Jouranto, nonndtnnm. 
Instances of long u before the time of the Gracchi are rare; e.g. 
Juno, Junone, Ludom, Lucius, in some of the earliest inscriptions. 

Sound: probably pronounced as a diphthong. So in Italian, as^ 

History : This diphthong is found in very few Latin words, 253 
viz. heu, liens; neu (for neve); seu (for live); oeu; neuter^ 
tor xie uter. Neutiauam (ntLtiaualn?) has first syllable short. 

It is otherwise found only to represent the Greek cv; e.g. Evpt- 254 
Tfibrii^ Eozipldes; E^po^, Bnrus; Pseudulus from ^rcvdfi>; &c. 


Sound: probably diphthongal; viz. that of a broad English /; 255 
i.e. as at in ay (^=yej). 

History: This diphthong is found abnost excluavely in the 256 
inscriptions older than the seventh century u.c. in words afterwards 
spelt with SB. Thus in root syllables we find aidilis, aide, alrld (i.e. 
89re), praidad (prsdda), aoaistores, praitor, Almilius, aiduom. Some 
instances are found in later inscriptions both republican and 
imperial, chiefly in proper names, especially Almilius, Caidllus: 
also Caisar, pralfectus; &c. In final syllables it is found fre- 
quently in republican and imperial inscriptions in the genitive and 
dative singular, rarely in the nominative plural, of stems in a, 
chiefly proper names, but also others; e.g. fodundai, colonial, 
maT Bu m a l , deal, Manliai, Agrippai; &c. So frequently (making 
ai two long syllables) in Plautus and Ennius: Lucretius and Vergil 
appear to have adopted the form as an archaism, or in imitation of 

Change of Quality: In the dat. abl. plural of -a stem 257 
probably the originaTform was -ais as in Oscan. In inscriptions are 
found only -els, and -Is (§ a66). 


Sound: the diphthong formed by these two vowels would 258 
approach nearly to the sound of a in hat lengthened. 

Chap. X] Diphthongs, oi. OE. Z^ 

Representation: (i) i. in Greek by oi; e.g. JEmilluB (see 259 
however § 1$^)^ Alfi[\ios\ iEbutlUB, Ai/Sovrtoy; Eseso, KaiVwi/j 
Ctesar, Katcrop; iSqui, aIkoi (Stxabo); &c. 

a. Rarely by c; e.g. CsbcUIub, KcKtXtor (cf. § a 6a); Caclna, 
KtKivas (Plut. but KatKtwir, D. Cass.). This c is not found in in- 
scriptions till the second century p. Ghr. at earliest. (Dittenberger.) 

(ii) I. of Greek ai; e.g. Ati/e/ap, JEneas; nammof, PansetlUB; 
AoKedaijjMP, Lacedsamon; atyis^ »glB; Ilatai/, Fsean; at6i^p, tathei; 

a. of Greek a; e.g.'AcricXaTrtof (Dor.), JEsculapiuB (an old geni- 
tive Al8<dapl is found) ; 9raXXa|, psslex, (also pelez). 

3. of Greek jy; e.g. o-ktjvi], Bcssna. 

Correspondence: to Greek at; e.g. »Btas, sestuB, qWcd, 26c 
tdBijp] UbvuB, Xaiof ; BCSdVUB, cricator; ssvum, aicov) atcr (Att. dec). 

SuBSTlTUTi'ON : for ai, which however lingered beside ». £ is 261 
found first in the S.C. de Bacc, in SEdem, where in all other words 
(aiquom, I>aelonal, haice, tahelal, data!) ai is retained. JE is very 
rare in inscriptions before the time of the Gracchi, but after that 
time is almost exclusively used in all the longer and more important 
inscriptions; e.g. the laws, the Mon. Ancyr. &c. 

», for 6 and 6, is rare in inscriptions before (at least) the and 
cent after Christ. It is ft^uent in MSS. 

Change of Quality: 1. to e both in root and final syllable. «62 
A few instances occur in very old inscriptions; e.g. Victorie, For- 
tune, Diane: so also occasionally in rustic language noted by Varro, 
ediiB for htdduB, MesiuB for MsdBiUB; CeclliuB pretor, ridiculed by 
Lucilius. But instances in inscriptions (except the Pompeian wall 
inscriptions) are not numerous till in and after third century after 
Christ; e.g. prefectuB, presenti, aque, patrie, &c. 

a. to X in root syllables after a prefix, e.g. csddo, concldo; Issdo, 
undo; qnsBro, reqnXro; »stamo, exlstomo; »qauB, iniquus; &c. 

01, OE. 

Sound: oi nearly as in English; e.g. voice, &c.: oe was also 263 
probably sounded as a diphthong. 

Change of Quality : Words with a in the root syllable 264 
were in the older language written with oi or ob; and words with 
(8 in the root syllable were also earlier written with oi. 

In inscriptions oi is rarely found so late as the fii-st century before 
Christ: ob (though probably as old as Plautus) is little found in 

6— z 

84 Sounds. ^Baok I. 

inscriptions before the first century B.C.: n is found in their place in 
and after the time of the GracchL 

1. oi, (B to n; e.g. olno, oanas, nnns; olnyoorael, nnlTeni; 
plolrome, pksra, plnrlml, plnra; comoJnem, moliiicipteiB, miBiila^ 
moBnlnndo, ImmBnes for communeiii, mimlclplis, mnnla, muntmrtlie, 
Immimes; molro, mcBniin, mnnmi; oitile, ostantur, cotter for ntUey 
utantur, ntl; colra, cotraTit, oosra, ccaravit, cma, cnzayit; loidOBy 
lOBdos, ludos; &c. 

2. ol to (b; e.g. foldere, foideratei, foodere, foaderati; oolpiiift, 
ccepint, Coilius, CkBlius. 

3. some other changes are, ncBmun afterwards non; lobertas, 
libertas; oboedio from audio. 

4. In final syllables, bolce, hole, quol (also 4UOi6l),*qiiolq:ne 
are early forms of huic, cnl, culque: plluxnnoo poplCB, for pUnnml 
popull (gen. sing.?), pike-armed tribe; FescennlxuB for fescennlnl 
(nom. pi.) ; ab oloes for ab illis. 


1. This diphthong is found in inscriptions older than the «t5 
Gracchi in the following forms, in which i occius later. (The 

•S. C. de Bacc, has rarely I, frequently ei.) 

(a) a few root syllables; e.g. leiber, delvas, delcere, ceivis. 

(b) dative singular of consonant nouns; e.g. Apolenel, Junonel, 
virtutel, Jovel. Frequently also in inscriptions later than the 
Gracchi, in which I also is found. The dative in e Ls also foimd, 
and more frequently in the earlier than in the later inscriptions. 

(c) nominative plural of o stems; e.g. folderatel, lei. After 
the time of the Gracchi both 1 and el are frequent. Earlier forms 
were Ss, 6, and 09 (see Book ii). 

(d) dative and ablative plural of o stems; e.g. eels (S. C. de 
Bacc), also vobelB. -els is frequently found in this case after the 
time of the Gracchi. Both -Is and -els occur also from -a stems 
since that period, but apparently before that period no instance 
of those cases occurs. 

(e) also in the datives and adverbs slbel, tlbel, ubel, Ibel, sel, 
nei, utel; in which e was probably a still older form. 

2. In prse- Augustan inscriptions later than the Gracchi it is aS6 
found instead of and beside an earlier I, or e in the classes num- 
bered below (^), {h). 

Chap. -X] Diphthongs. Bt 85 

(a) in some root syllables; e.g. deicera, deixerit aliso (dlcere, 
&c.); promolBerit, elre, adeltur, conscreiptum, veita, leltlB, leiteras, 
matUtes, fallla, Tellmrtis, els, elsdem (nom. plur.). 

(^) in .suffixes; e.g. ServelUus, genteUes, amelcorunj, dlsci- 
plfllna, peregreinus, fogltelYus, peteita (for petlta), mareltus, &c. 

(f) occasionally, but not frequently, as the characteristic vowel 
of the fourth conjugation; e.g. audeire, veneire, &c. 

(d) in infin. pass, not commonly till Cicero's time; e.g. darei, 
•olTvl, poBsiderel, agel, &c. 

(e) in perfect (for an older 1 or sometimes e); e.g. obeit, fecel, 
posaiTel, dedeit, &c. 

(/) other verbal forms; e.g. nolei, fazsels, Beit, &c. 

(^) also rarely in the ablative from consonant and 1 nouns; e.g. 
Ylrfeatel, fontel, &c. 

(A) nom. and ace. plur. of 1 stems; e.g. onmels, tnrrels, &c. 

(i) genitive singular of stems; e.g. colonel, damnatol (one or 
two instances occur a little before the Gracchi). 

3. El is but occasionally found in post- Augustan inscriptions. 

In the Fast. Triumph. Capit. (G. /. JR. i. 453 sqq.) cir. 720 u.c. 
the ablative plur. is almost always in -els; e.g. Etruscels, Oallels, &c. 

Corssen's conclusion is, that in the root syllable of the words 267 
detra, lellier, delcere, celvis, in the dat. abl. plur. of -o stems and 
probably of -a stems, and in the locative forms, as sel, utei, &c., el was 
a real diphthong; in all other cases it expressed the transition vowel 
between X and S {Ausspr, i. 719. 788. ai. a). As a diphthong its 
sound would be nearly that of the English a; e.g. fate, 

Ritschl's view of the relations of S, el and I is as follows (Opusc. 268 
II. 6a6): ^^ First period (5th century u.c. to and into the 6th). 
Predominance of e in place of the later 1, and, in fact, both of 
B for X and of 9 for 1. Second period (6th century). Transition of 
e to 1. (so far as e was changed at all), d changing to I absolutely, 
but 5 to I with this modification, that where in the case of S the 
pronunciation noticeably inclined to 1, the habit was gradually 
adopted of writing el. Third period (ist decad of the 7th century). 
Accius extends this mode of writing to every I without exception, 
m order to obtain a thorough distinction of I from i, in connexion 
with his theory of doubling a, e, u to denote the long vowel. 
Short 1 remains unaltered. Fourth period. Lucilius, recognising the 
arbitrary and irrational character of this generalisation, confines the 
writing el to the cases where I inclines to 5. Short 1 remains un- 
aflected by this also.'* 

S6 Sounds. [Book L 


A Latin word may commence with any vowel or diphthong, 269 
semivowel, or single consonant. 

But of combinations of consonants the following only are in 
Latin found as initial; viz. 

1. an explosive or f followed by a liquid; i.e. pi, pr; W, br; 
cl, cr; gl, gr; tr; fi, fr: but not U, dl, dr; 

e.g. plando, precor; Uandus, brevls; (damo, cmdus; gplolms, 
gravis; tralio; fluo, frendo. Q>nisuB is possibly an exception (cf. 
§ 155) ; other words in dr are Greek or foreign ; e. g. draduna, draco, 

2. s before a sharp explosive, with or without a following 
liquid; viz. sp, spl, spr; sc, Bcr; st, str; 

e.g. spemo, splendeo, sprevi; scio, scrlbo; sto, stmo. Also 
stlis, afterwards lis. No instance of scl is found. 

3. gn was found in Onsaus and in some other words; e.g. gna- 
rus, gnavuB, gnosco, gnascor, but the forms with g are almost con- 
fined to the early language (§129. 3). 

4. The semi-consonant v is also found after an initial 4 or s; 
e.g. qvos, svavls (§ 89): and in Plautus sclo, dies are pronounced 
scjo, djes (§ 142). 

A Latin word may end with any vowel or diphthong, but with a?© 
only a few single consonants; viz. the liquids 1, r, the nasals m, n, 
the sibilant s, one explosive, t. A few words end with b, c, d. 

Of these, b occurs only in three prepositions, ab, ob, sub. 

c only where a subsequent letter has fallen away; e.g. die, due, 
fac, lac, ac, nee, nunc, tunc, and the pronouns blc, 1111c, Istlc (for 
dice, duce, face, lacte, atque, neque, nunce, timce, bice, mice, Istlce). 

d only in baud, ad, apud, sed; and the neuters of certain pro- 
nouns; e.g. lllud, Istud, quod, quid. In the earliest language it 
appears to have been the characteristic of the ablative smgular; e.g. 
bonod patred, &c. (§ 160. 6). 

Chap. -XZ] Of Latin Words and Syllables. 87 

The folloiidxig combinations of consonants are found to end a?' 
I^tin words. With few exceptions they are either in nominatives 
singular of nouns, or the third person of verbs. 

I. B preceded 

(^i) by certain explosives; i.e. pe, mps, rps; bs, rtw; C8(=x), 
nz, Ix, zx; 

e.g. adeps, hiemps, sUrps; cttlelw, nrbs; edax, laaz, calx, arx; 
&C. Also the words Blremps, aba, ex, mox, sex, vlx. 

(^) by a nasal or liquid; i.e. ns, Is, n; 

e.g. amans, firons, puis, an. Each of these combinations is 
unstable (e. g. homo for homons, consiil for oonsnls, arbor for arbors^ ; 
but is here preserved owing to one consonant having been already 
sacrificed; viz. amans for amants; firons for fironts or fronds; puis 
for pulte; an for arts. In trans, auotlens, the combination is not 
more stable: comp. tramltto, qnotles. 

a. t preceded by n, or rarely by 1, r, s; i.e. nt, It, rt, st; 
e.g. amant^ amayerlnf, &c. The only instances of the other 
combinations are ynlt, fert, est, ast, post. 

3. preceded by n, i.e. nc. Only in the following, nunc, tunc, 
liSiiOy tllinc, istino; hnnc, banc; Ulnnc, lllanc; &c. 

The division of a word into syllables appears to have been in 372 
accordance with the general principles (see § 15)^ ; that is to say, 

z. the (^vision was made in the middle of a consonant 

a. the tendency was to pronounce with a vowel as many of the 
following consonants as were so pronounceable. 

3. the admissibility of a particular combination of consonants 
in the middle of a won! depends on the laws of phonetics, not on 
the particular causes, partly etymological, partly accentual (the 
last syllable, where there is more than one, being in Latin always 
unaccented, § a96), which controlled the occurrence of consonants 
at the end di a word. But the laws of phonetics in this matter 
depend on the Roman mode of pronunciation, not on our mode; 
e.g. ts, ds were not stable; &c. 

That such was the mode in which the Romans actually pro- 373 
nounced is shewn by the following facts: 

I. Vowels are affected by the consonants yb//o<K;/»^ them; viz. 
A before r is retained instead of being changed to I (§ a34, ao4. 184) ; 
6 or ft before 11 is changed to e (§ 213. 4, also § 204); the short 

1 See some discussion of this matter in the Preface. 

88 Sounds. [Book I. 

vowel before 1 is 6 or ft, not X or d, as before n &c. (§ 176. a). 
So € remains before two consonants (§ 234, 3. h). 

2. Consonants aire affected by the consonants ^//ow/w^; e.g. 
scribtuB is changed to seriptns, the pronunciation being Bcrlpt-tns, 
not Bcrib-'tiui or sorl-Miui. ^Even in the few cases where a conso- 
nant is affected by the preceding consonant, the combination of the 
two (or more consonants) in the same syllable is presumed; e.g. 
dlYldtnm could not have been divld-tum or it would not have become 
divlssiim or divlBimi). 

3. A syllable with a short vowel is treated as long, if two 
consonants^//(9w the vowel. This means that though the vowel is 
short, the aggregation of consonants occupies as much time in pro- 
nouncing, as if the vowel were long. The exception to this rule of 
prosody, which a mute and liquid form, is in accordance with the 
principle of division of syllables; e.g. patriB cannot be divided into 
patr-rls but into pat-tris (where the double t represents not twice 
t but the two halves of one t, §§ 9. 15). 

4. A vowel is often lengthened to compensate for the extrusion 
of a consonant follonving (§ 35). The consonant must therefore 
belong to the preceding vowel, or that vowel could not be entitled 
to the compensation. The so-called compensation is in truth a natural 
phonetic effect of the effort to pronoimce a difficult combination of 

The division of syllables in <ivriting, which is found in inscrip- 274 
tions of the eighth and ninth centuries u.c. and the MSS. of the 
fourth or fifth century after Christ^ or earlier (if any), is (though 
not quite invariably) as follows: 

I. Where a single consonant is between two vowels the division 
is before it; e.g. dede | rlt, protu | lerint, publl | ce, ma | nnm, &c. 

a. "Where two consonants come together the division is between 
them; e.g. op | tlma, res | ponsum, Us | nota, prses | to, tran | sisse, 

3. Where three consonants come together the division is after 
the first two, unless the second and third be a mute and liquid, in 
which case the division is before both; e.g. Vols | ci, abs | cedimus, 
cons I pezisset, obB | tlnati, Quinc | tins, cunc | ta; Ins | tructo, 
cas I tris, poB j tremo. 

4. The letter z is treated as a single consonant; e.g. enl | za, 
di I zit, pro | zumns. 

^ See Mommsen, Zivi Cod. Veron. p. 163 — 166. Mon, Ancyr, 
p. 145. Siadtrecht d, Salpensa^ &c. p. 505. 

Chap. XIZ] Quantify of Syllables, 89 

(It is obvious that if the division in pronunciation takes place in 
the middle of a consonant, the writing cannot mark this accurately. 
That the preference was given to the second half of the consonant 
is no doubt due to tne fact, that in the case of p, k, t the distinctive 
power of the sound consists entirely, and in b, g, d considerably, 
m the slight pufF or explosion which follows the separation of the 
oi^gans (cf. § 5 7). When three consonants occur together, the vmting 
conforms better to what is above shewn to have been the pronuncia- 

^The early inscriptions avoided division of a word altogether. 
Augustus (Suet. Aug, 87) wrote the superabundant letters over or 
under the word. MSS. in the sixth century (e.g. the Florentine 
MS. of the Digest) began to follow Priscian's rules, which were 
borrowed from the Greeks; e.g. perfe [ ctus, 1 | gnominla, &c. 



That part of grammar which treats of the Quantity of Sylla- 27s 
bles is often called Prosody^ a term which the ancients applied prin- 
cipally to accentuation. 

If the voice dwells upon a syllable in pronouncing it, it is called 
a long syllable: if it passes rapidly over it, it is called a short 

Long syllables are marked in grammars by a straight line over 
the vowel: thus, afidL 

Short syllables are marked by a curved line over the vowel: 

Two short syllables are considered to occupy the same time as 
one long syllable. 

A syllable is long or short, dther because it contains a nyotwel 
naturally long or short; or on account of the position of its vowel. 

1 Much use in this chapter has been made of Luc Mtiller's De re 

90 Sounds. [Books L 

i. Quantity of vowels not in the last syllable of 376 
a word. 

1. All diphthongs are long (except before another vowel); e.g. 
aumm; delude; &c. 

2. All vowels which have originated from contraction are 
long; e.g. oOgo for c5-A|;o, mfimentmn for mOvImeiitiizii, tlUoen for 
tlbU-cen; &c. 

3. The quantity of the radical syllables of a word is generaihf 
preserved in compodtion or derivation, even when the vowel is 
changed; e.g. xn&ter, xn&temus; c&do, Incldo; <»edo, incXdo; ftmo, 
ftmor, ftzolciis, Inlxnlcns ; &c. 

Some exceptions will be found under the several vowels, and as 
regards red and prod (pro), under D (§ 160. 7, 8). 

So also almost always where the members of a compound word 
may be treated as separate words, as qa&propter, mScum, allGqnl, 
agrlcoltura. But we have idauldem and <iiiaiid6quldem (from el 

and quandO) ; and for the compounds of ubi, Ibl, see § 243. 31. 

For the quantity of root vowels no rule can be given. The 
quantity of inflexional or derivative affixes is given in Books II. III. 

Greek words usually retain in Latia their own quantity. 

ii. Quantity of vowels in the last syllable of a word, ^j 

(A) JUj/IonosyUables are long. 


(a\ The enclitics qu6, nfi, v6, which are always appended to 
other words. 

(J?) Words ending with b, d, t; e.g. ftb, sttb, ftb; &d, Id; &t, 
dt, tot, fldt, d&t ; &c. 

(r) Sb (thou art), f&c, l&c, n6c, f61, m61, y61, ftn, In, f8r, pdr, 
tOr, vir, cOr, quls (nom. sing.), Is, bis, cIs, Os (a bone). The 
nom. masculine bio is not ftwjuently short (Cs in Plant, Ter.) 

(B) In polysyllables, 878 
1. a and e (and Greek f) Jinal are short. 

Chap. XII, \ Quantity of Syllables. 91 

Exoept ain 

(a) Abl. ang. of nouns with a- stem; e.g. musft. 

(h) Imperative dng. act. of verbs with a- stem; e.g. amSs 

(r) Indeclinable words; e.g. ergft, Intrft, quadraglntft ; but 
pat& (Pers. and Mart.), lt&, qulA, ej&. 

(^ Greek vocatives from nominatives in fts ; e. g. Aeneft, Pallft: 
and Greek nom. ^g. of a- stems; e.g. Eleotrft. Cf.§§ ^^^, 473* 

Except e in 379 

{a) Gen. dat abl. sing, of nouns with e- stems ; e.g. fadS; 
so also hOdie. 

(3) Imperative sing. act. of verbs with e- stems; e.g. monS; 
but in cave (Hor. Ov.), and vide (Phaedr. Pers.) it is sometimes 
short (§ %i%. 4). 

(f) Adverbs from adjectives; with a- stems; e.g. doctS, to 
wnich add f8r3, fermfi, ohfi; but benS, maid, infemd, supemS; 
tSmfire is only found before a vowel. Hactd, probably an ad- 
verb, also has e short. 

(^ Greek neut. pi.; e.g. temp9, p«lair6; fem. ^ng. crambS, 
01ro9 ; masc voc. AlddS. 

2. 1, 0, Xi final are long, sSo 

Except 1 in 


W V w W 

(d) mllil, tlbl, siU, nbl, Ibl, in which 1 is conunon, 
and qa&sl, nlsL (See § 243* 3-) 

(b) Greek nom. ace. neuters sing.; e.g. sinapl: vocatives; e.g. 
PaxI, AmaryUI: rarely dat sing. Minoldl. 

Except 6 in s8i 

(a) dtO, immO, modd (and compounds), duO, egd, cSdO and 
endd (old form of la). Rarely ergft. Martial, Juvenal, &c., 
have IntrO, porrO, serd, oct6, &c. ; modo has sometimes final 
long in Lucretius and earlier poets. 

(If) In the present tense of the verbs bc16, neadd, pnt6, vol6, used 
parenthetically, is sometimes short: and occasionally in and 
after the Augustan age in other verbs with short penult; e.g. 
rogtt, yetO, nuntlO, obsecrO. Instances of other parts of the 
verb or of long penults are rarer ; e.g. estO, caditO, oderd, dabd, 
tendtt, toUO, credS. 

92 Sounds. [Bookie 

, _ — — 

(r) In Nominatives of Proper names with consonant stems 6 
is conmion, e.g. PoUio, Sdpio, Ctirlo, Naso; sometimes vlrgO, 
nemd, homd, and other appellatives in Martial, Juvenal, &c 

Datives and ablatives in o are never short, except the ablative 
gerund once or twice in Juvenal and Seneca. 

3. Final syllables ending in any other single conso^ 28a 
nant than B are short. 

But the final syllable is long in 

(a) all cases of 1111c, istlc, except the nom. masc. 

(b) all compounds of pSr, e.g. dlspSr, compSr. 

(r) aiec, USxL 

{d) Ht, petiQt, and then: compounds (and of course it, petit as 
contracted perfects). 

(e) some Greek nominatives in -er ; e.g. cratSr, character, aer, 
athSr; and some cases in -n; e.g. slrSn (nom.), JEneAn (ace), 
EudidSn (ace), eplgramxnatOn (gen. pi.) ; &c. 

4. Of the final syllables in 8, 283 

as, OS, es, are long. 

(a) &n&s (probably); ex58; compds, Impds; p6n6s. 

(b) nom. sing, in -es of nouns with consonant stems, which 
have etls, Itls, Xdis, in genitive, e.g. sdgds, mI16s, obsds: but 
pariSs, ablSs, ariSs, G6r6s. 

(f) compounds of es (from sum), e.g. aWs, 

(d) some Greek words ; e.g. m&s (nom.), crater&s (ace. pi.) ; 
Del68 (n. sing.), Erlnny6s, clil&myd68 (gen. sing.), Arcadds, cra- 
tSres (nom. pi.) ; CynosargSs (neut. s.). 

5. ns and is are short, 384 

Except fls in 

(a) gen. sing, and nom. and ace. plu. of nouns with -u stems. 

(b) nom. sing, of consonant nouns, when genitive singular 
has long penultimate, e.g. tellUs (tellOris), palUs (palfidis), 
Tlrtus (vlrtdtis). 

(r) some Greek names ; SapphfLs (gen. s.), Panthils (nom. s.). 

Chap. XILI Quantity of Syllables. 93 

_ , « 

Except I8 in 385 

(a) dat. and abl. plural, e.g. menals, vobla, (mla; so gratte, 
fOTlB. Also in ace. (and nom.) plural of -1 stems; e.g. omnls. 

(If) and pers. sing. pres. ind. of verbs with -I stems ; e.g. andls: 
also ppssiB (and other compounds of sis), veils, noUs, xnalis. 

(f) and pers. sing, of perf. subj. and compl. fiit. in which is is • 
common ; e.g. yldeils. (But see Book II.) 

(d) Samnis, Qoixls. Sangvls sometimes (always in Lucr.), 
pnlyls (once Enn., once Verg.), has -Is. 

(/)* some Greek words; Simols, Eleusls, Salamis (nom. sing.). 

iii Quantity of syllables by position in the same a86 

1 A syllable ending with a vowel (or diphthong) immediately 287 
followed by another syllable beginning with a vowel, or with li and a 
vowel, is short; as, via, pradustus, contr&Mt. 


(aS In the genitives of pronouns, &c. in -ins; e.g. llllns, where 
1 IS conmion. In alius (gen. case) the 1 is always long: in 
sollas it is short once in Ter. In utrlus, neutrius it is not 
found short, but in utrlusque frequently^. 

(ii) the penultimate a in the old genitive of nouns with -a 
stems; e.g. aulSl So alsoe in dISI, and, in Lucretius, rel, and 

(once) fldSL Also 81 (dat. pronoun), unless contracted eL 

(f ) a or e before 1 (where 1 is a vowel) in all the cases of 
proper names ending in ius; e.g. O&ltis, FompSItis (but see 

{d) The syllable fl in flo (except before er; e.g. flfirl, flSrem). 

(e) The first syllable of 61ieul and the adjective dlus. In 
Diana and 61i9 the first syllable is conunon. 

In Greek words a long vowel is not shortened by coming before 

another vowel; e.g. NerMdl, EdO (but cf. § 229), AanSfts, &toa, 

2. A syllable^ containing a vowel inunediately followed by two 
consonants, or by z, or z, is long; as, regSnt, striz. 

But if the two consonants immediately following a short vowel 
be the first a mute or f, and the second a liquid, the vowel remains 

* See Ritschl, Opusc. 11. 678 foil. 

' For the length of the vowd itself in some cases see §§ 15 1 note, 16*;. a. 

94 Sounds. \Book L 

short in prose and in comic poets, though in other verse it is fre- 
quently lengthened. 

The following combinations occur in Latin words : pr, lir, cr, 
gr, tr^ dr, fir; pi, d, fl; e.g. apro, t&iebra, vOlacTlB, a^niin, patris, 
qyadxlga, Tafimm; manlplui, assecla, refluos. 

Bl also occurs in puUicus, but the first syllable is always long 
(for pouplicos). 

In Greek words other combinations allow the vowel to remain 
short ; e.g. Atlas, Tdcmessa, Cj^cnns, D&pline. 

Where the combination is due to compodtion only, the syllable 
is always lengthened, just as if the words were separate (cf. § 292); 
e.g. BfLlnrao, abluo. 

iv. Effect of initial sounds on the final syllable of 288 
a preceding word. 

In verse the final syllable of a word is affected by the vowel or 
consonants at the conmiencement of the next word, in something 
the same way in which one syllable is affected by the succeeding 
syllable in the same word. 

I. A final vowel or diphthong or a final syllable in m is omit- 
ted (or at least slurred over) in pronunciation, if the next word 
commence with a vowel or diphthong or h. See the preface. 

Thus vldi Ipfnun, vlve hodle, monstrnm liigens are read in verse 
as of no more length than vld-lpsum, vly-hodle, monstr-lngens. 

When est follows a vowel or m the e was omitted (see in 
Book II.). 

But the poets (except the early dramatists) refrain in certain cases 289 
from so putting words as to occasion such an elision^. Especially 
it is avoided when the second word begins with a short vowel ; viz. 

{a) Monosyllables ending in long vowel or m are rarely elided 
before a short syllable, and, particularly, the following are nerer 
so elided; sim, dem, stem, rem, spem, spe, do, sto, qui (plur.): 

the following are so elided; com, turn, num, stun. Jam, nam, 
tarn, quam, me, te, se, de, ml (dat.), qui (sing.), ni, si, tn. 

iV) An iambic word, ending in a vowel, in dactylic verse is not 
elided before a short syllable or an accented long syllable. 

^ Arbitro, arbitrinm, &c.; genetrlx, meretriz, are nowhere found 
with long second syllable. 

* These statements are abridged from Luc. MUller, p. 283. 

Chap. XII^ Quantity of Syllables, 95 

(f ) A cretic ending in a vowel was very rarely elided before a 
sbort syllable, except by Catullus, and Horace in Satires. 

{i) A spondee ending in a vowel, is rarely elided, by Horace 
in lyncs, or by Ovid and subsequent poets, before a short syllable, 
sxcept in first foot; e.g. certe ego, multl Inopes, rial ego (Lucan, 

J^e) Of words ending in m (counting the last syllable as short) 
\ pyrrich is very rarely elided before a short syllable or accented 
long syllable, except uninflected particles; e.g. enim, quldem. A 
dactyl is rarely elided before a short syllable by Ovid or later writers. 

(/) Of words ending in ft or ft a pyrrich or dactyl is raiely 
dided before a short syllable, except (i) in proper names; or (2) 
in first foot; or (3) in words ending in ft, before a word beginning 
with ft; or (4) in uie words dto, e£^>, mode, duo. 

An elision at the end of a verse before a vowel in the same verse 290 
is VOT" rare in any poet, except in Horace's Satires and Epistles. 

An elision at end of a verse before a vowel at the beginning of 
the next verse is found not uncommonly in Vergil, only once or 
twice in other writers' hexameters. In glyconic and sappmc stanzas 
it is not unconunon; e.g. 

Aut dulcis musti Volcano decoquit umoi*em 
et foliis. (Verg.) 

Dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
eximit virtus. (Hor.) 

An hiatus is however permitted; ^^ 

Always at the end of one verse before an initial vowel in the 
next verse except in an anapaestic metre. 

Occaaonally in the same verse ; viz, 

{a) if there is an interruption of the sense; though it is very rare, 
when the first of the two vowels is short; e.g. 

Pronussam eripui genero, arma impia sumpsi. (Verg.) 
Addam cerea pruna: honos erit huic quoque poma (Verg.) 

(3) in aras, chiefly at the regular caesura; e.g. 

Stant etjuniperi et castaneae hirsutae. (Verg.) 

Si pereo, hominum manibus periisse juvabit. (Verg.) 

(f) in thesis, a long vowel, especially in a monosyllable, is some- 
times shortened instead of elided; e.g. 

Credimus? an qui amant ipsi sibi somnia fingunt? (Verg.) 
Hoc motu radiantis Etesiae in vada ponti. (Cic.) 

96 Sounds. [Book L 

(d) a word ending in m is rarely not elided (there being only 
about seven instances in arsis, and a few of monosyUables in thesis) ; 

Miscent inter sese inimicitiam agitantes. (Enn.) 

Sed dum abest quod avemus, id exsuperare videtur. (Lucr.) 

2. A short final syllable ending in a consonant is lengthened by 29a 
an initial consonant in the word following; e.g. 

Vellitur, huic atro liquntur sanguine guttae ! (Verg.) 

Quo Phoebus vocet errantis jubeatque reverti. (Vei^g.) 

3. A short final syllable ending in a vowel is rarely lengthened 993 
before two consonants at the beginning of the next word. 

This is done before sp, bc, st; more rarely still before pr, l«r, 
fr, tr. There are a few instances in Catullus, Tibullus, Martial, &c. 
(none in Lucretius, Vergil, Horace, Propertius, Ovid); e.g. 

Nulla fiigae ratio; nulla spes onmia muta. (Gat.) 

Tua si bona nescis 

Servare, frustra clavis inest foribus. (Tib.) 

On the other hand a short final vowel is rarely found before 
sp, 8C, sq, St, gn. 

Lucilius, Lucretius, Horace in Satires, and Propertius have about 
23 instances; Vergil one, and that where the sense is interrupted. 
Other poets have hardly a single instance: the collocation was 
avoided altogether. But before Greek words, e.g. zznSragdiis, 
and (before z in) Z&csmtlius, instances are found in many poets. 

4. The enclitic -que is lengthened in arsis not unconunonly by 
Vergil (before two consonants, or a Hquid or s), and by Ovid: 
very rarely by others; e.g. 

Tribulaque traheaeque et iniquo pondere rastra. (Verg.) 

So once final a; 
Dona dehinc auro gravia sectoque elephanto. (Verg.) 

5. Occasionally (in Vergil about 50 times) a short final closed 294', 
syllable is lengthened by the arsis, though the next word begins with 

a vowel: this is chiefly in the caesiura, or when a proper name or 
Greek word follows, or where the sense is interrupted; e.g. (all 
from Vergil) : 

Pacem me exanimis et Martis sorte peremptis 

oratis ? Equidem et vivis concedere vellem. 

Desine plura puer, et quod nunc instat agamus. 

X:Jk^.XIj:\ Quantity of Syllables. 97 

ODi serva datur, operum baud ignara Minervae, 
Ipse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte lavabo. 
Pectoribus inhians, spirantia consulit exta. 

In thesis it is very rare; e.g, 

Si non periret immiserabilis captiva pubes. (Hor.) 

So also Ennius in arsis has sorOr, genltOr, damOr, JuUfir (masc<); 
▼ensrdr; populfls; senr&t, memorat, ven&t, xnan&t; facifit, tenSt, 
ilerit, jnMt, constltiilt, ponlt, onplt (pres.?), It, tlnnlt, volult, yellt, 
and a few others. In thesis he has (damOr^ poneb&t, essSt, ixiflt. 
(See Nettleship, Conington's Fergil, Excurs. to Book xil.) 

V. Peculiarities in early dramatic verse. 

In early dramatic verse the quantity of syllables was not so ?9s 
definitely fixed or observed, as in the later dactylic and other verse. 
The principal cases of variation may be classified as follows ^ 

I. Final syllables, afterwards short, were sometimes used with 
their original long quantity; e.g. fam& (nom. s.), sorGr, patSr, 
amfit^ weAMX, pomeMt, perdplt, yendldit, amSr, loanAT) &c. 

a. Final syllables with long vowels were sometimes used as 
diOTt; e.g. domO (abl. s.), probS (adv.), tac0, xnanil, vlrl, &c.; 
oonxUiI, Ixmfts, forfts, doiOs, ovds, mant&s (ace. pi.), bonU, &c. 
Comp. also § ao5, %ZZ' 

3. Syllables containing a vowel followed by two consonants 
were sometimes used as short. Such are 

(a) Syllables in the later language written with doubled conso- 
nants (cf. §58); e.g. Immo, llle, BlmTHlmm, Pblllppus, esse, 6c- 
eotto, &c. 

{b) Some syllables with two different consonants; e.g. Inter, 
Inteilm, Intns, Inde, ftnde, ntaipe, tamis. So also (according to 
some) Ycdt&ptaa, maglstratas, minlstrabit, ventUitas^ sen^ctns, &c. 
(better Tolptas, macrstratna, &c.) ; &q;»e<Uant, teigere^ ftzorem, 

4. Final syllables ending in a consonant were sometimes not 
lengthened, though the next word began with a consonant; e.g. 
(in Terence) enlm two, auctfts sit, sorttr dictast, daMt ndmo, slmul 
oonflfitanii tamfin snsplcor, &c. ; apud is frequently so used : even 
stodint fluMre. This licence is mo;^ frequent, when the final con- 
sonant b m, 8, r, or t; and is due to the tendency of the early 
language to drop the final consonant (see § 86. 152, 5. 193, 5), and 
to shorten the fiinal vowel. 

5. On the freer use of synisesis, e.g. tvos for tuos, scjo for sclo, 
&c. see § 9a. X4a* 

* See Ritschl ^/^Wm Mus, (1859), X'^* 395 sq. and Opusc, 11. Pref. 
pp TO, 1 1 : Wagner's Pref. to Plaut. Auittl. (1866), and loTexwxifc V^^(iv^>^, 

9^ Sounds. [Bo^i I. 



Accent is the elevation of voice, with which one syllable of 296 
a word is pronounced, in comparison with the more subdued tone 
with which the other syllables are pronounced^. 

Monosyllables always have the accent. 

Disyllables have the accent on the penultimate syllable, unkss 
they are enclitic. 

Words of more than two syllables have the accent on the ante- 
penultimate, if the penultimate syllable is short; on the penultimate, 
if it is long. 

The Romans distinguish between an acute and a circumflex 
accent. The circumflex stands only on monosyllables which have 
long vowels; and, in words of more than one syllable, on the penul- 
timate, if that have a long vowel, and the final syllable have a short 

If the acute be marked by a ' over the vowel; the circumflex by 
a ^, the above rules may be illustrated by the following examples: 

Monosyllables; db, mdl, til; drs, pdrs, niz, f&z; spds, 1168, mds, 
lis; m6ns, fdns, Itx, 

Disyllables; d^us, citus, drat; d^o, Odto, irant; sdllers, pantos, 
p6xLto, I^ldS,; ltln9., R6m&, yidit. 

Polysyllables; S^rgius, fdscina, credere; S^gio, fdsclnas, or^erent, 
Met^uB, fenestra; Met^llo, fen^strsa; Sablno, prsadiyes; SablnuB, 
Romdjie, amicus, am&re. 

All compound words, whether their parts can or cannot be used 297 
as separate words, are accented according to the regular rules; e.g. 
anh^lo, r^dlmo; ^dlque, itaque (therefore) ] itldem, titinam, p68t- 
hac, pdstmodo, intr6r8Us,quloiimque, jandiidum, ezadytou2n,qi!iodsi, 
forsan, &c. So respiiblica or r6s piiblica. 

^ This subdued tone is called by grammarians the grave accent. 
The principal rules of Latin accentuation are given by Quint ilian, 

K 5- '22— 3^* 

Chap. XJIL'\ Accentuation. 99 

A few words, called enclitics, always appended to other words, 298 
caused, according to the Roman grammarians, the accent to fall on 
the last syllable of the word to which they were attached. These 
are -que (and)^ -ne, -ve, -ce, -met, -pte, -dum, and also the separable 
words, quando, l&de; e.g. Itique (and so), uHqyiB (and as), illlce, 
liioine, miliimet, resplc^dum, ^zinde, ^cquando, &c. So also que in 
plerique.. In the case of many words called enclitics (owing to 
their own quantity) the accentuation is the same, whether they be 
considered as enclitics proper, or parts of a compound; e.g. quandd- 
quldem, soilleet, quibtislibet, quantiixnYis, &c. 

Prepositions and adverbs used as prepositions (e.g. intra) were -'99 
regarded as closely attached to the word which they precede, and 
bdong to. In inscriptions they are frequently written as one word 
with their nouns. The Roman grammarians considered them to have 
no accent when thus preceding their noun or a word (e.g. adjective 
or genitive case) dependent on it; e.g. ad das, adlittc, in fdro, Tlrtii- 
tem propter pktrls, &c. But if they follow their noun, they are 
said to retain their own accent; e.g. quaprdpter, qaictim, but cum 
after personal pronouns is said to be enclitic; e.g. noblscum. 

(L. Muller, resting on the usage of dactylic poets as to the 
csraura, &c., confines this to the words me, te, se, nos, vos, in 
company with disyllabic prepositions in -ter, -tra; e.g. inter nds, 
intra sd). 

So also the relative was unaccented, the interrogative accented; 
e.g. quo die, on ivhich day: qud die? on <ivhich dayf 

Apparent exceptions to the general rules are some words in 300 
which the accent remains, notwithstanding the loss of a syllable; e.g. 

I. Some words where the accent is on what is now the last 
syllable; e.g. illic, prodttc, tantdn, bon&n, satin, nostras, for illice, 
prodtloe, tantdne, bon&ne, satisne, noBtrd.tls (§ 418), &c. 

a. Some where the accent is on the penult instead of on the 
antepenult; e.g. (gen. and voc.) Valdrl, Vergili, &c. (for Valerie, 
Valerli; Vergllle, Vergilll; &c.); and the verbs (really not complete 
compounds) calefdcis, mansuef^cit, &c. 

It would appear^, though little reference is made to such a doc- 301 
trine in the Roman grammarians, that words of more than three 
syllables must have frequently had besides the principal accent 
another subordinate one; e.g. numerdvlmus, sister6mus, Ipnglttdo, 
difflcultdtlbus had probably a subordinate accent on the first syl- 

* See Corssen Ausspr. ii. p. 242^ foil. ed. i. 

1 — 2 

100 Sounds. [Book L 

The first part of a compound especially may have letamed to 
some extent the accent which it had as a smiple word; e.g. p6r- 

ghaidis, xiroterlre, ydndp^llis, iuutovlgiatl. 

■ The frequent omis^on or absorption of a sh(nt vowel, or of jm 
a syllable which has according to the general rules the accent, leads 
to the inference that there must have been a tendency to put the 
accent nearer to the beginning of the word than the antepenultimate 
o^ penultimate syllabled The effort to do this, and the resistance 
made by the heavy dragging of the unaccented syllables after it, 
were the cause of the omission, e.g. Int^existi became InMlUxtl; 
ddblbeo, d^lMo; gavldeo, gatLdeo; snrrfimit, stizpnit; calo4xe, c^« 
car; azmigenu, tonlger; pneritla, xra^oEtia; &c. 

So the weakening of the vowel in compounds; liumiro for In- 
(liuaro, eomdudo for com-61audo, alireptiui for ab rai»tas, is difficult 
to expUdn, so long as the affected syllable is con^dered as accented. 

Sinularly the change of Ule-ce to illloe, ilUe, suggests doubts as 
to the truth of the doctrine respecting enclitics, given above § 998. 

^ lb. p. 311 foil. 



BOOK II.*- .:': . 

• 1 


CHAPTER I. : .. 


Words may be divided into two classes, those which have 303 
ttt/lexioruy and those which have not. 

Nouns, pronouns, and verbs are injected: other words are not 

Inflexions are those alterations or additions, which are made in a 304 
word in order to fit it for different functions, as part of a sentence. 
' Thus in muller, lupman; muller-is (woman's; muller-es, luomen; 
smller-iim, women^s: ama-t, lovers; ama-sti, love-dst; amatus, love-d; 
mnBrna, iov'ing: pu-n-go, I prick; v^-V^LgA^ I pricJk-ed ; pu-n-c-tus, 
frick-ed; we have the same noun or verb differently inflected. 

That part of a word, which is essentially the same under such 305 
^Ufierent uses, is called the stem. In the above words mulier, ama, 
and pug are the stems. The suffix, which forms the inflexion, often 
afiects or is affected by the neighbouring letters of the stem, so that 
the two melt as it were into one another. 

A stem is in Latin rarely used without having, or at least having 
had, some inflexions; e.g. consul is both stem and nominative case; 
but this is probably because the nominative suffix is incompatible 
with 1 (see § 176, 5). 

^ Throughout this book great and constant use has been made of 
F. Nene's Formenlehre Th. 1. (1866); Th. il (1861). The authorities, 
on which the statements in the text are based, will usually be found 
there. Frequent reference has also been made to Ruddimann's (ed. 
Stallbaum 1823), Schneider's (1819), G. T. Krttger's (1842), Madvig's 
(3ni ed. 1857), ^"*d Key's (mded. 1858) Grammars. Also to Biichelcr's 
Grundriss der latein* Declination (1866); besides Corssen, Ritschl, &c. 

104 Inflexions. [Ihok IL 

Different nouns and verbs and Qtdef words have firequently a 306 
common part: such common part is 'c;^!al a root. Thus the root 
Bta- is conmion to sta-re, startio^' sta-tao, Btarman, stari&ra, itn* 
tlm, &c., to standi standir^^ jtt3>lub^ standing^tbread^ standings 
height^ instantly. Sec, A rof^JDiay be used as a stem, or the stem 
may contain the root i^vitji ahef ations or additions. The additions 
made to form a sten(i*p^iiCa root are discussed in Book III. 

The inflexionsgof liiDuns and pronouns are in the main the same, 
and will be, treated' "of together. The inflexions of verbs are quite 
distinct, buir«the formation of certain verbal nouns, though propeiiy 
belongipi^ to Book III., is generally treated in connexion with the 
inflexioits of the verbs. 




The inflexions of nouns are always ad4itioas to, or alterations in, 307 
the end of the stem. They iKrve to mark the gender, the number, 
and the case, of the word. 

As re^zxds gender a two-fold distinction was made; (i) accord^ v^ 
ing as sex could be attributed or not; (a) according as the sex 
attributed was male or female. 

Names of things, to ^^ch sex was not attributed, are said to be 
of the neuter gender: but the Romans, yielding to their imaginations, 
attributed sex to many things, which really had it not, and thus 
iiviiig creatures are but a small number of the objects, which have 
names of the masculine 3Lnd feminine genders. 

The distinction of gender is not marked throughout all the 309 
cases. In the nouns put together as the first class, the feminine was 
perhaps originally different from the masculine and neuter through- 
out, and it still is so in most cases. The masculine and neuter 
differ only in the nominative singular, and nominative and accusative 

In the second class, the masculine and feminine are alike through- 
out: the neuter differs from both in the accusative, and usually 
in the nominative. 

Chap. Il!\ Inflexions of Gender, 1 05 

The neuter form is always the same in the nominatiye and 
accasadve cases. In the singular of the first class this form is the 
same as that of the accusative masculine: in the second class it is 
the bare stem, unprotected by a suffix, and therefore sometimes 
withered: in the plural of both declensions it always ends in -a. 

The real significance of the inflexions is best seen in adjectiyes, 310 
because they have the same stem modified, if of the first class, to 
represent all three genders; if of the second class, usually onlj to 
represent the masculine and feminine genders as d^nguisdied m>m 
tli^ neuter; i.e. sex as distinguished from no sex; e.g. boniui (m.\ 
tana (f.), boiram (n.) ; trlstls (m. f.), trlste (n.) ; amans (m. f. n.;, 
but accusative amantem (m. f.), amans (n.). 

Substantives differ from adjectives as regards their inflexions, s" 
chiefly in being fixed to one gender only. But 

I. Some substantival stems have a masculine and feminine form ; 
e.g. Jnllna (m.); Julia (f.); equus (m.); equa (f.). 

3. A few substantives of the first class are feminine, though 
with stems in -0; others masculine, though with stems in -a. 

3. A substantive of the second class may be masculine, or 
femmine, or both, the form bemg indeterminate. 

4* Some suffixes of derivation are exclusively used for substan* 
tives,andnotfor adjectives: some again are confined to themasculine 
gender, others to the feminine. E.g. no adjective is formed with 
the suffix -lOn: again all abstract substantives, if formed by the 
suffix -iOn, or -tftt are femmine; if formed by the sufiix -Or are 

It follows from the above, that the gender is not always known 3i> 
by tfaefcnm. 

The test of a substantive^s being of a particular gender is the use 
of an adjective of that particular gender as an attribute to it; e.g. 
Inunna is known to be feminine, because dura humus, not dnms 

An adjective, where the form is not determinately significant, 
is commonly said to be in the same gender, as that of the substantive 
to which It is used as an attribute. 

But though the sex attributed to the person or thing is not 3^3 
always expre^ed by the form, the gender was never assigned in 
defiance fk the true sex in persons, nor in animals, if the sex was 
of importance. Many animals are denoted by a sub^antive of only 
one form and only one gender, the masculine or feminine having 

to6 Inflexions. \Book 1I\ 

been originally selected, according as the male or female was most 
frequently thought of. Animals of the kind generally would be. 
spoken of, without distinction, by this noun, whether it were 
masculine or feminine; e.g. olfiros (m.) snuans in general; anfttes 
duckt^ including drakes. If a distinction is important, the word ma* 
or femlna, as ti^e case may be, is added; e.g. <flor femlna, tbefimaU 
swan; anas mas, tJbe male duck. Such nouns are called eplooBna 
(Quint i. I. a4). 

In the same way a feminine, e.g. Atna, can be spoken of as 
masculine, if mons be added; a river can be neuter, if flumeiibe 
added: and the appropriate change of gender takes place some- 
times without the explanatory word being expressed; e.g. Eanudhas 
acta est, i.e. the play Eunuchus; Centauro InYehltur magna, i.e. on 
the ship Centauroj. So occasionally herlMi or litera is understood. 

The genders assigned to names of persons, animals, or vegetables, ZH 
and of some other classes of natural objects were as follows: 

I. Names of persons: Names of males are masculine, of femaksf 
feminine. Thus proper names of females, derived from the Greek, 
though retaining the neuter suffix corresponding to their neuter 
gender in Greek, are in Latin feminine; e.g. in Plautus, and 
Terence, FlanSsliun; Gayctetum, PlironSBtum, Stephftnlnm, 3MI- 

For Appellatives^ especially those derived from age or relation- 315 
ship, there are separate forms, sometimes from different roots, for the 
males and females; e.g. mas, femlna; p&ter, m&ter; ftyoa, avla; 
prp&Yus, proavla, &c.; fillus, fllia; puer, pueUa; nSpos, neptls, 
&c.} Yir, muller; m&rltus, uxor; vltrlciu, ndverca; privlgniui, pri- 
vigna; edcer, socrus; gSner, niirue; fir&ter, B5ror; p&truus, amlta; 
ftTundUoB, m&tertSra; vema (m.), ancUla (f.); axLtistes, antlstlta; 
hoepee, hoeplta ; cliens, clienta ; tiblcen, tiblclna ; fldlcen, ILdidna. 
So also many (derived from verbs) with -or for masculine, and -rlx 
for feminine; e.g. tonsor, tonstrlz. 

Homo, ajilmans (of a rational creature) are masculine; vlrgo and 
matrOna, feminine. 

Others (all of 2nd class of nouns) are conunon: viz. eo^Janz, 
pftrens, afELnis, patraSUs, staex, jUvdnls, ftdftlesoens, Infana. In 
Ennius and Nsevius puer, ndpos, and socms are common. So are 
ranked hoepee (in the poets) and antistes. In none of these, except 
puer (when used as f.) and vema is the form opposed to the sex. 

Other personal appellatives are usually or exclusively masculine, 31S 
because the offices, occupations, &c., denoted were filkd by men, 
or at least by men as much as by women. 

Chap, IJ,] Inflexions of Gender. 107 

The following are sometimes feminine; d[Tl8, mlbiieeps, con* 
^Iwrnallii, bosttfl, «ziil, v&tM, iftoerdoB, angnr (cmce or twice), 
tnx, ottmes, B&telles, custoe, UrterpreQ, xnljes, Tindez, index, J1ldeX| 
Mis, prsBses, hfires, artlfex, anctor. Others are used of females, 
but without a feminine adjective; e.g. dplfiax, oamTfeT, auspez, 
r, Tl&tor, dflfentor, tator, anoepi, manoepi. 

So also some with -a stems (see § 335) ; anilga, adyfina, &c. 

Others are nowhere found applied to females; e.g. comlcen, 
auoen, taUcen; latro, faUo, man^o, nSlilUo. 

Some words which are only metaphorically applied to men or 3x7 
promen retain their original gender; e.g. mandplum (n.) a chattel^ 
iflVOAma (n.) a musical performer^ Boortnm (n.), prootlbfiliini (n.); 
iUSO^m (f?), ezctlU8» (f.), OpfosB (£), dfiUdsd (f.) ; anzIUa (n.). 

a. Names of Animals, For some quadrupeds, with which the 3»8 
R^omans had much to do, separate forms are found for the male and 
female. The stems in -0 are masc., those in -a fem. 

Agnus, agna; &per, apra; arles (m.), Texrez (m.), 5t18 (f.); 
Ulnna, asina; asellas, asella; bircus, c&per, capra; c&tus (m.), 
niM (f.); c&tttlus, catnla; cerms, cerya; odiumbiui, ocdumlMi; 
IqnnB, equa; gallus, galUna; liadiis, c&pella; Unnus, blnna; JU- 
mDCQBt Juvenca; leo (m.), lea, or (Greek) leeena; Itipiui, lupa; 
bkUqb, mnla; porcos, porca; dmitu, stmla (also of c^s in general) ; 
kMunu, Taoca; Tezres, ecrOfa; Tltftlus, Tltnla; ursiu, ursa. 

t Df these ovIb is said to have been also used as masc. in old 
sacnficial language. Varro had the expression lupus femina: Cato 
had porcns femina; an old law (ap. Gell. 4* 3* 3) agnus fionilna.) 

For most other animals there was only one form; e.g. — 

Quadrupeds (beades above) ; bidens (f. sc, ovIb) ; bos (m. f.) ; 3x9 
similns (m. f.) ; cftnls (m. f.) ; damma (m. f.) ; Sldpbans, elephantos 
[m, rarely f.); flbeu ("^O* sUs (m^; bystrlx (f.); Ifipus (m. 
rarely f.); lynx (f. rarely m.); mus (m.); mnstella (f.); nitella 
rf.); pantlifira (t); pardus (m.); quadr&pes (m. f. n.); sorex 
^m.); sns (m. f.); talpa (f. rarely m.); tlgrls (f. rarely m.); yes* 
perttlio (m.) ; volipeB (f.). 

Birds: e.g. acdpiter (m. rarely f.) ; files (m. f.) ; &nas (f.) ; anser 320 
fm. rarely f.^ ; ftqnlla (f.} ; &vls (f.) ; bflbo (m. rarely f.) ; cleOnla 
(f.); (flrls (t.); oomlx (L); c8ttlmlx (f.); oygnus (m.), 61or (m.); 
RUXea and fUlx (f.); grftciUas (m.); grus (f. rarely m.*); bimndo 
(£); IMS (f.); Insclnius (m.), lasdnla (£ also of nightingales in 
general); mdrtUa (f.); mlluus, mUrus (m.)) noctoa (f.); oscen 

io8 Inflexions. [Btufkll* 

(m.f.); pilnmlMi (m. £), pahimlraf Tm.^ ; paiMr(m.); iAto (m.^; 
perdlx (m. f.); pica (f.); ttOmiu (m.); rtrftthdoftinffhm (nu £)f 
tnrdns (rarely f.); tnrtar (m. f.); Tnltar (m.), 

• Reptiles: e.g. aagaii (m. f.); Mfo (m.); diain»Ieoii rm.^;3n 
cdlUlier (m.), o<aatira (f. also oi snakes generally) ; crOoddniu (m.) ;. 
drftoQ (m.) ; Iftoortiu (m.), lacerta (f. also of lizards generally) ; ztna 
(f.) ; serpens (m. f.) ; sMllo (m.) ; testtldo (f.). 

Fishes : ftclpenser (m.) ; mflgU (m.^ ; mnmna (f.) ; mnUiis (hl) \ 
pisds (m.) ; rliomlms (tn.) ; s&lar Qm.) ; scftms (m.) ; sOlea (£)• 

Invertebrates: &pis (f.); de&da (f.); ftiftaens (m.)i aranea (f. 
also of j^i^rj generally); olmez (m.); dUex (m.^; foimXca (f.)} 
lilrddo (f.) ; tandes (p\. f.) ; Umax (f. rarely m.) ; mUraz' (m.) ; 
miisca rf.); pftpIUo (m.); pMis (nu f.); pftlez (m.); 89pta (£); 
vermis (m.) ; vespa (f.). 

3. Almost all trees and sbmhs are feminine. Some of them 3m 
have -o stems (§ 336), but these are mostly from the Greek. 

Of plarUs and flowers^ some are masculine, the rest chiefly- 

Names of fhuts and <woods are often neuter, with stems in -0, 
and some trees are also neuter, probably because the name was first 
applied to the product. 

The principal masculine names are: ftcanthus, ftmftrftcoa (alsof.), 
asparftgus, Mlfitos, cUftmus, oardiras, erdons, cj^tSsos (also £), dt* 
mus, ficus (also f.), fungus, heUeboms (often -nm n.), Intftlms (also 
IntlUmm n.), Juncns, Ifitos (usually f.), mftlus (but as an t^le 
tree f.), moscus, Ueaster, pampXnus (aiso f.), raphftims, itiainnnH, 
rtibus, rilmex (adso f.), sctrpus. 

The principal neuter names are ftpinm, ftcer, tMlsftmum, User, 
p&p&ver (also m.), piper, rOtmr, slier, siser (but in plural slseres), 
tdber (truffle) : and the fruits or woods arMtum, buzom, ,&c. (but 
castftnea, Olea, 1>&l&iiti8, are also used as fruits, and retain their tern, 
gen. So bnxos and buxom for a flute). 

4. Namesofy>(u;^/jaremainly feminine and Greek. 333 

Masculine are ftd&mas, beryllus, carbonenlns, ChxysttlXthns (also 
f.), finyx (as a marble^ or a cup\ dpftlus, sardOnyx (also f.), sm&- 
ragdus, &:c. 

5. Names of towns ^ countries^ &c. have, if of Latin origin, their 334 
gender marked by their termination; e.g. masculine; VnSl) Pntedli, 
properly the Feians^ &c.: feminine; e.g. Afirlca (sc. terra), ItftUa, 
ROma: neuter; Tarentum, Bdndventom, Reftte, Frsmeste, Anxar (n. 
also m. of tiie mountain), Tibur (n.). 

Chap. III.'\ Noun Inflexions of Number. 109 

Of Greek nouns many retain their Greek gender (though often 
with stems in -o), others, owing sometimes to their termination 
being misunderstood, have other genders : e. g. Argos usually neut., 
but Statins has frequently XMitrlos ikigos, affllctos Azgos, &c. ; Livy 
occasionally Azgl, as nom. pi. 

The Spanish towns are sometimes feminine in -Is, e. g. Illitnzgis ; 
sometimes neuter in -1, e.g. mitargL 

Some neuter plurals are found; e.g. Leaotr&, Artaxftt&, Tigrajio- 

6. Names of mountains are all masculine, except those with 335 
maiked feminine terminations (stems in -a or Greek -e) ; e.g. JEtna, 
Ida, BlidddpC, &c.; or neuter terminations (nom. in -um, Greek in 
-•) ; eg. PaUnL, B^tractd. Alpes (pi.) is feminine. 

7. Names of rivers are masculine, even those with -a stems, 
except AUia, Dnzla, Bagra, LStliS, Styx, which are feminine. But 
sometimes rivers are made neuter by prefixing flumea and giving a 
tennination in -um; e.g. ILiunen Blienmn (Hon); ILumen Graalcum 
(Plin.) ; &c. 

8. Names of winds are masculine ; e.g. ftaoHo, Tultiiniiui, &c 
So also EMsliB (pi). 

An mdeelinable words are neuter: e.g. flas, nefiu, Instar (except 33^ 
barbaric names, e.g. Abraliam); and to this class belong infinitives 
(e.g. non diflare Isfend, totam boo pUlosoidiari) ; words used as names 
of themselves Te.g. Istao *taceo,' hoc Ipsun 'lumABti'^; and often 
the letters of tne alphabet (as *o In g oommutato*); out these last 
are sometimes femimne, Utera being expressed or understood. 


In Latin the only distinction in point of number which is 327 
marked by inflexions is between one (singular number), and more 
than one {plural number). 

The particular inflexions ot number will be best treated in 
connexion with the case inflexions. 

Some nouns, in consequence of their meaning, have no plural, 
others have no singular. 

no Inflexions. \£ook IL 

I. The foUowing have ordmarily no plural : 

{a) Proper names of persons and f laces ; e.g. UeteUiui, BomA» &c.; 39B 
but KEet^lli of several members or the family; Oamilli of person^ 
With qualities like Camilliui : Oalll», of the two divisions of Gaul, 
Qallla CUsalplna and Transalplna ; VOlcanl of gods with different at- 
tributes, or bearing the name of Vulcan, or of statues of Vulcan, &c. 

(J)) Single natural objects; e.g. sol, the sun; tdUns, the earth; 
but Boleb is used in discussions as to whether there are more suns 
than one, or as equivalent to days, &:c. 

(r) Continua; i.e. natural objects which are measured or 
weighed, not numbered, e.g. cruor, blood; ros, dew; as, bronze; 
fnimentuin, com ; f&ba, beans^ as a class ; fnmuB, smoke. But these 
are used in the plural, when several kinds ^ or distinct ^i^£«x or drops ^ 
are meant; e.g. vIna, different wines; ilYef^Jlakes of snow; f&bSB, 
individual beans ; sera, bronze <works of art ; cames, pieces of flesh ; 
fomi, wreaths of smoke. In poetry the plural is s(»netimes used* 
without such a distinction. 

{d) Abstract nouns ; e. g. Justitla, justice ; but not unconunonly 
the plural is used even in these in order to express the occurrence 
of the event or exhibition of the quality at several times or in 
several forms, e. g. virtutes, virtues ; cupidltates, desires ; odla, cases 
of hatred; conscientias, several persons'* consciousness (of guilt) \ 
mortes, deaths {of several persons) ; otia, periods of rest; adVBiitns, 
arrivals; maturitates, culminations; YUshiltaXiM, position of people aS 
neighbours; lapsus, slips; calores, frlgora, times qf heat, of cold; 
similltadineB, resemblances; 8cc, 

a. The following are found only or ordinarily in the plural; 399 
though some of them correspond to what in other languages are 
denoted by singulars. 

(a) Names of certain towns or places, &c.: Tliebn, Tlgra- 
nocerta, Leuctra, Veji (originally the Feians), CannsB (i.e. Reeds): 
Gades, Cmn». So Pergama, the towers of Troy, Tartara. 

(b) Groupsof islands and mountains. Sec, \ e.g, Cycl&AeB, Jd^^es, 
EaquiUso, Tempo (jproperly glens), 

(c) Bodies of persons: e.g. decemviri, a commission of ten 
(though we have decemvir also used of a commissioner) 8cc; 
majfires, £{ncestors; pr5c6res, VTimoxes, leading men; Woi^ children ; 
tnfSrl, the spirits below ; supftrl, the Gods above; cs^tes, the heavenly 
ones; pen&tes, the hearth gods; manes, the ghosts; gratl8d» the 
Graces; Fuila, the Furies ; Dirse, Curses (conceived as goddesses) ; 

Chap, I11I\ Noun Inflexions of Number. iii 

(d) Parts of the body; e.g. artus, the joints; cerylces (before 
Hortaisius), the neck (neckbonest)'^ exta, Intestlxia, Ylscftra, the 
imtemal organs ; tBWsen, the throat; lactes, the lacteal vessels; 
panttoes, bo<ivels ; rines, kidntys ; t5ri, the muscles ; prsdcorclla, mid-^ 
riff; lUa, loins, 

(e) Names tf feasts or days; e.g. CaJendsa, NOnsa, Idus; fSrto, 330 
tbejeait'day; nundlnss, market-day ; Bacc&]iftlla,^Aj^ of Bacchus; 

(/) Other collections of things, actions, &c.; altSria, an altar; 
RmMges, evasion (but § 415); axigustisd, straits (sing, rare); argfL- 
Um, subtlety; antes, ro<u;j, e.g. of vines; arma, tools y esp. <u}eaponSy 
armour; armamenta, sh'^'^r tackling; l>alne89, the baths ^ i.e. bath^ 
bouse,; Ugse, a carriage and pair (sing, not till Sen.); cancalll, rail^ 
ings; casses, a hunting net (properly meshes^ cf. § 43 a); castra, a 
vamp (properly huts^ tents} castrum is found only as part of proper 
names, e.g. Castrum Novum); clatlirl, a grating; daustra, bars 
(sing. 'in Sen. Curt, rarely); clltellso, a pack saddle (panniers})] 
BompMes, fetters (but § 446) ; crepundla, child^s rattle, Sec; cfbuB, 
sttnfiMla, IncHn&biUa, cradle; deliclsd, delight; divitisd, riches; ex- 
bUiUb, the .<ivatch; Sptllsd, a dinner; ezsSqulsa, funeral procession; 
nc&7l»» things stripped off", spoils; facStiss, Jokes (sing, rare); f&la, 
scaffolding; fasti, the Calendar; fOrl, benches; Cr&ces, oil dregs; 
frfttes, thanks (^§418); IndUtisd, a truce; Ineptisa, silliness (sing, in 
Plant Ter.); InfSrla, offerings to the shades belonv; infitias, denial 
[cf. §369); iDBiSilm, ambush; inlmidtlsa, i'OJ^/V/V^ (rarely sing.); l&pl- 
3ldbUB» stofte quarries; IddUi, compartments, and so box, bag, &c.; 
iQStira, a den; m&nHblsd, booty; mina, threats; moenla, town (walls; 
alUPB* trifles; nuptis, marriage; oblces, bolts (but § 439) ; p&rletinsa, 
ruins; phftlSrsB, horse trappings; prsostilglso, juggling tricks; prdces, 
^rttfers (but § 438); XpiisrSXim, first frmts; pngiUSxes, writing tablets; 
puUMga, a carriage and four (sing, not till Propert.) ; qulsquUlSd, 
yfuse; rellquisd, the remains; rdpftgula, bolts, &c.; sallnsa, saltpits; 
s&ta, the crops; scSIss, stairs; sc5ps9, a broom; sentes, thornbush; 
ierta» A wreath; Bordes, filth (sing, rare §4^1); suppStias, supply (cf. 
\ 369) ; tSnSbrsa, the darkness; thermse, the warm baths (cf. balnea); 
Keiqna, wastes; YalYa, foldifig-doors ; vepres, thorns (but cf. §430); 
nndldas, claims; vlrgalta, bushes; fltensllla, necessaries. 

Some of these words are used in one or two cases of the singular. 
5ee the references, 

3. The following words are used in the plural with a special 331 
neaning, besides their use (in most instances) as an ordinary plural: 

»des sing, a- temple, plur. a house (properly, hearths, chambers ?) ; 
Uiaa» water; aqnn, a watering-place: anzillum, assistance; anzllla, 
ncans of aisistance, auxiliary troops: "Mwam, a good; b5na, goods, 

112 Inflexions. \BookIL 

i.e. mis property: curcBr, a prison; oaxofees, the barners Qxi horse 
races) : ofldloULug, a small piece of <u)ood; oOdldlll, writing tablets: 
cOpia, plenty; cOpin, supplies, troops: odmltium, the place of tribes* 
assembly at Rome; odmltia, the assembly: fXdes sing, a Jbarpstring, 
plur. a stringed instrument: fortilna, fortune; fortniw, one^s posses* 
sions: grfttla, thankfulness; gr&tl», grfttes, thanks: hortiu, a garden; 
horti, pleasure-gardens, a country house: ImpMImeiitiim, a hindrance; 
ixnpedlmeiita, baggage: littera, a letter (of the alphabet); Uttans, a 
letter, i.e. epistle: Indus, a game; Ifldi, Public Games: n&tUlB, a 
birthday; &&tftle8, one^s descent: dpfoa, work; opens, workmen: Qp8» 
a goddess; oifeim,help; dpes, wealth, resources: pan, apart; partes, 
a part on the stage: rostrum, a beak; rostra, the tribune or pulpit at 
Rome: t&biUa, a plank; t&1ita», account books. 


In Latin the distinctions of case are in the Angular five, the 33* 
cases being named nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. 
In some nouns with stems in -o, besides others derived from the 
Greek, a sixth form, (not properly a case, cf. § 1007), generally 
called the vocative is also found. 

In the plural there are only four; viz. nominative, accusative^ 
genitive, and a conunon form for the dative and ablative. 

Another case, distinguished in some other languages, called the 
locative, is in Latin always the same in form, as either the genitive, 
dative, or ablative. 

A similar confusion of forms is found between some of the other 
cases in some classes of nouns. Originally perhaps there was a 
different form for each case in each number. 

Nouns and pronouns, whether substantival or adjectival, may 333 
be conveniently divided according to their case inflexions (called 
collectively their declension) into two great classes, containing 
respectively — 

I. Nouns with stems ending in -a, -e, or -0. 

II. Nouns with stems ending in -u, -1, or a consonant 

Chap, IK"] Case Inflextoiis. 113 

All the pronouns, except personal pronouns, belong to the 
first class, though a few have kindred forms belonging to the 
second class. 

The personal pronouns belong strictly to neither class. They 
will be treated of as an appendix to the first class. 

The chief constant differences between the inflexions of the two 
classes are these : — 

Nouns of the first class have the genitive singular (except in 
the pronouns), the locative singular, and the nominative plural 
(except in a few -e stems) alike, and ending in a long vowel or 
oiphthong ; the genitive plural in -rum preceded by a long vowel ; 
the dative and ablative plural (except in two -e stems) in -Is. 

Nouns of the second class have the genitive singular and nomi- 
native plural ending in -s, the locative usually the same as the 
ablative, the genitive plural in -um, the dat. abl. plural in -htis 
(usually -Ibfts). 

Some of these diffe|pnces were not found in the older language. 
See Chapters vi. and xii. 

Ehe ordinary division of nouns substantive was into five 334 
dons. Of these the ist contained -a stems (§ 339) ; the 2nd, 
-o stems (§ 344 sqq.) ; the 3rd, consonant (Chap, xi.) and -1 stems 
fChap. X.); the 4th, -u stems (Chap, ix.); and the 5th, -e stems 
(§ 34o)« Adjectives were divided into those of three terminations, 
-w, ^ nm (§§ 339, 344); those of two terminations, -is, -e (Chap. 
x^, and -or, -us (§ 460); and those of one tennination, e.g. felix 
(Chaps. X. XI.)]. 

Examples of the regular declensions of the different subordinate 
classes will be given in the next chapter. Any peculiar forms 
of inflexion which existed will be found in Chapters vi. and xii., 
or appended to the mention of the particular word to which they 


I. Gender. 

As regards the gender of nouns of this class, with comparatively it-a 
few exceptions, (i) all masculine and neuter nouns have stems in 
-o ; (2) all feniinme nouns have stems in -a, or -6. 

114 Inflexions. [Book IL 

The exceptions are as follows : 

I. Some stems in -&are masculine; e.g. appellative substan- 
tives expressing occupations in which men are exclusively or pri- 
marily thought of, viz. acedia, agricOla, Incdla; asseda, advtoa, 
convena; auilga, c6116ga, conviva, gnmia, lanista, Uza, xnatrldLda, ' 
ItarrldLda, prof&ga, transftiga, p5pa, rabiUa, scrilia, scnrra, yema. 
And the same termination was given to Greek words in -ijr, e.g. 
nauta, poSta, Persa, Scytlia (see § 475). 

Daxnxna is also sometimes masc.: talpa larely so (§ 319). 

So also almost all rivers (§ i%5) : e.g. Sequ&xia, TrSbia, &c, and 
Hadrla (the Hadriatic sea). 

A considerable number of proper names, e.g. Noma, L&mla, 
AUUa, Fansa, Sulla, Gall>a» Natta, Tucca, Nasica, Perpenna» Clnna, 
Bidla, Messalla, PoplicOla. So also some feminine appellatives were 
used as family names of men, e.g. BfLga, ScaptLLa, Stlra, Flmliria, 
Morula, Pica, Musca, MurSna, Dolabella, FenesteUa, HSmliia, Tr&1)6a. 

a. Some words with -0 stems are ^minine. These are 33* 
chiefly either names of trees or Greek words, especially names of 
jewels and towns. 

(a) alYus (in old language m.); carb&sus, cOlus (sometimes 
m.), humus, yaimus. For dOmus see § 394. 

(b) Names of trees: sbscuIus, alnus, arbHtus, buzus, cedrus, 
cer&su8, citrus, comus, cOrtULus, cupressus, cytlsus (also m.), 
6b6nu8, fSLgus, f&sSlus, ficus (rarely m.), frazXnus, jfliilpdrus, laurus, 
Idtus (rarely m.), mfilus {apple-tree), mOrus, myrtus, nardus, 
omus, p&p^ru8, pinus, pirus, pl&t&nus, pOmus, pOpiUas, prOzLUS, 
quercus, sabUcus, sorbus, splnus, ulmus. Also b&l&nus, acorn, 

(r) Jewels: e.g. amethystus, crystalluB, sappblrus, topazus, 

(d) Towns, &c. ; Ab^dus, fgyptus, Aspendus, Carystus; 
CliersonSsus, Cjrprus, Epidaxnnus, Epidaurus, Epirus, PSldponnSsus, 
BliOduB, &c. ; but CanOpus (m.), Istlunus (m.), OrchOmenus (m.), 
Pontus (m.). So also Belos, Lemnos, &c. are feminine. 

{e) For Greek appellatives, e.g. ftt6mus, m6tli6du8, &c., 
see §478. 

3. Of nouns in -es only dies and mSridles are masculine. 33; 
Dies however is in the singular number often feminine, especially as 
an appointed day^ and almost exclusively fern, when it means timey 
period of time. 

All neuters (except some pronouns, § 370) have nom. ace. sing. 33^ 
in -um: except vlrua, Tulgus (in ace. often vulgiun), and the Greek 
pel&gos, plur. pelagS. (Virus and vulgus have no plural. The 
authority for vulgus as masc. seems insufficient.) 

Chap. VI\ Noun Stefns ending in -a and -e. 115 

II. Inflexions of Case. 

The suffixes for the different cases are usually combined with 339 
the final vowel of the stem, so as not always to be readily 

I. Declension of stems in -a and -e. 

- I. The substantive stems in -a (chiefly feminine), and the 
feminine form of those adjectives which have stems in -0, are declined 
alike; e.g. mensa (f ), a table; scrlba (m.), a clerk; bOna (adj. f.), 
good; tSndra (adj. f.), tender. There are no neuters of this declen- 

2. Stems in -8 of this class (comp. § 407) are all substantives 340 
and all feminine: one (dies) is also masculine. All but a few have 
stems in -le with a short antepenultimate, and most are words of 
mot« than three syllables. 

They are as follows: dies, f&mes (also famls), fides, plSbes 
(also i»lel)8), res, apes, and (in ablative sing, only) scabrS, squaJe ; 

ftdes, all&YleB (with other derivatives of I&yo), barb&riee, csssd.- 
iles, cftxles, congdrles, effigies, Sstiries, f&cies, gl&cies, inglHyies, 
Inxflzlos, macdries, m&cies, m&tdries, mtirles (only nom. s.), paupd- 
xlM, pernlcies (? permities, Munro, ad Lucr, i. 45 i)i prOgdnies, r&bies, 
rBQTles (also with stem in -8t, § 445 )» s&nies, sc&bies, sSries, spdcies, 
sftpeiflcies, tempdries, and its compound intemperies ; 

and abstract substantives in -Ities, viz. ftrnftrities, Smlcities, 
ETftrities, calYlties, cfinitiee, dOrities, lentities, mollities, mundities, 
iiBqTttleB, nlgrities, nOtities, pigritles, pl&nities, pullities, segnities, 
qmrdties, triBtltiee, Tastities. 

Only two of these words, viz. res and dies, are inflected through- 341 
out all cases of both numbers. None (besides dies and res) have any 
plural, except acies, fades, e£ELgies, species, spes, series, which are 
found in the nominative and accusative plural; glacies in accus. 
(Vei^g.), tiuvies in nom. (Curt.). But old forms of spes, viz. speres, 
nom. ace. plur., speribus, dat. abl. plur., are mentioned as used by 
Knnius and Varro respectively^. Facierum is quoted from Cato. 
Spedemm, speciebns occur in the Digest, &c 

* Tlie stem appears to have been spes- : compare sper-o. So also 
perhaps dies-; comp. diur-nus. See also § 405. 



{Bodk IL 

The genitive and dative singular are rare', except from dies, 34* 
res, spes, fides, and plebes. 

These cases appear to have ended regularly in -el in and after 
the second century after Christ at latest (GelL ix. 14), but whether 
ei was usually one syllable or two is uncertain. Probably it was 
a diphthong. Before that time ei is proved to be sometimes di- 
syllabic, but in the words diSI, fldSi and fidSI, rSI and r6I only. See 
§§357, 360. 

Luznrles, materles, barbaries, Intempdries, efflerles, and almost all 
the words in -Ities, have collateral stems in -a (of. § 93a), and these 
supply the forms generally used in the genitive and dative singular. 

Examples: mensa, a table; l3ona (adj.), good; luzurla, luxury; 343 
res, a thing; ades, a point. All feminine. 

Stems in -a. 

Singular. Subst. Adj. 

Nom. iiien8& bOxi& 

Ace. mensa-m bona-m 






Stems in 

-a and -e. 


or luxuri9-8 
luznrla-m re-m 
or luzurie-m 

Stems in -e. 
Subst. Subst. 





Nom. mensse 
Ace. mens3,-8 




mensft-rum bonft-rum 

mensI-B boni-8 


or luzuriS 

not used) 





&cil or 


rS-s &C15-B 
rS-rum (none) 

r6-bu8 (none) 

a. Ordinary declension of -0 stems. 

The following is the regular declension of substantives with 344 
stems ending in -0, and of adjectives, with the like stems, in the 
masculine and neuter gender. 

e.g. ftnlmiis (m.), a soul; beUum (n.), w«r; bdnns (adj.), ^oo^/. 

^ Quintilian says (l 6, § 26), «*Nec plurimum refert, nulla hsec an 
praedura sint. Nam quid * progenies' genetivo singulari, quid plurali 
Spes' faciei?" 

Chap, K] 

Noun Stems mding in -o. 















bdnl ) 
bdnS-s \ 


Subst. Adj. 









The vocative masc. sing, of meua, mine^ is ml. Dens, god^ had 345 
voc. Dens; nom. plur. dl; dat. abl. dls; but del and dels are not 
infrequent in Ovid and later poets, and even in some Mi)S. of Varro 
and Cicero. 

3. Declension of stems in -ro. 

Of stems in -6ro, (a) most drop the final -us of the nominative 34 
Angular, and -e of the vocative ; and (A) many omit the e before r 
in all the cases except the nom. voc. masculine singular. 

(fl) The following only exhibit -ub in the nominative singular : 
nfimfims, tLmdrus (or humeruB), HtSrus, and (the single fem. stem 
in -dro), jfLnipdrus, and the adjectives prOpdruB, prspr5p6raB, 
propoBter&B, mOrlgdruB, trlquetnis, and usually proBpdrus. The 
nominative masculine singular of the adjectives cStSrum, postSnim, 
Iftdicmm, crtpdrum is not found. 

(Adjectives with long 8 in penultimate (e.g. BSveruB), and some 
Greek forms, e.g. EvandruB, PetruB, exhibit -ub. But IbSrl awd 
CeltlbSrl have for singular IbSr and CeltibSr, but only once each.) 

Vlr, a man, and its compounds, e.g. triumvir, aemlvlr (adj.), and 
the adjective B&ttlr (sftttlrft, Bftttirum), also drop -ub. Lucretius 
once uses f&mftl for f&miUuB. 

Paere is frequently found in Plautus as the vocative of puer. 

(h) The following only retain e before r ; viz. — 

(i) All those which retain -ub in the nominative singulax , 




[B(?ok II 

(2) Adulter, B6cer, gdner, Uber (the god Bacchus), pner, veeper 
(rvening star), Jugerom (which last in plural belongs to and Class) ; 

(3) The adjectives aspet (ajwrla, abl. plur. once in Vergil), 
l&cer, Uber, miser, tdner, gibber, alter; and oetemm, postemm, 
crepemm (above named). Also exter (Papin.), infer (Gato), super 
(Cato), chiefly used in plural; 

Dexter has both forms ; e.g. dezteram, dextram. (The compa- 
rative of dexter is always dexterior. So also deterlor.) 

(4) Compounds of more than two syllables ending in -te or 
-ger; e.g. mortlfer, SJlger, &c. 

The following are the principal substantives which omit e ; iger, 34* 
&per, ftiblter, auster, cancer, dlper, cdltLber, cnlter, f&ber, Uber 
(hook)^ m&glster, minister. The neuters are chiefly in -brum, -tmm, 
-cmm, see in Book III. The adjectives omitting e are: aeger, ftter, 
crSber, (dexter, § 347,) gl&ber, m&cer, niger, piger, Implger, Integer, 
lfLdIcn2m,pu]cber,riiber, s&cer, sc&ber, sinister (in comparative always 

Blnisterlor), tster, y&fer: also Afer, Cftl&ber. 

Examples: puer (m.), a hoy; ylr (m.), a man; i&ber (m.), 349 
a fivorkman ; membrum (n.), a limb. 



Gen. ) 

Loc. ( 

Dat. 1 





















f&bri ) 
f abrO-8 ( 




(andvlru-m) (andfabru-m) 
vlrl-s f&brl-s membrl-s 

On -um in the genitive plural of vir and fiiber see § 365. 

4. Prae- Augustan declension of stems in -uo 
(i. e. either -uo, -vo, or -qvo). 

The older language, as shown especially by inscriptions not 350 
later than cir. 520 B.C., retained the final -0 of tlie stem in the 
nominative and accusative cases singular; e.g. fiI16B, piimte, 

Chap. K] 

Noun Stems ending in -o. 


Mdam, donom. Though this -0 was changed to -u generally 
(§ *'3)> y^ the stems in which it was preceded by ▼ or u or qu 
retainra it until the Augustan age and later (Quintil. i. 7. a6). 
The change was however made in these stems also m the course of 
the ist century after Christ. In words like SqYfts the concurrence 
of u with n was also avoided by writing Sqfts, or SotlB. 

e.g. 6qT6s or Scfis (m.), a horse; »YQm (n.), an age; arduOs 
(adj.), iqfty. 

Singular. Subst. Adj. 

N(Mn. ) S4Y5-B or 8cii-s arduo-s \ 
6qy0 ardud ( 

SqYO-m or Scil-m arduo-m ) 







arduX } 
arduO-8 ) 










5. Augustan and Prae-Augustan declension of stents in •■io. 

In the Augustan and prae- Augustan period substantives with ssx 
stems ending in -io formed the genitive singular in -1 single. So 
always in the scenic poets, in Lucretius, Vergil, Horace ; also in 
P^rsius and Manilius. The genitive of trisyllabic words with a 
short antepenultimate (e.g. gl&dius, fOliom), appears to have been 
generally avoided by these poets; but prfitl, vltl (from pretiiun and 
Yittnm) occur. Propertius, Ovid, Lucan, and the later poets, used 
the full form in >il; e.g. Mercftrli, ezsXlli, Yitil; but in proper 
names the contracted form continued to be most common; e.g. 
Antonl, CapitOU, Terentl, Llvi. In inscriptions -U appears from 
the end of Augustus' reign, and with increasing frequency after 
Nero's reign, though -i is also found to the end of the 3rd century 
after Christ and probably longer (Ritschl. Opusc, 11. 779). 

The vocative sing. masc. of these stems also ended in -i (not -ie), 35' 
e.g. PnbU. But the vocative is found only in proper names and m 
the words gdnlus, flUus, YulttirlaB (cf. Gell. 14. 5). The nomina- 
tive plural rarely had U contracteid into 1. The dative ablative 
plural had sometimes, especially in neuters, -is for -lis. (See § 367.) 



[Book If. 

Adjectives always had -11 in genitive. Only those derived from 
Greek proper names had a distinct form for vocative; e.g. CjufiUo, 

In stems ending in -ajo, -elo the 1 both formed a diphthong with 
the preceding vowel, and also was pronoimced as English y before 
a following vowel. (For some exceptions see § 139.) Hence Cicero 
wrote the 1 double, -alio, -ello ; but this spelling is not now found 
in the MSS. or in republican inscriptions. 


Adjectives. 35? 


. masc. 




Nom. • 



consilium ^ 




Fompei and 

- ► 




Pompejum . 


Gen. ) 
Loc. ( 

















Claudl0-rum FompeJOrum 



Loc. ' 




conslllls or 







I Singular Number. 

Nominative: Stems in -o. On the feint sound ot final 9 and m 354 
which led to their omission even in the older language, see §§ 193, 
5. 86. Old inscriptions give such forms as AciUo, Fourlo, Fabredo, 
pocolo (for Aclllus, Furlus, Fahriclus, poculum). The nominative 
sing, of proper names with stems in -lo are frequently written in 
old inscriptions without the final syllable; e.g. Claudi, Valerl, Minuoi 
(for Claudius, &c). This may be merely an abbreviation, due as 
Ritschl supposes, to a once collateral nominative in -Is; e.g. Cometlia. 
Compare alls, alius § 373. 

Chap: VI.] Old Forms of Cases. {Nouns of Class /.) 121 

Accusative: For the omission of the final m, see § 86. 353 

Stems In -e. Quintilian (ix. 4. 39) speaks of diee hanc (if text 
be right) being found in Gato the censor's writings, " m litera In -6 

Genitive : i. Stems m -a. Instances of the ordinary genitive 356 
in -ae are very rare in inscriptions before the time of the Gracchi. 

Three old forms of the genitive singular are found, viz. -aes, -ai 

{a) The ending -aes occurs frequently in inscriptions after 
Sulla's time, but chiefly on tombs of freedwomen and slaves, and 
rarely in other than proper names; e.g. Juliaes, Dianaes, Annlaes, 
Fanstinaes, dominaes, vemaes. Some hold it to be intended for 
the Greek genitive in -17?. Ritschl (comparing a single Prosepnals 
from the 6th century u.c.) holds it to be a genuine old Latin form, 
vadi possibly used by Plautus {Neue Plant, Eofc, i. p. 115). 

(^) Of the ending -as examples are given from Livius Andro- 
nicus, escas, monetas, Latonas ; &om Nsevius. terras, fortunas ; and 
from Ennius, vlas. Some so take molas in Plaut. Pseud, iioo. 
This form is preserved in one word at all periods, viz. famlUa, 
when combined with pater, mater. Alius, fllia; e.g. paterfamilias 
(Cato, Cic), a father of a household. Pater, &c. famili» (Cic, 
jLiv.) is also used. In the plural we find both patres, &c. -famOiaa 
(Varr., Caes., Liv.), -familias (Varr., Cic), -familiarum (Cic, 
^i!IX.\fathers 8cc. of households. 

(f) The ending -al (originally the locative according to 
Madvig) is more common and earlier, and in Plautus and hex- 
ameter verse (retaining probably the old pronunciation) is treated 
as a spondee (-fil). It is frequent in Lucretius, and is also used by 
Cicero in his poetry, and by Vergil in four words, aquai, aulai, 
anrai, pictal. Republican inscriptions give, e.g. Duelonal (i.e. 
BdUonffi), Glabra!, ejus rei quaerundai et faciundai causa, calcis 
restinctal, &c. 

a. Stems in -e. Four forms of the genitive-ending are found, 357 
viz. 68; el; 6; L (See Gell. 9. 14). 

(a) -es; viz. Dies, Enn.,-^. 401, Verg. G. i. ao8 (die, Ribbeck), 
Cic. Sest, 12. § a8; rabies, Lucr. iv. 1083 ; facies, Claud. Quadrig. 
(in Sulla's time) ; fides, see below b ; pemicies, said to have been 
written by Cicero. 

(b) -el; viz. diel, frequent in prose; diSI, Lucr. (often), Verg. j1. 
IV. 156, Hon S. 1. 8. 35, Phaedr. IL 8. 10, Ten Haut, 168, aia, Plaut; 

di^ Ter. Eun, 801; rel, always in Republican inscriptions; rSI, 
Plaut Mil. G. 103, znagnal rei pubUoai gratia; Lucr. 11. iix^ 

122 Inflexions. [Book IL 

548; rtl, Plaut, Ter., Hon; rel, Plaut., Ter., LuciL, Lucr.; fldei, fre- 
quent in prose; fidSI, Enn. Ann. 34a, Plaut. AuL 121, 575, Lucr. 

V. 102; fidSl, Manil. 11. 605, 627, Sil. (four times); fid^ (fides 

Wagner), Plaut AuL 609; apel, frequent in prose; sp^ Ter. 
always; plebei (especially m phrases trlbimas plebei, plebelfldtuniy 
&c.) frequent: aciel, BelL Afr. 59 and 60. Muadiciel, Inscr, 136, 
A.D. (cf. Gorssen. Aussp, i. 54, ed. 2). 

(r) -S; viz. die, in several places (in some MSS.) of Caes., Sail., 
Liv., also Plaut. Pseud, 115 8; Sen. Cons, Marc. 18. 2; compare also 
postrldie, &c. ; re, Caes., Liv. in some mss. ; fide, Poet ap. C. Off. 
3. 26 ; Plane, ap. Gic. Fam. 10. 17 ; Hor. C. 3. 7. 4; Ovid. Met. lu. 
341, VI. 506, VII. 728, 737, &c.; ade, Sail; fisicie, Lucil., Plaut. Mil. 
G. 1172 ; requie, Sail. ; scable, Lucil. *^ C. Caesar in libro de analogic 
secundo hujus die et hujus specie dicendum putat," GelL 9. 14. 

(d) -1; viz. dll, Verg. A. 1.636; pleW, frequent in phrases above 
quoted; acll, Cn. Matins; pemidi, Cic. Rose. u^;;?. 45, Sisenna; 
specll, Cn. Matius; progenll, Pacuvius; luxurll, C. Gracchus; 
faml, Lucil., Cato ; fidi, Augustan legal inscription (Corp. I. L. 11. 

3. Stems in -0. The oldest form was perhaps -oe; e.g. p(q;)loe. 358 
But the inscriptions to the time of the third Punic war give only I; 
e.g. Barbatl, urbanl; after that time, till Augustus, -el is also fre- 
quently found; e.g. populel, cogendei, suel, ostlel, page!, Maroei, 
Vergilel; but not so frequently in laws as -I. In Augustus' time 
-el went out of use (§§ 265 — 268). Lucilius wished to establish 
the distinction of -i for the gen. sing.; -el for nom. plur. 

The locative has the same form as the genitive and was not 
improbably identical with it. 

Dative: i. Stems in -a. Early republican and other inscrip- 359 
tions have not unfrequently -al. The disyllabic SI is not found 
in the dative in any poet. 

Forms like Fortune, Diane in very old inscriptions are probably 
imitations of Greek. 

2. Stems in -e. Three forms of the dative are found; -ei, 6 360 
and I. 

(a) -el; viz. diel, often; rel, Lucr. i. 688, II. 236; rel, Corp. 
L L. 201, also (at beginning of verse) Ter. Ad. 95 ; rM, Hor. 

C. 3. 24. 64 ; rel, Enn. Trag. 361 ; Plaut, Ter., Lucil.; fidel, often in 

prose; fidei, Enn. Ann. m (fide, Vahlen); Ter. And. 2^6^ Eun. 
886, 898 (ed. Umpfenbach) ; comp. Plaut. Trin. 117, 128; fldfil, 
Manil. 3. 107, Sil. 2. 561 ; ple1[>el, Plin. H. N. 19. 4. 19, § 54, 18. 3. 4 ; 
adel, Gacs. Civ. in. 89, ib. 93; pemlolel, Nep. 12. 4» 

Chap, VZ] Old Forms of Cases. (Nouns of Class /.) 123 

(It) -C; viz. diS, Plaut.; re, Plaut, rrln. 635, 657; fide, Corp. 
L R, I. 170, Plaut. Jul, 659, Jmpb, 391, Pen. 193; comp. Trin, 
117, ia8, 14a, Hor. S, l. 3. 95 ; pemlcle, Liv. 5. 13, §5 ; facie, Lucil. 
" In casu dandi qui purissime locuti sunt, non * faciei ' uti nunc 
dicitursed 'facie' dixerunt," Gell. 9. 14. 

(c) -1; viz. pernlcU, Nep. 8. 2; faml, Plaut. Sticb, 158; facU 
(cf. Gell. 9. 14); fldi, Fast. Coll. Arval. ad KaL Oct, 

3. Stems in -0. The oldest form was -ol; e.g. hole, quol, a^* 
papnlodL Perhaps also oe in pilimmoe, poploe, Fest. p. 205. 

Ablative. In early times the ablative ended in -d; e.g. oquol- 36a 
tod (oocnlto); Benventod (Benevento), praldad (prsdda)^ sententlad 
^■ententia). The latest inscription containing such ablatives is the 
S,C, de Bacc, B.C. 186. Plautus probably used it or not as he chose. 
See § 160 and Ritschl, Neue Plaut, Exc, i. 106. 

Plural Number. 

Nominative: Stems in -a. The ending -as is quoted from 363 
Pomponius, ' Quot laetitias insperatas modo mi inrepsere in sinum.' 
(See Ritschl, N. P, Exc, i, 117.) 

Stems in -o. The earliest forms of ending in inscriptions are 
•es (not beyond cir. 90 B.C.) and very rarely -e or -oe; e.g. Atllles, 
mai^stres, ploirnme, Fescenninoe: from 200 b.c. or earlier to about 
the birth of Christ, more frequently -el, and from about the Gracchi 
till cir. 90 B.C. -els, or sometimes -Is; e.g. Itallcel, olnvorsel (iml- 
▼end), Q> M. Mlnudels, Q. F. Rnfels (i.e. Q> (et) M. MlnucU, Qfolntl 
fUii, Rnfl), gnatels, helsoe. So in Plautus Mace, llUsce. 

The ordinary form in -I appears since the Gracchi, and becomes 
excluavely used in the Augustan age. 

The only instances of dual forms (compare the Greek) are duo 
and ambo, which are the forms used m the masc. and neut. (dusa 
frminine as in plur). 

Accusative: Duo, ambo, masc. and neut.; duos, ambos, also 
masc. (duas, aml>as, fem.). 

Genitive: Future partidples except fatnms are very rarely 364 
found in the genitive plural, probably on account of the unpleasant- 
ness of repeated r (§ 185). 

I. Stems in -a. The ending -nm for -8mm (comp. Oscan 
-«iiim; Umbr. -amm or -am; old Greek -aoiy) is found ; 

(a) in some names derived frx)m the Greek; viz.: amphonun, 
(e.g. trlnm amphomm), dracbmnm. 

to6 Inflexions. [Book If. 

been originally selected, according as the male or female was most 
frequently thought of. Animals of the kind generally would be 
spoken of, without distinction, by this noun, whether it were 
masculine or feminine; e.g. olAres (m.) jwans ui general; an&tes 
4uckij including drakes. If a distinction is important, the word maA 
or femlna, as the case may be, is added; e.g. olor femina, the female 
jtwan; anas mas, the mate duck. Such nouns are called epiooona 
(Quint, i. I. 24). 

In the same way a feminine, e.g. JBtna, can be spoken of as 
masculine, if mons be added; a river can be neuter, if flumen be 
added: and the appropriate change of gender takes place some- 
times without the explanatory word being expressed; e.g. Eimuoliua 
acta est, i.e. the play Eunucbus; Centauro InyeMtur magna, i.e. on 
the ship Centauros, So occasionally herba or Utera is understood. 

The genders assigned to names of persons, animals, or vegetables, 314 
and of some other classes of natural objects were as follows: 

I. Names of persons: Names of males are masculine, of females^ 
feminine. Thus proper names of females, do-ived from the Greek, 
though retaining the neuter suffix corresponding to thdr neuter 
gender in Greek, are in Latin feminine; e.g. in Plautus, and 
Terence, Flanfisliim^ GOycdrlum, PluronSstmn, St^liftnlam, Del- 

For Appellatives^ especially those derived from age or relation- 313 
slup, there are separate forms, sometimes from different roots, for the 
males and females; e.g. mas, femlna; p&ter, m&ter; ftvus, avia; 
proftTOS, proavla, &c.; llllas. Alia; puer, puella; ndpos, neptis, 
&c.^ Yir, muller; m&rltus, uxor; vltrlcns, nOverca; priylgnus, pri- 
Tigna; sSoer, socras; gdner, ntlriis; frftter, sOror; p&tratis» amita; 
&yimdUii8» mfttertdra; yema (m.), anoilla (f.); aatistes, antistlta; 
hospes, hosplta; cllens, cllenta; tlbloen, tlbidna; fidlcen, fidldna. 
So also many (derived from verbs) with -or for masculine, and -rlx 
for feminine; e.g. tonsor, tonstrlx. 

Homo, ajilmans (of a rational creature) are masculine; ylrgo and 
matrAna, feminine. 

Others (all of and class of nouns) are common; viz. eoiijunz, 
pftrens, ai&nis, patmSlis, sftnez, JUvtaiB, ftdUesoens, Infans. In 
Ennius and Nsevius puer, ndpos, and iocnui are conmion. So are 
ranked hospes (in the poets) and antistes. In none of these, except 
puer (when used as f.) and yema is the form opposed to the sex. 

Other personal appellatives are usually or exclusively mascuUne, 3i« 
because the offices, occupations, &c., doioted were filled by men, 
or at least by men as much as by women. 

Chap. IL] Inflexions of G^der. 107 

The following are sometimes feminine; olvUi, mttBiMps, oon- 
tubemalis, hostlB, eznl, vftfcM, itardoB, augur (cmce or twice), 
dux, cdxues, B&telles, custos, SBten>re9» nklM) Yindoz, indAX, j1l(UX| 
testis, prsdses, hSres, artifex, auctor. Others are used of females, 
but without a feminine adjective; e.g. dpifa, oarHTfjpT, auspez, 
ONMosor, Tl&tor, dtfeiisor, tutor, auceps, maao^pa. 

So also some with -a stems (see § %i^ ; auxiga, adv&ia, &c. 

Others are nowhere found applied to females; e.g. comXoen, 
tibloen, tftUtcen; latro, folio, mango, nSliiUo* 

Some words which are only metaphorically applied to men or 3x7 
women retain their original gender; e.g. mandpium (n.) a chattel^ 
acro&ma (n.) a musical performer^ soortnm ^n.), ixrootUittlimi (n.); 
vigUisd (f.), ezcftbia (f.), 6pdr» (£), dSU(4» (f.); auidUa (n.). 

a. Names of Animals. For some quadrupeds, with which the 3»8 
Romans had much to do, separate forms are found for the male and 
female. The stems in -0 are masc., those in -a fem. 

Agnus, agna; &per, apra; arles (m.), verrez (m.), Ovla (f.); 
ftslnus, aslna; asellus» aseUa; liircus, c&per, capra; c&tns (m.), 
leies (f.); c&tiUus, catula; cerrus, cerva; odlumbiu, ocdumba; 
fiquus, equa; gallus, gallina; lisddus, c&pella; liinnus, lilima; jfl- 
▼encuB, juvenca; leo (m.), lea, or (Greek) lesBna; Iftpiu, lupa; 
mfUus, miila; porous, porca; s&utuf, ilmla (also of ^j in general); 
tauros, yacca; yerres, scrOfii; Titftlus, Titnla; ursus, ursa. 

(Df these ovls is said to have been also used as masc. in old 
sacnficial language. Varro had the expression lupus femina: Cato . 
had porcus femina; an old law (ap. Gell. 4* 3* 3) agnus ftmJna.) 

For most other animals there was only one form; e.g. — 

Quadrupeds (besides above) ; Udens (f. sc, ovls) ; l)os (m. f.) ; 3x9 
c&mSlus (m. f.) ; cftnls (m. f.) ; damma (m. f.) ; dldpbans, dlephantos 
(m. rarely f.); fiber (m.); glls (mO; hystriz (f.); lepus (m. 
rarely f.); lynz (f. rarely m.); mus (m.); mtistella (f.); xiltella 
(f.); pantliSra (t.); pardus (m.); quadrftpes (m. f. n.); sorez 
(m.); BUS (m. f.); talpa (f. rarely m.); tigrla (f. rarely m.); ves- 
pertilio (m.) ; vulpes (f.). 

Birds: e.g. acdpiter (m. rarely f.) ; files (m. f.) ; &nas (f.) ; aaser 320 
(m. rarely f.) ; ftquQa (f.^ ; ftvis (f.) ; bftbo (m. rarely f.) ; deAnla 
(f.); ctris (f.); comlz (n); eStflmlz (f.); oygnus (m.), 61or (m.); 
fUIca and follz (f.); grfidUua(m.); grus (f. rarely m.*); bimndo 
(f.); Ibis (f.); lusclniuf (m.)t lusoinla (£ also of nightingales in 
general); m&rtUa (f.); miluus, milros (m.); nootua (f.); oacen 


168 Inflexions. \Bo6kIL 

(m. f.) ; pUnxabM (m. £), palmalrai Tm.^ ; passer (m.) ; pftYO (m.^ ; 
perdlx (m. f.); pica (f.); stflnms (m.); strdthAoftiiiiliui (nu f.); 
tnrdns (rardy f.); tartar (m. f.); valtar (m.). 

B^ptiUs: e.g. aogals (m. f.); Iiflfo (m.); tibanualeon (m.^; 
cOlilber (m.), (xflabra (f. al^ of snakes generally) ; crOoOdXlas (m.) ; 
drftoQ (m.) ; l&certas (m.), laoerta (f. also of lizards generally) ; rtna 
(f.) ; serpens (m. f.) ; st^o (m.) ; testado (f.). 

Fishes : ftdtpenser (m.) ; mflgU ^m.^ ; mansna (f.^ ; mallas (m.) ; 
pisds (m.) ; rliomlnu (to.) ; sftlar (m.) ; sc&ras (m.; ; sdlea (f.). 

In/vertebrates: ftpls (f.); cXcftda (f.); ftrftneas (m.), aranea (f. 
also of j^/^r/ generally); olmex (m.); cfilez (m.); fonnlca (f.); 
lilrado (f.); lendes Tpl. f.); Umax (f. rarely m.); mllrex' (m.^ ; 
moBca ff.); pftpXllo (m.); pMls (m. £); ptUez (m.); s6pla (f.;; 
Yermis (m.) ; yespa (f.). 

3. Almost all trees and shrubs are feminine. Some of them 33a 
have -0 stems (§ 336), but these are mostly from the Greek. 

Of plants and powers ^ some are masculine, the rest chiefly 

Names of fruits and woods are often neuter, with stems in -0, 
and some trees are also neuter, probably because the name was first 
applied to the product. 

The principal masculine names are: ftcanfhas, im&r&eas (also f.), 
asparfiiras, MlStas, cftlftnras, carduas, crOoos, cj^tlsos (also f.), d1l-> 
mas, flctts (also f.), ftmgas, li^elMras (often -am n.), Intftlms (also 
Intftlmm n.), janeas, IGtas (usually f.), mUas (but as an c^U 
tree f.), mosoas, ttleaster, pamplnos (abo f.), raphAaas, rluunnas, 
rftlms, rftmez (adso f.), sdrpos. 

The principal neuter names are ftpiam, ftcer, l>als&mam, Iftser, 
p&p&ver (also m.), piper, rOlrar, slier, siser (but in plural slseres), 
taher (truffle): and the fruits or woods aiMtam, Imzam, ,&c. (but 
castftnea, 61ea, l>&l&xLas, are also used as fruits, and retain their lem. 
gen. So bazas and baznm for a flute). 

4. Names of Jewels are mainly feminine and Greek. 333 

Masculine are ftdftmas, 1>er7UaB, caximncalas, ebxysftUtlias (also 
f.), dnyz (as a marble^ or a r»^), Op&las, sardOnyz (also f.), sm&- 
ragdas, &c. 

5. Names of towns ^ countries^ &c. have, if of Latin origin, their 3^4 
gender marked by their termination; e.g. masculine; Vii)!) Patedll, 
properly the Feians^ &&: feminine; e.g. AMoa (sc. terra), It&Ua, 
BOma: neuter; Taxentam, BSnArentam, Reftte, Frtoneste, Anzur (n. 
also nu of the mountain), Tibor (n.). 

Chap, III,'] Noun Inflexions of Number. 109 

Of Greek nouns many retain their Greek gender (though often 
with stems in -o), others, owing sometimes to their termination 
being misunderstood, have other genders : e. g. Argos usually neut, 
but Statius has frequently patrloB Axgos, affllctoi AzgOB, &c. ; Livy 
occasionally Azgl, as nom. pL 

The Spanish towns are sometimes feminine in -Is, e. g. Zllitnxgis ; 
sometimes neuter in -i, e.g. niltargl. 

Some neuter plurals are found; e.g. Lenotrft, Artazi,t&, Tigxano- 

6. Names of mountains are all masculine, except those with 39s 
marked feminine terminations (stems in -a or Greek -e) ; e.g. JStna, 
Ida, BliikldpS, &c.; or neuter terminations (nom. in -um, Greek in 
-e) ; e. g. PSllcni, SOractd. Alpes (pL) is femmine. 

7. Names of ri'vers are masculine, even those with -a stems, 
except jUlla, Dnria, Sagra, LSthS, Styx, which are feminine. But 
sometimes rivers are made neuter by prefixing flnmesi and giving a 
termination in -um; e.g. flmnea Bbenimi (Hon); flumflii OraaXoom 
(Plm.) ; &c. 

8. Names of <minds are masculine ; e.g. ftqnXlo, ynltnniiiB, &c. 
So also EtSsln (pi.). 

All indeclinable words are neuter: e.g. ftw, nsDu, Instar (except 3^6 
barbaric names, e.g. Abraliam); and to this class belong infinitives 
(e.g. non diflere Istud, totnm lioo pUlosoiaLarl) ; words used as names 
of themselves Te.g. Istao *taceo/ hoc Ipanm 'lumestl*^; and often 
the letters of the alphabet (as <o In g commutato'); out these last 
are sometimes feminine, Utera bdng expressed or understood. 


In Latin the only distinction in point of number which is 337 
marked by inflexions is between one (singular number), and more 
than one (jtlural number). 

The particular inflexions ot number will be best treated in 
connexion with the case inflexions. 

Some nouns, in consequence of thor meaning, have no plural, 
others have no singular. 

no Inflexions. \Book II, 

— • • -■■•—- — ■ — - — — ^^^— ^-^^— ^— ^-^^ ^^.» 

1. The following have ordinarily no plural : 

(a) Prt^r tuunes of persons and places ; e.g. MeMUns, Boma, &c.; 338 
but MetelU of several members of the family; Gamilll of persons 
with qualities like Camillas : Oallla, of the two divisions of Gaul, 
Gallia Cisalpina and Transalpina ; Volcani of gods with different at- 
tributes, or bearing the name of Vulcan, or of statues of Vulcan, &c. 

(Ji) Single natural objects; e.g. sol, the sun; tellus, the earth; 
but Bole6 is used in discussions as to whether there are more suns 
than one, or as equivalent to days, &c. 

(r) Continua; i.e. natural objects which are measured or 
weighed, not numbered, e.g. cnuxr, blood; ros, dew; ass, bronze; 
fnunentuin, com ; f&l>a, beans^ as a class ; fomus, smoke. But these 
are used in the plural, when several kinds ^ or distinct /i^r^/ or drops ^ 
are meant; e.g. vIna, different divines; tlYe8,^akes 0/ snow; fa.l>», 
individual beans ; sera, bronze works of art ; cames, pieces of flesh ; 
fomi, wreaths of smoke. In poetry the plural is sometimes used 
without such a distinction. 

{d) Abstract nouns ; e. g. Justitlai justice ; but not uncommonly 
the plural is used even in these in order to express the occurrence 
of tiie event or exhibition of the quality at several times or in 
several forms, e. g. vlrtutes, virtues ; cupidltates, desires ; odia, cases 
of hatred; oonscientiad, several persons' consciousness (of guilt) ; 
mortes, deaths (of several persons) ; otia, periods of rest ; adventus, 
arrivals; matuxitates, culminations; YioHaitaXM^ position of people as 
neighbours; lapsus, sl^s ; calores, firlifora, times qf heat, of cold; 
slmilltudines, resemblances; 6cc, 

2. The following are found only or ordinarily in the plural; 329 
though some of them correspond to what in other languages are 
denoted by singulars. 

(a) Names of certain towns or places^ &c.: Thebsa, Tlgra- 
nocerta, Leuctra, Vejl (originally the Feians), Cannae (i.e. Reeds): 
Gades, Cumse. So Pergama, the towers of Troy, Tartara. 

(b) Groupsof islands and mountains, 8cc,] e,^, CyclMes, Mvea, 
Esquillse, Tempo (properly glens), 

(c) Bodies of persons: e.g. decemviri, a commission of ten 
(though we have decemvir also used of a commissioner) &c.; 
maJOres, ancestors; prOcdres, VTimoreB, leading men; MtiUxi, children ; 
fnfSri, the spirits below ; supdri, the Gods above; es^tes, the heavenly 
ones; pen&tes, the hearth gods; manes, the ghosts ; gratise, the 
Qraces; Forlse, the Furies ; Dine, Curses (conceived as goddesses) ; 

Chap, III.'] Noun Inflexions of Number. m 

{i) Parts of the body; e.g. artns, tbejomU; eenrloes (before 
Hortensius), the neck (neckbones})\ exta, Inteskna, Tlfloira* the 
internal organs; fiivces, the throat; laetes, the lacteal vessels; 
pantlces, bowels; rines, Itidnejs; tftrl, the muscles; pnacordla, mid^ 
riff; nia, loins, 

(e) Names offcasts or days; e.g. Calenda, NOnn, Idns; f9ilA, 330 
tbefeast^ay; nimcUiUB, mcurket-day; Baficaiift11a,j^flj/ of Bacchus; 

(/) Other collections of things, actions, &c.; altSrlai <»i altar; 
ambSges, evasion (but § 415); angnstisd, straits (sing, rare); aigll- 
ti8B, subtlety; antes, ro<ii;j, e.g. of vines; anna, ^00/r, esp. vjeapons^ 
armour; armamenta, shift tackling; t)aliie», the baths ^ i.e. bath' 
house,; bigs, a carriage emd pair (sing, not till Sen.); cancalli, rail^ 
ings; casaes, a hunting net (properly meshes^ cf. § 43 a); castra, a 
camp (properly huts^ tents ? cafftrom is found only as part of proper 
names, e.g. Castnun NoYum); datlurl, a grating; daustra, bars 
(sing. 'in Sen. Curt, rarely); dltella, a pack saddle (panniers^); 
coxupMes, fetters (but § 446); crepundia, childs rattle, Sec; cfUuB, 
cilxi&btQa, Inciin&btUa, cradle; d§lIct8B, delight; dXyltiSB, riches; ex- 
ctLbis, the <watch; fiptUsB, a dinner; exsdqxiia, funeral procession; 
ezftvisa, things stripped off, spoils; fiicStl», jokes (sing, rare); fftlSB, 
scaffolding; fasti, the Calendar; fttrl, benches; fr&ces, oil dregs; 
gr&tes, thanks (§418); Indiltisd, a truce; Ineptlss, silliness (sing, in 
Plaut. Ter.); InfSrla, offerings to the shades belo^v; infltias, denial 
(cf. § 369) ; insidla, ambush; InlmldLtla, hostility (rarely ^ng.); l&pl- 
(ddlxud, stone quarries; Idcftli, compartments, and so box, bag, &c.; 
lustra, a den; m&nlibisB, booty; xnlna, threats; xnoaxila, to<wn <walls; 
nilgs, trifes; nuptis, marriage; obloes, bolts (but § 439) ; P&rietina, 
ruins; pb&lSrse, horse trappings; prsBStlgiSB, juggling tricks; prdces, 
prayers (but § 438); VTffirltim, frst fndts ; pugillftres, ^writing tablets; 
quadrlgsa, a carriage and four (sing, not till Propert.) ; qulsqullisa, 
refuse; rellquia, the remains; rdpSgola, bolts, &c.; aallnsB, saltpits; 
E&ta, the crops; scUad, stairs; 8c6p8B, a broom; sentes, thornbush; 
serta, a nureath; BOTCLes,flth (sing, rare § 421); suppfitlas, supply (cf. 
§ 369) ; tSnfibrffl, the darkness; thermsd, the warm baths (cf. balne»); 
tesqua, ^wastes ; '72lY2dt folding-doors ; vepres, thorns (but cf. §430); 
vindlctSB, claims; ylrgulta, bushes; fltensllla, necessaries. 

Some of these words are used in one or two cases of the singular. 
See the references. 

3. The following words are used in the plural with a special 331 
meaning, besides their use (in most instances) as an ordinary plural : 

»des sing, a temple, pliff. ^ >boajtf (properly, hearths, chambers}); 
&qua, cwater; aqua, a ^watering-place: auxUium, assistance; auzllla, 
means of assistance, auxiliary troops: bdnum, a good; bOna, goods ^ 

113 Inflexions. \BooklL 

i.e. me^s property: career, a prison; oarotees, the barriers Qn horse 
races): oOdleUlua, a small piece of wood; oOdldlli, writing tablets: 
oOpla, plenty; cOplas, supplies^ troops: cOmXtluin, the place of tribes- 
assembly at Rome; odmltia, the assembly: fldes sing, a barpstring^ 
plur. a stringed instrument: fortOna^ fortune; fortims, one^s posses- 
sions: gr&tia, thankfulness; gr&tiSB, gr&tes, thanks: hortiu, a garden; 
luaXLt pleasure-gardens^ a cowitry house: ImpMImesLtam, a hindrance; 
Ixnpedlznenta, baggage: littera, a letter (pi the alphabet); littenB, a 
letter^ i.e. epistle: lILdUB, a game; llldl, Public Games: nfttUis, a 
birthday; nfttUes, one''s descent: dpfea, work; opens, workmen: (^ 
a goddess; civem,help; dpes, wealth, resources: pan, apart; partes, 
a part on the stage: roetnmi, a beak; rostra, the tribune or pulpit at 
Rome: t&ly&la, a plank; t&Ml», account books. 


In Latin the distinctions of case are in the angular five, the 333 
cases being named nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative. 
In some nouns with stems in -0, besides others derived from the 
Greek, a sixth form, (not properly a case, ct § 1007), generally 
called the vocative is also found. 

In the plural there are only four; via. nominative, accusative, 
genitive, and a common form for the dative and ablative. 

Another case, distinguished in some other languages, called the 
locative, is in Latin alvtrays the same in form, as either the genitive, 
dative, or ablative. 

A similar confosion of forms is found between some of the other 
cases in some classes of nouns. Originally perhaps there was a 
different form for each case in each number. 

Nouns and pronouns, whether substantival or adjectival, may 333 
be conveniently divided according to their case inflexions (called 
collectively their declension) into two great classes, containing 
respectively — 

I. Nouns with stems ending in -a, -e, or -0. 

II. Nouns with stems ending in -u, •!, or a consonant 

Chap, IV.'] Case Inflexions. 113 

All the pronouns, except personal pronouns, belong to the 
first class, though a few have kindred forms belonging to the 
second class. 

The personal pronouns belong strictly to neither chss. They 
will be treated of as an appendix to the first class. 

The chief constant differences between the inflexions of the two 
classes are these : — 

Nouns of the first class have the genitive Angular (except in 
the pronouns), the locative singular, and the nominative plural 
(except in a few -e stems) alike, and ending in a long vowel or 
diphthong ; the genitive plural in -mm preceded by a long vowel ; 
the dative and ablative plural (except in two -e stems) in -Is. 

Nouns of the second class have the genitive singular and nomi- 
native plural ending in -s, the locative usually the same as the 
ablative, the genitive plural in -um, the dat. abl. pliual in -btls 
(usually -Xbfts). 

Some of these diffeipnces were not found in the older language. 
See Chapters vi. and xii. 

[The ordinary division of nouns substantive was into five 334 
declensions. Of these the ist contained -a stems (§ 339) ; the and, 
-0 stems (§ 344 sqq.) ; the 3rd, consonant (Chap, xi.) and -i stems 
(Chap. X.) ; the 4th, -u stems (Chap, ix.) ; and the 5th, -e stems 
(§ 340)' Adjectives were divided into those of three terminations, 
-us, -a, um (§§ 339, 344); those of two terminations, -la, -e (Chap. 
X.), and -or, -us (§ 460); and those of one termination, e.g. feliz 
(Chaps. X. XI.)]. 

Examples of the regular declensions of the different subordinate 
classes will be given in the next chapter. Any peculiar forms 
of inflexion which existed will be foimd in Chapters vi. and xii., 
or appended to the mention of the particular word to which they 


I. Gender. 

As regards the gendo* of nouns of this class, with comparatively 3.^ 
few exceptions, (i) all masculine and neuter nouns have stems in 
-o ; (a) all feminme nouns have stems in -a, or -S» 

114 Inflexions. {Book IL 

The exceptions are as follows : 

1. Some stems in -ft are masculine; e.g. appellative substan- 
tives expressing occupations in which men are exclusively or pri- 
marily thought of, viz. acedia, agrlcdla, Incdla; assecla, advdna, 
comv&ia; auilga, ctillfiga, eonvlva, gumia, lanista, Uza, matricida, ' 
paxrK^da, prof&ga, transftlga, p6pa, rabtUa, scriba, scurra, yema. 
And the same termination was given to Greek words in -jyy, e.g. 
nauta, poSta, Persa, Scytlia (see § 475)* 

Damma is also sometimes masc.: talpa larely so (§ 319). 

So also almost all rivers (§ z%s) : e.g. Sequ&na, Trdbia, &c, and 
Hadria (the Hadriatic sea). 

A considerable number of proper names, e.g. Noma, L&mla, 
AbSla, Pansa, Sulla, CSalba, Natta, Tacca, Nasica, Perpenna, Cinna, 
Mela, Messalla, PopllcOla. So also some feminine appellatives were 
used as family names of men, e.g. RfLga, ScaptUa, Stira, Fimbria, 
Memla, Pica, Musca, MurSna, Dolabella, FenesteUa, Hemina, Trftbea. 

2. Some words with -0 stems are |^minine. These are 33<> 
chiefly either names of trees or Greek words, especially names of 
jewels and towns. 

(a) alvus (in old language m.); carb&sus, cOlus (sometimes 
m.), btimus, vannus. For ddmus see § 394. 

(Ji) Names of trees: sbscuIus, aiims, arbtLtas, buzus, cedrus, 
cSr&sus, citrus, comus, cdriUus, cupressos, cytlsus (also m.), 
6b62ms, fSgus, f3A61us, flcus (rarely m.), fraxlnus, jtinlpdrus, laurus, 
lOtus (rarely m.), m&los {apple-tree)^ mOnis, myrtus, nardus, 
omus, pftp^Tus, pInuB, pirus, plfttftnus, pOxuus, pOptLLiis, prOnus, 
quercus, sabilciis, sorbus, splnus, ulmus. Also b&l&uus, acorn, 

(/) Jewels: e.g. amethsrstus, crystallus, sappMrus, topazus, 

(d) Towns, &c. ; Ab^dus, JEgjrptas, Aspendus, Carystusj 
ChersonSsus, Cyprus, Epidamnus, Epidaurus, Epirus, PdldponnSsus, 
KliOdus, &c. ; but GanOpus (m.), Istlimus (m.), OrcbOmenus (m.), 
Pontus (m.). So also DSlos, Lenmos, &c. are feminine. 

(e) For Greek appellatives, e.g. fttdxuus, m6tb6du8, &c., 
see §478. 

3. Of nouns in -es only dies and mfiridies are masculine. 337 
Dies however is in the singular number often feminine, especially as 
an appointed day, and almost exclusively fem. when it means time, 
period of time. 

All neuters (except some pronouns, § 370) have nom. ace. sing. 338 
in -um: except virus, yulgus (in ace. often vulgum), and the Greek 
pel&gus, plur. pelagS. (Virus and yulgus have no plural. The 
authority for yulgus as masc. seems insufficient.) 

Chap, V^ Noun Stefns ending in -a and -e. 115 

II. Inflexions of Case. 

The suffixes for the different cases are usually combined with 339 
the final vowel of the stem, so as not always to be readily 

I. Declension of stems in -a and -e. 

- I. The substantive stems in -a (chiefly feminine), and the 
feminine form of those adjectives which have stems in -0, are declined 
alike; e.g. xuensa (f.), a table; Bcrlba (m.), a clerk; bOna (adj. f.), 
good; tdnSra (adj. f.), tender. There are no neuters of this declen- 

2. Stems in -S of this class (comp. § 407) are all substantives 340 
and all feminine: one (dies) is also masculine. All but a few have 
stems in -le with a short antepenultimate, and most are words of 
moVe than three syllables. 

They are as follows: dies, f&xnes (also famis), fides, plSbes 
(also plebs), res, spes, and (in ablative sing, only) scabrS, squale ; 

ftcies, alliivies (with other derivatives of Iftvo), barb&rles, casd,- 
ries, c&ries, congSries, effigies, Sstlrles, f&cles, gl&des, InglftYles, 
luxtiries, mac^es, m&des, m&t^rles, xuilrles (only nom. s.), paupS- 
ries, pemlcles (? permlties, Munro, adLucr. i. 45 1), prSgdnies, r&bles, 
reqvles (also with stem in -9t, § 445 )» s&nies, sc&bles, sdries, spdcies, 
BiipeTf icies, tempSries, and its compound intempdries ; 

and abstract substantives in -Ities, viz. &ni&rlties, ftmlcities, 
&v&rltle8, calvities, canities, dilrities, lentities^ mollities, mundities, 
neqvities, nlgrities, nOtities, pigrities, pl&nitles, pullitles, segnities, 
spurcities, tristities, yastities. 

Only two of these words, viz. res and dies, are inflected through- 341 
out all cases of both numbers. None (besides dies and res) have any 
plural, except acies, facies, effigies, species, spes, series, which are 
found in the nominative and accusative plural; glacies in accus. 
(Verg.), eluvies in nom. (Curt.). But old forms of spes, viz. speres, 
nom. ace. plur., speribus, dat. abl. plur., are mentioned as used by 
Ennius and Varro respectively^. Faciemm is quoted from Cato. 
Speclerum, speciebus occur in the Digest, &c 

1 Tlie stem appears to have been spes- : compare sp§r-o. So also 
perhaps dies- ; comp. diur-nu3. See also § 405. 




[Book IL 

The genitive and dative singular are rare', except from dies, 342 
res, spes, fides, and plel)e8. 

These cases appear to have ended regularly in -el in and after 
the second century after Christ at latest (GelL ix. 14), but whether 
el was usually one syllable or two is uncertain. Probably it was 
a diphthong. Before that time el is proved to be sometimes di- 
syllabic, but in the words dlSI, fldgl and fidSi, rSI and rfii only. See 
357, 360. 

LnmrleSfSiaterles, barbarles, Intempdrles, elTlglee, and almost all 
the words in -Itles, have collateral stems in -a (of. § 932), and these 
supply the forms generally used in the genitive and dative singular. 

Examples: mensa, a table; Ixma (adj.), good; Inxnrla, luxury; 343 
res, a thing; ades, a point. All feminine. 

Stems in -a. 

Singular. Subst. Adj. 

Nom. siens& b6n& 

Ace. mensa-m bona-m 





Stems in 

-a and -e. 


or luzari9-8 
luxnrla-m re-m 
or Inzurle-m 

Stems in -e. 
Subst. Subst. 





Nom. menssa 
Ace. inens&-8 




mensft-mm bonft-nim 

mensl-s 1)oxiI-8 


or lizzurlS 

not used) 




&cil or 


re-B &cl5>8 
r3-rum (none) 

re-bus (none) 

a. Ordinary declension of -0 stems. 

The following is the regular declension of substantives with 344 
stems ending in -0, and of adjectives, with the like stems, in the 
masculine and neuter gender. 

e.g. ftnXmtbi (m.), a soul; beUmn (n.), w^r; bdnns (adj.), ^00^. 

^ Quintilian says (l 6, § 26), "Nee plurimum refert, nulla hsec an 
pradura sint. Nam quid 'progenies' genetivo singulari, quid piurali 
*spes* faciei?" 

Chap, V?[ 

Noun Stems ending in -o. 













l>6nu-8 ] 



l>6n-6 [ 





Mnu-m ) 

Gen. ) 
Loc. J 





Dat. ) 
Abl. ] 








bSnl ) 
1)dn5-B 5 











Dat. . 






The vocative masc. sing, of mens, mine, is ml. Dens, god, had 345 
voc. Deus; nom, plur. dl; dat. abl. dls; but del and dels are not 
infrequent in Ovid and later poets, and even in some MbS. of Varro 
and Cicero. 

3. Declension of stems in -ro. 

Of stems in -6ro, {a) most drop the final -us of the nominative 34G 
singular, and -e of the vocative ; and (b) many omit the e before r 
m all the cases except the nom. voc. masculine singular. 

{a) The following only exhibit -us in the nominative singular : 
ntunSruB, 1im$nis (or humerus), Htdrus, and (the single fern, stem 
in -dro), jfUiIpdrus, and the adjectives prOpSrus, prsdprOpdrus, 
pr»posteriis, mSrlgdrus, triquetrus, and usually prospdrus. The 
nominative masculine singular of the adjectives cStSrum, postdrom, 
Iddicrum, crSpdrum is not found. 

(Adjectives with long 9 in penultimate (e.g. sSvSrus), and some 
Greek forms, e.g. Evandrus, Petrus, exhibit -us. But IbSrl aiid 
CeltiWrl have for singular Ib€r and CeltlWr, but only once each.) 

Vlr, a man, and its compounds, e.g. triumvir, semlvlr (adj.), and 
the adjective sftttlr (sftttlrft, sfttiirum), also drop -us. Lucretius 
once uses f&mtU. for f&mtLLus. 

Puere is frequently found in Plautus as the vocative of puer. 347 

(Ji) The following only retain e before r j viz. — 

(i) All those which retain -us in the nominative i^ngulai , 



[Book II. 

(2) Adulter, sdcer, gdner, Uber {the god Bacchus), puer, vesper 
(evening star), jugemm (which last in plural belongs to and Class) ; 

(3) The adjectives aaper (asprls, abl. plur. once in Vergil), 
l&cer, Uber, miser, tdner, gibber, alter; and oeteroxn, postemm, 
crepemm (above named). Also exter (Papin.), Infer (Gato), super 
(Cato), chiefly used in plural; 

Dexter has both forms ; e. g. dexteram, dextram. (The compa- 
rative of dexter is always dexterlor. So also deterior.) 

(4) Compounds of more than two syllables ending in -fer or 
-ger; e.g. mortifer, fiUger, 6cc. 

The following are the principal substantives which omit e ; ftger, 348 
&per, arbiter, anster, cancer, c&per, cdliiber, cnlter, f&ber, Uber 
(book)^ m&glster, minister. The neuters are chiefly in -brum, -trum, 
-crum, see in Book III. The adjectives omitting e are: aeger, &ter, 
cr6ber, (dexter, § 347,) gl&ber, m&cer, niger, piger, Implger, Integer, 
ltl(Ucrum,vii]clier,raber, s&cer, sc&ber, fOnlster (in comparative always 

slnisterlor), tseter, y&fer: also Afer, C&l&ber. 

Examples: puer (m.), a hoy; Tir (m.), a man; fllber (m.), 349 
a fworkman ; membnim (n.), a limb. 

Singular. Masculine 



Gen. ) 

Loc. { 

Dat. 1 























f&bri ) 
fabrO-s ( 




(andvlru-m) (andfabru-m) 
TlrI-8 f&brl-s membrl-s 

On -urn in the genitive plural of Tlr and faber see § 365. 

4. Prae- Augustan declension of stems in -uo 
(i. e. either -uo, -vo, or -qvo). 

The older language, as shown especially by inscriptions not 350 
later than ch-. 520 B.C., retained the final -0 of tlie stem in the 
nominative and accusative cases singular; e.g. nil6s, prlm6s. 

Chap. K] 

Noun Stems ending in -o. 


Lflciom, donom. Though this -0 was changed to -u generally 
(§ a 1 3), yet the stems in which it was preceded by v or u or qu 
retained it until the Augustan age and later (Quintil. i. 7. a 6). 
The change was however made in these stems also m the course of 
the ist century after Christ. In words like SqYfts the concurrence 
of u with u was also avoided by writing SqlUi, or Softs. 

e.g. SqTOs or Sdis (m.), a horse; »Tom (n.), an age; arduOs 
(adj.), lofty. 

Masculine Neuter 

Singular. Subst. Adj. Subst Adj. 

Nom. ) dqY6-8 or Scft-s ardno-B \ 

Voc. ( dqyd ardnd ( SBYo-m ardno-m 

Ace. 6qY0-m or Scft-m arduo-m ) 








ardnX ) 
ardn5-8 ] 








5. Augustan and Prae-Augustan declension of sten\s in -lo. 

In the Augustan and prae- Augustan period substantives with 35« 
stems ending in -lo formed the genitive singular in -1 single. So 
always in the scenic poets, in Lucretius, Vergil, Horace ; also in 
Persius and Manilius. The genitive of trisyllabic words with a 
short antepenultimate (e.g. gl&dius, fSlium), appears to have been 
generally avoided by these poets; but prSti, yXtl (from pretium and 
yltliun) occur. Propertius, Ovid, Lucan, and the later poets, used 
the full form in -11; e.g. Merctbrii, ezsllil, yitii; but in proper 
names the contracted form continued to be most conunon; e.g. 
Antonl, CapitCli, Terentl, Uyl. In inscriptions -11 appears from 
the end of Augustus' reign, and with increasing frequency after 
Nero's reign, though -1 is also found to the end of the 3rd century 
after Christ and probably longer (Ritschl. Opusc, il. 779). 

The vocative sing. masc. of these stems also ended in -1 (not -le), 35* 
e.g. PubU. But the vocative is found only in proper names and m 
the words gfiniua, flliuB, yulttlrluB (cf. Gell. 14. 5). The nomina- 
tive plural rarely had 11 contracted into i. The dative ablative 
plural had sometimes, especially in neuters, -la for -lift, (^^a % "iM^ 



[Book II. 

Adjectives always had -ii in genitive. Only those derived from 
Greek proper names had a distinct form for vocative; e.g. Cynihie, 

In stems ending in -alo, -eio the i both formed a diphthong with 
the preceding vowel, and also was pronounced as English y before 
a following vowel. (For some exceptions see § 139.) Hence Cicero 
wrote the 1 double, -alio, -eiio ; but this spelling is not now found 
in the MSS. or in republican inscriptions. 


Adjectives. 35, 


. masc. 




Nom. • 



conslllam * 




Fomp^ and 

- ► 

Fompei 1 



Pompejum j 
















Fompei ) 
PompSJOB 1 




ClaudlO-rum PompdJOrom 







consllils or 







z Singular Number. 

Nominative: Stems In -0. On the faint sound ot final a and m 354 
which led to their omission even in the older language, see §§ 193, 
5. 86. Old inscriptions give such forms as AcUio, Fourlo, Fabrecio, 
pocolo (for Acillus, Furlus, Fabrlcius, poculum). The nominative 
sing, of proper names with stems in -io are frequently written in 
old inscnptions without the final syllable; e.g. Claudl, Valerl, Mlnucl 
(for Claudius, &c). This may be merely an abbreviation, due as 
Ritschl supposes, to a once collateral nominative in -Is; e.g. Cornells, 
Compare alls, aJlus § 373* 

Chap, V/.] Old Forms of Cases. (Nouns of Class L) 121 

Accusative: For the omission of the final m, see § 86. 353 

Stems in -e. Quintilian (ix. 4. 39) speaks of dlee hanc (if text 
be right) being found in Cato the censor's writings, ** m litetra In -6 

Genitive : i. Stems m -a. Instances of the ordinary genitive 356 
in -ae are very rare in inscriptions before the time of the Gracchi. 

Three old forms of the genitive singular are found, viz. -aes, -al 
and -as. 

(a) The ending -aes occurs frequently in inscriptions after 
Sulla's time, but chiefly on tombs of freedwomen and slaves, and 
rarely in other than proper names; e.g. Jnliaes, Dianaes, Anniaes, 
Faastlnaes, dominaes, vemaes. Some hold it to be intended for 
the Greek genitive in -i;?. Ritschl (comparing a single Proseimals 
fix>m the 6th century u.c.) holds it to be a genuine old Latin form, 
^nd, possibly used by Plautus (JSfeue Plant, E^c, I. p. 115). 

(3) Of tlie ending -as examples are given from Livius Andro- 
nicus, escas, monetas, Latonas ; ^m Naevius, terras, fortnnas ; and 
from Ennius, vlas. Some so take xnolas in Plant. Pseud, iioo. 
This form is preserved in one word at all periods, viz. famllla, 
when combined with pater, mater, Alius, flila; e.g. paterfamilias 
(Cato, Cic), a father of a household. Pater, &c. famlllSB (Cic, 
jLiv.) is also used. In the plural we find both patres, &c. -famllliB 
(Varr., Caes., Liv.), -famillas (Varr., Cic), -famlllarum (Cic., 
Sall.),yfl/>&^rj &c. of households. 

(f) The ending -al (originally the locative according to 
Madvig) is more common and earlier, and in Plautus and hex- 
ameter verse (retaining probably the old pronunciation) is treated 
as a spondee (-ai). It is frequent in Lucretius, and is also used by 
Cicero in his poetry, and by Vergil in four words, aqiiai, anlal, 
aural, plctal. Republican inscriptions give, e.g. Duelonal (i.e. 
Bellonse), Glabral, ejus rel quaerundal et fadundal causa, calds 
restlnctal, &c. 

a. Stems in -e. Four forms of the genitive-ending are found, 357 
viz. 6s; el; 6; I. (See Gell. 9. 14). 

(a) -es; viz. Dies, Enn.,-^. 401, Verg. G, I. ao8 (die, Ribbeck), 
Cic. Sest, 12. § a8; rabies, Lucr. iv. 1083 ; fades, Claud. Quadrig. 
(in Sulla's time) ; fides, see below b ; pemlcles, said to have been 
written by Cicero. 

(J)) -el ; viz. diel, frequent in prose ; dlSI, Lucr. (often), Vcrg. A, 
IV. 156, Hor. S. 1. 8. 2>S^ i?haedr. 11. 8. 10, Ter. Haut, 168, aia. Plant; 
dlei, Ter. Eun, 801; rel, always in Republican inscriptions; rSI, 
Plant. Mil, G, 103, maeDBl rel publlcal gratia; Lucr. 11. 112, 

122 Inflexions. [Book IL 

548; rtl, Plaut, Ter.jHor.; rel, Plaut., Ten, LuciL, Lucr.; lldel, fre- 
quent in prose; fld6I, Enn. Ann, 34a, Plaut. AuL lai, 575, Lucr. 

V. I02 ; fiddl, Manil. 11. 605, 6117, Sil. (four times) ; fidel (fides 

Wagner), Plaut AuL 609 ; spol, frequent in prose ; spS, Ter, 
always; plebel (especially in phrases trlbnniui plebei, plebeiscltum, 
&c.) frequent: aciel, Bell, Afr, 59 and 60. Mundlciel, Imcr, 136, 
A.D. (cf. Corssen. Amsp, i. 54, ed. a). 

(f) -S; viz. die, in several places (in some Mss.) of Caes., Sail., 
Liv., also Plaut. Pseud, 115 8; Sen. Com, Marc, 18. a; compare also 
poBtrldie, 5cc. ; re, Caea, Liv. in some mss. ; fide, Poet. ap. C. Off. 
3. a6 ; Plane, ap. Cic. Fam, 10. 17 ; Hor. C, 3. 7. 4; Ovid. Met, iii. 
341, VJ. 506, VII. 728, 737, &c.; ade, Sail; facie, LuciL, Plaut. Mil, 
Cr. 1172 ; requie, Sail. ; scable, Lucil. <^C. Caesar in libro de analogia 
secundo hujus die et hujus specie dicendum putat," Gell 9. 14. 

(d) -1; viz. dll, Verg. A, 1.636; plebl, frequent in phrases above 
quoted ; acil, Cn. Matius ; pemidl, Cic. Rose, Am, 45, Sisenna ; 
specU, Cn. Matius; progenll, Pacuvius; Inxurii, C. Gracchus; 
faml, LuciL, Cato ; fidl, Augustan legal inscription (Corp, I, L, 11. 

3. Stems in -0. The oldest form was perhaps -oe; e.g. poploe 358 
But the inscriptions to the time of the third Punic war give only I; 
e.g. Barbatl, urbanl; after that time, till Augustus, -el is also fre- 
quently found; e.g. populei, cogendel, suel, ostlel, pagei, Marcel, 
Vergllel; but not so frequently in laws as -I. In Augustus' time 
-el went out of use (§§ 265 — 268). Lucilius wished to establish 
the distinction of -I for the gen. sing.; -el for nom. plur. 

The locative has the same form as the genitive and was not 
improbably identical with it. 

Dative: i. Stems in -a. Early republican and other inscrip- 359 
tions have not unfrequently -al. The disyllabic SI is not found 
in the dative in any poet. 

Forms like Fortune, Diane in very old inscriptions are probably 
imitations of Greek. 

a. Stems in -e. Three forms of the dative are found; -el, S 360 
and I. 

(a) -el; viz. dlel, often; rtl, Lucr. i. 688, 11. 236; rei, Corp, 
X, L, aoi, also (at beginning of verse) Ter. Ad, 95 ; rfil, Hor. 

C, 3. a4. 64 ; rei, Enn. Trag, 361 ; Plaut., Ter., LuciL; fidel, often in 

prose; fldei, Enn. Ann, iii (fide, Vahlen); Ter. And, %^6^ Eun. 
886, 898 (ed. Umpfenbach); comp. Plaut. Trin, 117, ia8; fidftl, 
ManiL 3. 107, Sil. %, 561 ; plebel, Plin. H, N. 19. 4. 19, § 54, 18. 3. 4; 
aclel, Cacs. Civ, iii. 89, ib. 93; pemldel, Nep. la. 4. 

CJmp, VZ] Old Forms of Cases. (Nouns of Class I.) 123 

(b) -S; viz. dlS, Plaut.; re, Plaut. rrln, 635, 657; fide, Corp. 
L R. I. 170, Plaut. Jul. 659, jimpb. 391, Ptrs. 193; comp. Trm. 
117. laS, 142, Hon S. i. 3. 95 ; pemlde, Liv. 5. 13, § 5 ; fade. Lucil. 
" In casu dandi qui purissime locuti sunt, non ' faciei ' uti nunc 
dicitur sed 'facie' dixenint," GeU. 9. 14. 

(c) -1; viz. pernlcU, Nep. 8. a; fiunl, Plaut. Sticb. 158; fiicU 
(cf. Gell. 9. 14); fldi, Fast. Coll. Arval. ad Kah Oct. 

3. Stems in -o. The oldest form was -ol; e.g. hole, quol, 3^» 
POPnloL Perhaps also oe in pilimmoe, poploe, Fest. p. 205. 

Ablative. In early times the ablative ended in -d; e.g. oqnol- 36* 
tod (occulto); Benventod (Benevento), praidad (prsdda)^ sententlad 
(sententia). The latest inscription containing such ablatives is the 
S.C. de Bacc. B.C. 186. Plautus probably used it or not as he chose. 
See § 160 and Ritschl, Neue Plaut. Exc. i. 106. 

Plural Number, 

Nominative: Stems in -a. The ending -as is quoted from 363 
Pomponius, ' Quot Istitias insperatas modo mi inrepsere in sinum.' 
(See Ritschl, N. P. Exc. I. 117.) 

Stems in -o. The earliest forms of ending in inscriptions are 
•^8 (not beyond cir. 90 B.C.) and very rarely -e or -oe; e.g. AtUies, 
maglstres, ploirome, Fescexminoe: from aoo b.c. or earlier to about 
the birth of Christ, more ft^uently -el, and from about the Gracchi 
till cir. 90 B.C. -els, or sometimes -Is; e.g. Italicei, olnvorsel (unl- 
versi), Q. M. Mlnndels, Q. F. Rnfels (i.e. Q. (et) M. Mlnncll, Qalntl 
fllily Hufi), gnatels, lielsce. So in Plautus lilsce, llllsce. 

The ordinary form in -I appe^irs smce the Gracchi, and becomes 
exclusively used in the Augustan age. 

The only instances of dual forms (compare the Greek) are duo 
and ambo, which are the forms used m the masc. and neut. (dun 
feminine as in plur). 

Accusative: Duo, amlH>, masc. and neut.; duos, ambos, also 
masc. (duas, axnl)as, fem.). 

Genitive : Future participles except fatnms are very rarely 364 
found in the genitive plural, probably on account of the impleasant- 
ness of repeated r (§ 185). 

I. Stems in -a. The ending -mn for -8mm (comp. Oscan 
-aztun; Umbr. -arozn or -am; old Greek -aa>v) is found ; 

(a) in some names derived from the Greek; viz.: ampbomm, 
(e.g. trlum amphomm), dradunmii. 

124 Inflexions. [Book IL 

(^) in proper names, especially patronymics, but almost ex- 
cluavely in dactylic verse (esp. Ver:gil) ; e. g. Lapitlimii, Sardamaoxn, 

(r) The only strictly Latin words in which it occurs are (mas- 
culine) compounds of glgno and colo, and these are so used in 
dactylic verses only; e.g. Grajnsenom, terrlgemim, cnllobliun. 
The forms in -arum are also used. 

a. Stems in -o. The ending -um (apparently similar to the 36s 
Umbrian and Oscan forms, and the Greek -«i/) was perhaps the 
original Italian form, except in the pronouns, and was gradually 
superseded in Latin by -5rum, which is common in inscriptions erf" 
the second century B.C. and later. In and after Cicero's time (see 
Cic. Or. 46) the genitive in -um for ordinary language was found 
only in certain words. Thus it is found: 

{a) in names of weights and measures (chiefly Greek) in combi- 
nation with numerals. Thusnummum (e.g. tria mlllla nummuAi; 
but nummorum accessionem), sestertliuU) denariom, talentum, me- 
dlmnum, stadium. 

(J)) in deum, divum, the compounds of -vlrmii e.g. qulnqueyl. 
rum, duum virum, &c. (but in Liv. decern virorum is frequent), and 
in poetry virum itself; liberum {children)^ fabrum (in phrases as 
prsBfectus l^brum, collegium fabrum), socium (in prose rarely ex- 
cq)t of the Italian allies^ or with prssfectus), equum (often written 

(r) in names of peoples (in poetry) ; e.g, AcMvum, Ai^vum, Teu- 
crum, Celtiberum (sometimes in prose), Rutulum, Italum, &c. Other 
words, e.g. fiuvium, famulum, Juvencum, are found occasionally. 

{d) But few instances of neuters are found; e.g. somnium, 
armum, &c., oppldum (Sulpicius ap. Cic. Fam. 4. 5. J 4). 

{e) In adjectives instances are few, e.g. centum doctum homlnum 
consilia, celatum Indagator, &c. (Plaut.^; motus superum atque 
Inferum, meum factum pudet (Ennius); prodiglum horrlfemm 
portentum paver (Pacuv.) ; amlcum, Iniquom, sequom (Ter. Haut. 
24, 27); &c., and the old phrase liberum sibi quaasendum (or quse- 
rendum) gratia, &c. So in Vergil magnanimum generator equorum. 

(/) Duum (frequently), ducentum, qulngentum, sescentum, &c. 
So usually distributives; e.g. blnum, quatemum (never binorum, 
quatemorum with milium), senum, ducenum, quadragenum, &c. 

(§•) For nostrum, vestrum, &c., see § 388. 

Dative, Ablative, i. Stems in -a and^^ i. The oldest fonn, ^ 
of which any instances are found, was -oes; e.g. oloes for lllis. 
But the form most used in prae- Augustan inscriptions is -els. The 
ending -is is found since the Gracchi, and, almost exclusively, in and 
after the Augustan time. 

CJutp. V/.] Old Forms of Cases. {Nouns of Class I,) 125 

a. Steins in -ia, -lo are found sometimes with -is instead of -Ua 367 
in inscriptions; e.g. suiftagis, pradis, proTlnds. So in Cic. "Rep, 
sods, xmasicUB, pecunls, &c. Plautus has gandis, flllB (from 
liltiu); Vergil has tsenls; Seneca suppUda; Martial denaria. In 
Mon, Ancyr, both forms occnr not unfrequently; e.g. mimiclpiis, 
miuilcIplB. Gxatlls (Plant., Ter.), gratia (Cic, Mart.). 

3. An ending in -bua, as in the second class of nouns, is found 368 
in a few words: viz. 

{ci) AmlM>, duo, always make ambObua, axnb&bna; dnObua, da&bua. 

{b) Dlbua is found in inscriptions for Bis. (So also Ibna, Mbus, 
from la and hie.) 

(f) In prose, chiefly in inscriptions and legal expressions, -ftbua 
for -la is found in a few substantives ; viz. deabua (chiefly in phrases, 
dlB deabnaque), fillabna, libertabna in opposition to the (usually) 
masculine flliia, libertia; rarely, conaervabua, natabua. In late 
writers also animabua, equabua, mulabna, and (sometimes in in- 
scriptions) nymphabua. 

A few adjectives occur with this form in Rhenish inscriptions; 
e.g. matronia Gabiabua, Juuonibua BUyanabus, &c. 

The following words of this class are defective or redundant in 369 
certain cases. (All words of this sort which in any way belong to 
the and class have thdr peculiarities mentioned, where they occur 
in the enumeration of that class.) See also § 330. 

»Yom (n.), also used as ace. m.; balneum (n.), also plur. balnesa, 
of the bath bouse; balteua (m.), also balteum (n.), esp. in plur.; 
Irama (f.), also buzun (n.); C8»lum (n.), no plur. except csBloa once 
in Lucret., where the meaning compels it; callua (m.), also callom 
(n.); carb&aua (m.), plur. carb&sa; cSaeua (m.), ^so cftaeum (n.); 
c&Tun (n.), a bollofiVf also c&voa, m. (sc. looua); cUpeua (m.), also 
cdlpenm (n.) ; coUum (n.), also in old language collaa (m.) ; crdcua 
fm.), in sing, also cr6cum (n.) ; cj^Iaua (m. f.), in sing, also cjhiianm 
(n.); dfiUdum (n.) or dellcis. (f.), plur. dellda, sing, not frequent; 
tUoa, dicam, dicaa, dida, laew suits (dticrj), no other forms; 6piU8» (pi.), 
also sing, dpftlum (n.) ; finmp (m.\ in sing, also fTmnm (n.) ; frenum 
(n.), plur. fl:6nl (m.) and fl:6na (n.) ; hordeum (n.), of plural only 
nom. ace; infltiaa, ace. pi. only with verb ire, used in no other 
case; InUbua or intftbua (m.), also intiibum (u.); J6cna (m.), in 
plur. jOd and j6ca; jtigtUna (m.), in sing, also jtlgUum (n.); jna 
jfkrandam (n.), both parts of the word are declined, e.g. juria 
Jnrandi, jure jurando, 8cc. ; Idcua (m.), in plur. also 16ca, oi places. 

126 Inflexions. [Bock IL 

properly speaking; lod, chiefly of places, metaphorically; macte^ 
indecl. adj. or adverb, once in Pliny mactl, but not in all MSS.; 
marg&ilta (f.), also marg&iltuiii (n.) ; mendum (n.), also menda (f.); 
u&sus (m*}) also in Plant, n&sum (n.); nancl only gen. sing.; nXliXl 
(n.) only in nom. ace. s.; often contracted nil: of the fuller form 
nlhllnm are used nllilll as gen. (or loc?) of price; niliilo after prepo- 
sitions, comparatives, and as abl. of price; and ad nilinnni (in 
ordinary language we have nulUus rel, &c.) ; ostrea (f.\ also ostreum 
(n.) ; pal&tuB (m.), usually pal&tom (n.); pddum (n.), a crooks only 
found in ace. s.; pessimi, bottonit only ace. s. after verbs of motion, 
e.g. Ire, d&re; pilleiu (m.),alsopi]leam(n.); pondo, properly abl. s., 
also used as indeclinable, ^ pounds^ \ porruB (m.), also in sing, por- 
nun (n.); pfttens (m.), also rarely piiteum (n.); r&mentum (n.), 
also in Plaut. rftmenta; rastrum (n.), also in plur. xastrl ^m.); 
rStlculus (m.), more ftequently reUcnlum; scalper, Boalpellus (m.), 
also Bcalprmn, scalpellum (n.); slbXlnB (m.), also slbUum (n.); snp- 
petlas, ace. pi., no other case; tergos (m.), usually tergom (n.) ; 
valluB (m.), usually vallum (n.); v5num (n.), ace. sing, after verbs of 
motion : Tacitus alone has veno. For "^^rus, vulgas see § 338. 

For numerical adjectives, some of which are indeclinable, see 
App. D. i. 




Some nouns adjective, and all pronouns adjective (except 370 
possessive pronouns, meue, tuus, buus, noster, vester), have for all 
genders the genitive singular ending in -ius, tlie dative in -1. In the 
other case the inflexions are the same as ordinary stems in -o and -a. 
The words belonging to this class are Onns, ullus, nullua, sOlus, 
tOtUB, alter, titer (and its compounds uterque, &c.), alius, ille, 
Iste, ipse, Mc, Is, idem, qui and its compounds (quivis, 6cc.). 

Of these alius, lye, iste, is, qui have neuter nom. and ace. ending 
in -d instead of -m. Other irregularities are named below. 

1. tCtus, <whole. 

Singular. Plural. 

m. f. n. m. f. n. 

Nom. tottis Wta Wttim tOtl Wtfie ) ^^ 

Ace. tStum Wtam Wtum tOtOs tOtS^ j 

Gen. tdtitts in all genders tOtSrum tOtSrum tCtOrom 

D^:i «>« in all genders | totis in all genders 
Abl. tOtO tOt& tStO J 


Chap. VIIJj Declension of Pronouns adjective^ &^c, 127 

In the same way are declined sClus, alone^ tiniis, one^ iillus (i. e. 
floftliui), any at all^ nullus, none. 

Also altto {the otber)^ altera, altenun, gen. alterius, dat. altfirt 
Htfir, utrft, utrum, fivhethsr, i.e. nvhich oft<ivo^ gen. utrlua, dat.utJl. 

altdr&ter, altemtra, or altera ntra, alterutmm, or alterum 
ntmm; gen. alterius utrius (post- Aug. alterutrlus), dat. altero 
vtrl or alteratro. 

Uteraue, ntr&qne, ntrumque, each; titercumque, utracomque, 
vtmmciimque, which so ever (of two). 

fttervb, utr&Tls, utmmvls, <which (of two) you please) iiterlibet, 
Vferftlibet, utnunlXbet, <which (of two) you like. 

neuter, neutrft, neutrum, neither. 

IpsS (in early writers frequently ipaus), ipsft, Ipsum, he himself. 

The genitive has usually a long penultimate i; but all (except 37a 
8611U8, utrius, and neutrius) are frequent in poetry with -lus: so 
ulilusque always: soUus once in Terence. 

8611 is found as gen. masc. (Cato); totl as gen. fern. (Afran.) ; 
nulll is once or twice used for the masc. and neut. genitive; and 
nullo for the dative; ulll once (Plaut.) for gen. masc; neutrl is 
used in the gen. neut. in the sense of neuter gender. The feminine 
datives una, nullso, soIsb, totsd, altered, are (rarely) found in early 
writers to the time of, and including, Cicero and Nepos. Toto for 
dat. masc. is used once by Propertius. 

The genitive nulllus and abl. nullo are rarely used substan- 
tively of things, but frequently of persons ; nemlnis being only 
found in prae-Ciceronian writers, and nemlne being only used by 
Tacitus and Suetonius, except once in Plautus. 

2. ille, that; iste, that near you (declined like ille) ; SJiiis, 373 

Singular. Singular. 

m. f. n. m. f. n. 

Norn, me illft ) ,,,- . ftUiis fiUft ) -„- . 

Ace. Ilium lllam ( *"^^ fiUum fiUum ] ^^^ 

Gen. IIIIUB in all genders SlitiB in all genders (rai'e) 

Dat ( *^ "^ ^^ genders fiin in all genders 

Abl. 1110 m& mo &iio sua &uo 

The plural is regular in both. 

* In the comic poets -lus and -lus are both found. Cicero (Or, 3. 47. 
183) implies that mius was in his time pronounced mius; Quintilian 

128 Inflexions. [Book II. 

Old forms of me found in Ennius, Lucretius, and Vergil, are 
olll for dat. sing, and nom. pi. masc; ollia, dat and abl. plural; and 
in Lucretius oUas, olla,*acc. plural. Ab oloes for ab mis is men- 
tioned by Festus; oUua and plla (nom. sing.) by Varro. 

IstuB for Iste is found once in Plautus. 

In the prae-Ciceronian phrases alii modi, 1111 modi, Istl modi, we 
have genitives (or possibly locatives) ; as also in alii del, alll generis 
in Varro, alii rel in Caelius. mse, istsB, alis9 are found in early 
writers rarely for dat fem. sing.; alls9 as genitive in Cicero, Livy, 
and Lucretius (once each). Collateral forms, viz. alls, masc. nom. 
(CatuU.), alid, neut nom. ace. (Lucretius), all, dat sing. (Gat, 
Lucr.) are also found. The adverb alibi appears to be an old 

The demonstrative particle eft was sometimes appended to the 374 
cases of me and iste which end in -s, and frequently in an abridged 
form to the others (except genitive plural), especially in Plautus 
and the early writers; e.g. 

Singular. Plural^ 

Nom. mic mm \ ilHc m»c I 

Ace. munc mane 5 mosce illasce J ^^ 

Gen. lllitLBce in all genders 

P^^* I imc in all genders 

Abl. msc msuG moc 

So also istlc. 

misce in all genders 

In nom. sing, m&ce, Ist&ce for fem., and mOc, IstGc for neut. are 
also found. 

The initial 1 of iste, istlc appears to have been sometimes omit- 37S 
ted; e.g. At stuc periculum (Ter. jindr, 566); qua stl rhetores 
(Cic. Or. I. 19); quid me sta res (Cic. Fam, 4. 3. 2); jam stinc 
(Verg. ji, 6. 389); mode sto (Hon Epist, ii. a. 163), &c. See 
Lachm. ad Lucr. p. 197. 

3. Hie (stem ho-), this near me^ is declined as follows, the forms 376 
in brackets being older forms used by Plautus, &c. (liosce, hasce, 
liujusce also in Cicero ; hsBC for nom. fem. plur. is found in Varro, 
Lucretius, and twice or oftener in Vergil. Halce neut pi. only in 
S, C. de Bacc.) 

(i. 5. 18) that tmins was in his time imTDS. Probably these words 
Ulias, uiiius) are taken as instances only. (Ritschl, Opusc. II. 696.) 

Chap.VIL] Declension of Fronauns adjective, &>c. 129 

m. £ n. 

Ace. irnno hanc (Lance) } Wto (Hoco) 

Gen. bUJiiB or Imjusoe (lioliisoe) in all genders 

Log. lilo (adverb) 

Dat Irale (liolce) in all genders 

AbL bOo ]ifto(liace) liQc 


m. f. n. 

Nom. Ill (hiflce) hsa (hsac) ) ^ /^ , n 

Ace. HOB (hoBce) lifts (hasce) f ^»^ <?^^) 

Gen. lidram (lionmce, Mrnm (lianmce, liSrum 

boronc) liaruic) 

Loe. 1 

Dat / Ms (Ulms) in all genders 
AbL J 

4. Is, that (stem i- and eo-), is thus declined. 

Singular. Plural. 

m. f. n. m. f. n. 

NoHL Is ^^ I Id ei or 11 esB ) . 

Ace. enm earn ) eSs e&s { ^ 

Gen. eijiis (in all genders) eOmm eSrum eOrum 

Loe. Xbl (adverb) ^ 

DaL 61 or d. (in all genders) r fils, els or lis 
AbL eO e& eO / 


or Im for eum is quoted firom the xii. Tables; eso for dat. 
fern, in Cato; elel, lei for dat. sing, in post-Gracchan and praEr- 
Augustan inscriptions; els once for nom. s. masc. ; lei, els, eels oriels 
for nom. plur. masc. and elels, eels, and iels for dat. and abl. plural 
in prsB- Augustan inscriptions; Ibus sometimes in comic poets and 
Lucretius^; Sftbiis in Cato for abl. plur. fern.; 1 and Is in Plautus. 
il and il8 v^ere common in post-Augustan inscriptions. Of poets 
only the prae-Augustan used any of the cases, except that Horace 
has the genitive and accusative in his non-lyrical writings. 

Ennius is said to have vn*itten sometimes snm, sam for emu, 
eain, and sas for eas. (Or perhaps for suas.) 

The dat. sing, el has rarely a short penultimate (61) : as SI it is 
frequent in Plautus and Terence and (in the last foot of the hexa- 
meter) in Lucretius. As a monosyllable it is also common, 

* Where llnui appears to be long, Mbus is probably the right 

T30 Inflexions. {Book IL 

The suffix -pse is sometimes found in Plautus appended; e.g. 378 
eapse, eumpse, eampse, eOpae, e&pse; and in Cicero often in the 
phrase reapse (for re e&pse). In Ipse (see above) the suffix is made 
the vdiicle of the case endings. 

Idem, dftdem, Idem, ace enndem, eaadem, Idem (compound of 
Is-dem) is declined like it, the forms lidem, lisdem however not 
being found, and 6Idem, <9sdem not frequently. 

For the nom. masc. sing, and plur. eldem, eledem are found in 
prae-Augustan iiiscriptions. Comp. § 265, 363. Isdem also appears 
to have been in use. For neut. s. eidem is found once in a pne- 
Aug. inscr. 

5. qui (stem qn6-), tivbicb, <whatf any, an ^adjective) relative, 379 
interrogative, and indefinite pronoun is thus dechned. Older forms 
found in Plautus, &c. are added in brackets. 

Singular. Plural. 

m. f. n. m. f. n. 

Nom. qui qu» ) qui qu» ) 

Ace. quem qaam ( ^ quOs qnfts J ^ 

Gen. ctUus (quoius) in all genders qnOrom qufirom qnOnim 

Dat. cui^(quoioi^quoiei) m^^^ | ^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 

As an indefinite pronoun qu& is more common than qmsB in fem. 
nom. sing, and neut. plur. 

Cfljus was treated (in pras- Augustan writers and once in Vergil) 
as a declinable genitive, i.e. an adjective with -0 stem (e.g. is ciUa 
res, cujum perlculum est. Cujum pecus? (See the suffix -lo in 
Book III.) The following forms are found so used: nom. s. cuja 
(f.), cujimi(n.); ace. cuJum (m. n.); cujam (f.); abi. oujfc (f.); plur, 
nom. <sc^» (f.). (Never used instead of quorum or quamm.) 

In Plautus cnluB is often a monosyllable. 

Qnl is used (i) as an ablative (of all genders, and, occa^onally 
in early writers, of the jdural) with the preposition cum appended 
(quieum) ; (2) as a substantive relative and interrogative (e.g. babeo 
qui utar); (3) as an adverbial interrogative, hoeivf and (4) oc- 
casionally as indefinite, e.g. neuqui, eiqui (Plant.). As a locative 
ilbi (for qudbi) is used. 

The ablat. plur. quia is found often in Varro, SaHust, and 
Tacitus, rarely in Cicero. 

Qui like any other adjective can be used substantively, but 3«a 
(owing to the use of quia, quid) it is actually so used in the nom. 
singular and neuter ace. sing., as an interrogative rarely, and 
chiefly in dependent questions : as an indefinite pronoun, whether 
substantively or adjectively, only after si, nisi, nS, num. 

Chap, VILl Declension of Pronouns adiedive, df^c 131 

In the cases named, an allied form quls, neut. Quid takes its 
place. Quis (i) as an interrogative is generally a substantive (and 
as such is in early writers predicated of males or females), but 
sometimes a masculine adjective : (2) as an indefinite pronoun, it is 
used both as substantive and as masculine and feminine adjective. 
Quid and its compounds are always substantives. 

The compounds of qui, qulB are msunly declined like them, but sSr 
all have -quid (not -quod), when used as substantives. Other 
peculiarities are here named. 

JUIqul, &]Iqa&, dUqnod, some, AliqulB is a subst. and masc. adj.; 
and is more common than aliqui. AliqusB as nom. fern. sing, occurs 
in Lucretius once, and not at all as neut. plur. Abl. dJIqui is some- 
times used in Plautus. 

Ecqui, ecqna, or eoqiuB, eoqnod, any f EcqnlB is subst. and masc. 
adj. The only cases besides the nom. in use are dat. eccul ; ace. 
ecqaem, ecquam ; abl. m. and n. ecqno. The plural is rare, but the 
forms ecqni, ecquos, ecqnas, are found. 

Qnlnam, qnienam, quodnam, any f Qulsnam is also used. 

Qnldaxn, qusdam, quoddam, certain, 

QuIciULque, qnsBCunque, qnodcunqne, (whatsoever. The -cunqne 
is sometimes separated from qui, 6cc.; e.g. qua, re cunque possum : 

QuIUbet, qusalXbet, quodllbet, iv&icJbyou like: 

QulTls, qusBVis, qnodvlB, twhieb you twill. Sometimes with 
oimqiie attached ; e. g. quiYlscunque, (whatsoever . 

The following have quia instead of qui for the nom. sing. masc. 382 

QuiBquis, (whosoever or (whatsoever ; quldquid or quicquid, 
whatever^ also a substantive. Qulqui (nom. sing.) only in Plautus 
once. Qai8<iui8 as adjective is not applied to females. Of the other 
cases we have only the locative quiqui in Plant, and possibly in cui- 
enlmodl: the abl. masc. and neut. qnoquo; ace. in comic poets 
qinomqnem; quIquI nom. plur. masc.; in Livy quibusquibus (dat. 
^ perhaps in quotation from ancient document), and quaqua, iii 
Tacitus as abl. rem. sing.; elsewhere only as advero. 

QuiBquam, n. qulcquam, any at all. Generally used as substan- 
tive, but quisquam is also used adjectively of females (as well as of 
males). Quiquam as ablative in Plautus. The plural and the femi- 
nine singular are not used. Quodquam also not used. 

QolBPiam, qtuBpiam, quodpiam, some. Plant, has an abl. quiplam. 

QniBque, qusdque, quodque, each, Quicque or quldque is .'jubst. 
qulBQue used of a woman in Plautus. 

i^\j Inflexions. [Book IJ, 

Its compound wmiqiiisqiie is similarly declined. 

Qaii appeals to have stem qni-, and to belong to the -i stems (see jfi? 
(!hap. X). Probably the forms (now partly assumed by quo-) were, 
Norn, quia, neut. qnld (so also is, Id) ; Gen. quia; Ace. qiiem (the 
proper accus. of qno- being qnom pow used as conjunction), neut 
quid; AbL qui (hence possibly quid, <wberefire; but comp. W)* 
Plural xiom. and ace. ques (old form used by Cato and Pacuvius, 
cf. § 363), neut quia (used as conjunction) ; Gen. cuinm (found in 
Plautus); Dat AbL qullraa. 



The substantives, called personal pronouns, are very peculiar in 384 
ihcir inflexions, nor are all the cases formed from the same stem. 

1st Person. 

and Person, 

^rd Person, 



and PLUR. 

Nom. 6go 


no nom. 

Ace. me 



Gen. (see below) 

Dat. miM or mi 



AM. me 




Nom. Ace. no8 


Gen. nostrum 

vestnun (vostamm) 

Dat. Abl. nobis 


Singular. Accusati've, The forms med and eed occur as 385 
accusatives in some early inscriptions, and med and ted both as 
accusatives and ablatives in Plautus; probably sed also {Mil, Glor. 
1275). The d is probably the ablatival d, incorrectly transferred to 
the accusative as welP. Quintilian also mentions an old form m^e. 
Tete was rarely written for te: aese frequently for se. 

Genitive, The old genitive of the ist and and persons was mil, 386 
tie; the latter is found in Plautus. This was replaced as possessive 
by the adjectives mens, tmui; and as objective by the gen. sing. neut. 
;nei (of my being), tui. So suns (adj.), sni for the genitive (both 
smgular and plural) of the reflexive pronouns. 

* Ritschl, Neiie Plant, Excurs, (1869), p. XL 

Chap. VIII.\ Declension of Personal Pronouns, 133 

^^^^ -■ --- - — ■■ - - - 

Dative, ml is used both by Cicero and the poets. 387 

For BSbi old forms are sibe, sibel (cf. § 265). 

Ablative. See above under accusative. 

Plural. Accusative. For noB we have enos in the Carmen 

Genitive. As possessive genitives the adjectives noster and vester 3S8 
were used; as objective nostrl, vestrl, and rarely nostrum, vestrum; 
as partitive nostrum, vestrum, and in the comic poets sometimes 
nostromm, nostrarum, vestrorum, vestrarum. 

To all cases (except tu nom.) of these substantive pronouns the 389 
particle -met is sometimes added. For tu, tutd or tutlmet are 

The adjectives have in the ablative case -met or -pte often ap- 
pended; e.g. meopte, suftmet; rarely in the gen. sing., e.g. tulpte; 
and ace. plur., e.g. suosmet, su&met. 



The second main class of nouns contains stems ending in the 
semiconsonantal vowels u and i, or in a consonant. 

i. Declension of -u Stems. 

The case suffixes, as seen in consonantal stems, are preserved 390 
entire only in three or four nouns. They usually combine with 
the final vowel of the stem. The terminations thus become sing. 
nom. -us; ace. -um (for -u-em); gen. -fls (for -u-is); dat. -ui, 
often -u; abl. -fl (for -ue); plural nom. ace. -tls (for -u-es); gen. 
-unm; dat. abl. -tlbus, generally -Ibus. Some have collateral. stems 
in -o, which are at least as early as the -u stems (see below). 

The few neuter nouns differ only in the nom. ace. sing., ggx 
which exhibits the bare stem, and the nom. ace. plural which has 
the vowel a added (-ua). The contracted form of the dat. sing. 
is alone found now. (The neuters are oomu, genu, pecu, yeru; 
also axtna and ossua pi.) 

ra34 Inflexions. [^^^ ^^' 

No adjectwes have steins in -u; except perhaps compounds of 
manus; but these are found only in nom. and ace. sing., except 
angvlmaniis ace. pi. twice in Lucr. 

\d) The words which retain the suffixes entire are ^ 

grfls (usually f., dat. abl. pi. grulbus); stU j^m. f., dat. abl. pi. 
■Qllms and stlbiui; also aftbus: a gen. sing, suerls is also mentioned); 
Ms, stem 1)6t- (m. f., gen. pi. bourn, and bovom or bovum; dat. abl. 
bObiiB rarely bObus); Jdv- nom. s. Jup-plter (ace JOr-em, so the 
other cases: an old gen. pi. Joum is mentioned). 

(^) The remaining words are here arranged according to the »3 
letter preceding the final u. (But few however of the numerous 
verbals in -tu are here given.) All are masculine, except cOIub, 
d6mu8, idns (pi.), m&nus, portlcns, quinquatros (pi.), tribus; and 
names of women and trees. A few are fem. or neut. as well as masc. 

The dat. pi. is in -Ibus, unless otherwise stated. 

-bu tribus (f. dat. abl. pi. tribUbus). 

-mu dOnras (f.) voc. domus, gen. domus (domi only in Plant.), 394 

loc. domui, usually (as from -o stem) doxni; dat. domiii, 
rarely domo; abl. domo, sometimes domu. Plur. nom. 
domus, ace. demos, sometimes domus; gen. domomm 
(Lucr. Verg.), domuum (Sen. Plin. Tac.), dat. abl. 
domlbus. » 

-cu &CUS (m. f. dat. abl. pi. acHbus) ; arcus ('m. rarely f. dat. 39^ 

abl. pi. arcHbus: another form of gen. is ard or arqui 
(Cic. Lucr.), nom. pi. arcl) ; flcus (f., only found in gen. 
and abl. s. and nom. ace. pi. : other cases, as well as 
these, from a stem in -o which is rarely m.) ; l&cus (m. 
dat. abl. pi. usually lacilbus; laci gen. s. in inscr. of 
Sulla's time); pdcu (n. not in gen. s. or dat. abl. pi. 
see § 45 8) ; portlcus (f.) ; quercus (f. gen. pi. quercOrum, 
no dat. s. or dat. abl. pi.) ; spdcus (m. also f. dat. abl. pi. 
usually specHbus: rarely a nom. s. neut. specus; also 
nom. pi. speca). 

-gn algu (only as abl. s.) ; f&^ras (f. -u stem only in nom. pi.; 

other cases from -o stems). 

-tu (-sn) sastus (m.) ; artus (m. dat. abl. plur. almost always ar- 396 
ttlbus); astus (m. often in abl. sing.; also, rarely and 
in silver age, nom. s. and nom. ace. pi.); cssstos (m. 
also abl. pi. from -0 stem); exercXtus (m.); fastus (m. 
i.e. pride; fiuittis, fastibus are also found, rarely, in 
sense of calendar) ; frdtus (m. only in nom. gen. ace. abl. 
sing.; but a neuter stem in -0 is more usual); impiitiui (cf. 
§ 443); mdtus (m. no gen. or dat. abl. plur.); myztos (f. 
only nom. ace. pi.; all eases, except gen. pi., are found from 
a stem in -o); noctu (f. only abl s.; generally as adverb; 

Chap, IXP[ Declension of -u Stems, 135 

for -1 stem see § 418); partuB (m. dat. plur. partiibU8>; 
portus (m. dat. abl. plur. both in -tibuB and -IbuB); 
am^portuB (m. (Mily abl. s. and ace. pi. ; a neuter with 
stem in -0 is more common) ; rictua (m. rarely ilctiixn 
n. nom.; ricto abl. s.); ritus (m.); saltus (m.); senfttuB 
(m. for genitive see §§ 399, 463); BlngultuB (m.); situs, 
drought (m. no plur. or dat. s.; also a stem in -i, § 417); 
spIzltuB (m.) ; testu (only in abL sing.; also testum, teste, 
n.); tunmltus (m.); vultus (m. ace. pi. vulta twice, 
Enn., Lucr.). 

Also numerous verbal substantives (e.g. gSxnitos, Ictus, 397 
luctus, nezos, qusestus, cf. § 800); some of which are 
found only in the ablative singular; e.g. arcessitu, con- 
cessu, nfttu, &c., in promptu, in procinctu, iojussu: 
others'only in the dative and ablative singular; e.g. irrl- 
Bui, Irrlsu; ostentoi, ostentu; &c. An oscillation be- 
tween abl. in -u and -k) is found in plebis scito, -soitu; 
opus est flacto, factu, &c. 

-da gr&duB (m.); Xdus (f. pi.). 

-nu ftnuB (f.) ; comus (f. besides nom. s. only in abl. s. and sqS 

nom. pi.; an -0 stem in dat. abl. s. and pi.) ; comu (n. 
also nom* ace. s. comum); gfinu (n. also an old nom. 
ace. gdnus); m&nus (f.); pdnus (f. rarely m.; also two 
neut. stems, in -o, and, rarely, in -6s (§ 458): all are 
found in sing, but usually penu for abl.; in plur. only ace. 
penus, pendra); pinus (f. has -0 stem also; abl. s. 
always pinu, abl. pi. pinls; no gen. pi.); sinus (m.). 

•In coins (f. dat. only colo, abl. coin, colo ; ace. pi. also cOlos; 

no gen. or dat. abl. plur.) ; gdlus (m. rare, except in abl. 
s.; a stem in -0 is also used). 

-ru currus (m.) ; laurus (f. besides nom. s. only in gen. and 

abL sing, and nom. ace. pi.; also a stem in -0 declined 
throughout, but no gen. pi.) ; nttrus (f.) ; pronums (f.) ; 
quinquatrus (f. pi.) ; sOcrus (f.) ; prosocrus (O ; tOnltnis 
(m. also a neuter stem in -uo); vSru (n. dat. abl. pi. 
verubus and verlbus; also nom. s. yerum). 

HTO ctlpressus (f. besides nom. only gen. abl. s. and nom. ace. 

pi. both fiom -u and -o stems); luxus (m.); ossu (n. 
only gen. pi. ossuum, Pacuv. and nom. ace. pi. ossua in 
inseript.); sezus (m. also an indec. n. nom. ace. secus). 
See also, for supine forms, under -tu. 

A genitive in -i, chiefly in words with t preceding the i, pos- 399 
ably from some confusion with the past participle, was frequent in 
writers of the sixth and seventh centuries u.c. These instances 
are given: adspeoti (Att); adventl CTcr.)* »ati (l^?ic.^\ «sk£^S^ 



[Book If. 

(Naev., Att, Varr.) ; fructt (Cat, Ter., Turp.) ; graaitt (Plant) ; 
luctt(Att); omatt (Ter.); partl (Pac); piscati (Turp.); portt 
(Turp.) ; qa»8tl (Plaut, Ter., &c.) ; salU (Att) ; aenatl (Plaut, 
Sallust, and was most common in the seventh cent u.c.) ; saoltl 
(Caec, Pac); Btrepitl (Enn.); gumptt (Plaut, Cat, LuoL, &c.); 
tumultl (Plaut, Ter., Enn., Sallust); vlctt (Plaut). In some 
other words (see above), though not in ard, lad, the -o stem is 
found in other cases as well as the genitive. [For other forms of 
the genitive, see § 463.] 

Examples of declension of stems in -u. 40( 




















artu-lorartfl gr&du-lorgr&dU^^ «^««« 





r vu&jAM 


Nom. ) 
Ace. ] 










Dat. ) 
Abl. ] 

Bil-btls and 






Nouns with stems ending in -i exhibit the following case end- <**» 
ings, composed partly of the final stem vowel, partly of case 

Singular. The nominative has one, sometimes more than 
one, of four forms. It ends 

(a) in -6s. These are almost all feminine. 

(b) in -Is, masc. and fern.: neuter in -e. 

(f ) in -B, after dropping the final vowel ; a preceding t or d is 
then dso dropped as in consonant stems (§ 436). The same form is 
used in adjectives for all genders. No neuter substantives have -b. 

(d) in -r or -1; viz. some stems end in -er for masc.; others, 
neuter in -fix or -ftl. A few adjectives have -ar, or -fir for all gen- 
ders. The r orl is the final consonant of the stem. 

Chap, X.] Declension of -1 Stems, 137 

Aecus^ -em is found for masc. and fern, in all adjectives, and ¥^ 
always or usually in most substantives. A few substantives have 
also -Im; very few have -Im always, and of these bst only vis and 
■ftli are found often in the accusative at all. (The neuter accusa- 
tive is like the nominative.) 

Gen, in -Is, Dat, -I, 

Loc, AhL in -6 or -L Adjectives with nom. sing, in -Is have -1 403 
always, other adjectives, except participles, used as such (see § 419), 
have -X usually. Most substantives, substantively used adjectives, 
and participles have -d. Neuters with -d, -1, or -r in the nom. sing. 
have -X in the abl. 

Plural, Nom. -6s, rarely -Is; Ace, -6b or -Is indiffeiently (on 404 
-els see § 265, 266). Neuters have in both cases -la, that is, -ft suf- 
fixed to the stem. Gen, -lum in prose. In verse the 1 is sometimes 
omitted for metre^s sake in stems ending in -ntl, and in a few other 
words, Dat, Loe, Abl, -Ibus. 

Some older forms of the cases will be found in Chap, xii., but 
the early inscriptions, i.e. before the seventh century u.c, contain 
very few instances of -1 stems. 

(N.B. In the list given bdow, the occurrence of an accus. in -im, 
or of an abl. in -e from an adjective, or in -1 from a substantive, 
will be mentioned. The instances of the nom. plur. in -Is, being 
probably not peculiar to particular words, will not be mentioned.) 

The origin of the -1 stems ^ and of their case-endings' is ob- 405 
scure. Very few of these stems appear to correspond wi5i -1 stems 
in Sanskrit or Greek (e. g. ignis, Sanskr. agnl-; potl-, Sanskr. pitl-, 
Greek fToo-t-; aagul-, Sanskr. abl-, Gr. e;^c-; turrls, rvpo-tr; ovls, 
Sanskr. avis, Gr. o&) ; many correspond to stems with a, or (Greek) 
o or V as final vowels. Some are clearly weakened forms of -0 
stems (e.g. ezanlmls, Inermls, subllmis, &c., and comp. humllls 
with x^^V^^^i imber- (Imbil-) with o/x^pos, noctl- with noctu, 
■ttis with situs, perhaps also pontl- with pontufez, fasti- with 
fostiiaxlimi, &c.): others have lost a consonant' (e. g. vi- for vlri-, 
enonmi- for cucnmis-, tigrl- for tigrid-, and compare davis with 
jcXctd-; apis with €fnrU, ffiniS'; tfpw ace. from fptS-*). It is 
probable therefore that the -1 of these stems is, at least m most 
cases, the representative of an earlier vowel, and, according to the 

^ See L. Meyer, Vergi, Gr, \, 126, IL 117 sqq., 162 sqq.; Schleicher, 
Verffl. Gr,-f, 384, 432, 452, ed. 2. 

* See Corssen, Aussprache, I. 727, 734, 738 sqq. ed. 2; Bucheler, 
Lot, Dec, 

• Key considers -1 to stand for -ic; Essays, 215, 236, &c.; Lot, Gr, 
p. 441^ &c ed. 2. * But see Curtius, Gr, Etym, p. 563, ed. 2. 

133 Inflexions. [Book II. 

general law of Latin vowel-changes, may therefore often have 
been immediately preceded by e (long or short). (In the very 
early inscriptions we have aldlles b^de ndllls n. sing., and marte, 
martei for martl, dat. s., mllltare for mllltar]£, nom. s.) This con- 
clusion is confirmed by the fact that in numerous stems a nonu sing, 
is found in -es, as well as in -Is; and it would account for the pre- 
dominance of -e in the ordinary case-endings. It may be noted 
that none even of the words quoted above, as having the best claim 
to an original -1, have -im in the accusative sing. (But see § 196.) 

The weakness of the -1 is shewn by its frequent omission before 406 
the nominative suffix s, whenever the eiFect of an adjoining s on the 
preceding consonants would not be dangerous to the identity of 
the stem. Thus loqoaz, stirps, mens, ars, mus for loqnaels, vOxvliB, 
mentis, artls, murls (cf. § 192); but subllmls not subllmiMi; avis 
not aus; migvls not vldx (comp. ningvls, nlvl-, nix); yates or vatis 
not yfts ; vestis not v6s ; &c. In the words c&nls, jnvdnis, menalB 
the i as well as the s is suffixal, and it is not unlikely that some 
other words (e. g. indcdes, vates, &c.) may belong properly to the 
class of nouns with consonant stems. (See the Prefece.) 

The origin of the long vowel in the nominatives in -8« is not 407 
clear. Some stems (e.g. plebes, also plelM; fames, also famls) have 
cases like the first class of nouns (§ 340). 

A large proportion of the -1 stems have only one syllable besides 408 
the -1, or are compounds with no further derivative suffix. Again, 
a very large proportion have the syllable preceding -1 long. And 
in many of these, two consonants inmiediately precede the -1, as if 
the adchtion of the -1 had either forced together the other syllables, 
or were itself a means, at least in the gen. plur., of giving play to a 
too heavy mass. (Comp. § 435.) 

The chief derivative suffixes are -fid, -entl, -HI, -fill, -art 

The following is a tolerably complete list of words of this 409 
class, except that some little-used compounds are omitted, and 
specimens only given of the principal classes of derivatives. In 
some words there is little or no positive evidence of the stem having 
-1, and they are placed here or among consonant stems in accord- 
ance with such analogies as may be found. 


I. Stems with labial before -1. 4x0 

All retain i or e in nom. sing, except sttrpB,tra1iB,pIeb8,iir1iB,nix. 

(a) Stems in -pL 

-&pl apis (f. gen. pi. sometimes apnm) ; gans&pe (f. abl. ang. 

also has ace. pi. A neuter stem in -0 is more usual). 

Cki^* -Xl] Declension of -i Stems, 13.9 

hQpI cdpem (adj. no nom. sing.). 

-flpi rOpes (f.). 

-uppl puppiB (f. ace. regularly -Ixn; abL often in -1; pnppe, 
though frequent, being later; not before Ovid). 

-»pi cjBpe (n. only used in n(Mn. ace sing. ; usually stem in -a) ; 

ssBpes (f. also s»pB rarely). 

-8pl prsBsSpe (n. also has ace. pi. prsBsSpes (f.) ; abl. s. prsa« 

sepio; abl. pi. prsosepiis; and perhaps ace. s. prsosepim). 

-Ipl Alpts (f. pi.); v(dpe8 (f. also valpls once Petron.). 

-rpl stlrps (f., sometimes as tree stem m. ; nom# s, Bttrpis twice, 

and stirpes once in Liv.); turpls (adj.). 

(/3) Stems in -bL 4" 

-&tl trails (f. tr&bes Enn.). 

•M sodliis (f.) ; scrdbls (m. f. also nom. s. scrobs Colum.), 

4Ufl Iftbes (f.); t&bes (f. only in singular, and that is rare; 

abl. tabd, tabo usually, tab3 once in Lucr.). 

^flM nUbes (f. also nnbs Liv. And.) ; pUbss (f. dat. pnbfi Plaut. 

once) ; impHbls (adj.). 

-8bl plebs (f. sometimes written pleps; also has nom. s. plSbes 

and (Liv.) plebis; see §§ 340, 357; no plural). 

-mbl delTunbls (adj. Plin. once) ; p&lumbes (m. f. also p&lnm* 

bis, besides gen. and ace. sing, and nom. ace. and abl. 
pi. from a stem in -0; p&luxnbibus is not found). 

-xbl corbls (m. f. abl. in -1 twice in Cato); imberbis (adj. 

older stem in -^o); orbls (m. abl. sometimes in -1); urbs 
(f. sometimes written urps). 

(y) Stems in -mt ^,a 

-Ami f&mis (f. rare except in gen. s.; other cases from fames, 

§ 340). 

-ftml cficHmls (m. ace. in -Im, abl. in -1; also with stem 

ctlcumls-); incdlUmis (adj.). 

-Imi ez&nimls, semianlmis, nnanimls (adj. also earlier -o 

stems, which alone are used in plur.). 

-ftml Infamifl (adj.; ace. lTifa,ina.Tn once Lueil.). 

-Omi eOmls (adj.). 

-tUnl implflmls (adj.); ruxnls (f.? old word; only ace. in -im; 

abl. in -1). 

I40 Inflexions. [Bac^k II. 

-6ml biremlB, trlremls, &c. (adj. oftoi as subst. f.; abl. rarely 

in -e). 

-iml Bubllmis (adj. also an early -o stem). 

•rxni abnormlB, enormls (adj.); blformls, Informis, &c. (adj.); 

inermls (adj. also an earlier form in -o) ; yexmis (m.). ^ 

(S) Stems in "Yi, (For -qvl see § 414; for -gvl § 415.) 4,3 

-Hi lues (f. also has ace. and rarely abl. s. no plur.); stniM 

(f. uo gen. or nom. ace, plur.). For jifls, sUs, see 

-&vl &vl8 (f. abl. sometimes in -i) ; gr&vls (adj.). 

-6yi Oyis (f. but in ancient formula m.). 

-6vl brdvls (adj.); VMs (adj.). 

-Ivi nix (fi gen. pi. only in Lamprid. See below nlngvlB). 

-&vi cl&viB (f. ace. sometimes in -im) ; concl&ye (n.^ ; nftTls 

(f. ace. often in -Im; abl. often m -i); rftvlB (t. ace. in 
-im; abl. in -i); BV&yis (adj.). 

-Ivi (^vls (m. f. abl. often in -i) ; accUvls, decUyis, procllYis 

(adj. also with -0 stems). 

-HTl tenvls (adj.), see § 9a. 

-Ivl pelvlB (f. ace. sometimes in -im; abl. usually in -i). 

-rvl enervls (adj.). 

2. Stems with a guttuial before -t 414 

(a) Stems in -d, -QYi, 

All drop -1 in nom. sing, except those ending in -sd and -qvt 
-qvl quia (pronoun. See § 383. Comp. also Is § 377). 

-Od prsBcox (adj. for older prsocoqnis; also rarely a stem 

in -0). 

-dd (-Id) simplex (adj.); dtlplex, &c. (For snpplex see § 439.) 

-ad fomax (f.); pax (f.), and numerous verbal adjectives; 

e.g. audax, dicax, fSrax, lOquax, vlvax, &c. 

-and fSauces (f. pi., also fance abl sing.). 

-5d atrox (adj.) ; cfilox (f., but in Liv. m.) ; fSrox (adj.) ; 

80I0X (adj., old word); vSlox (adj.). 

.{Id lux (f. abl. sometimes in -i); Pollux (m. old nom. s. 


-edd f»x (f. no gen. pi.). 

C^p. X.] 

Declension of -1 Stems. 



-Id UQXcem (adj. ace. s.); fSllz (^adj.); pemlx (adj.); and 

the verbal forms chiefly feminine, but in plural used also 
as neuter adjectives; e.g. vlctrlx, nltrlz, coxraptrlx, 2!eiu« 
trlx, &c. 

-nd dennz (m.); quinctmx (m.), Sec; lanz (f. no gen. pi.). 

-Id calx (f. sometimes m., no gen. pi.) ; dnlds (adj.). 

-rd azx (f.) ; merz (f., also old nom. s. merces, men). 

-rqyl torqvls (m. rarely f. nom. ang. rarely in -es). 

-Id &8ciB (m.); plsdd (m.). 

{p) Stems in -gi, -gvl, -hi. 

All i\:bun 1 or e in nom. sing. 

-icl am1>fi|^B (f. pL also abl. s., amhBge; the gen. pi. only in 

Ovid once, ambagum); compfi^es (f.); oontftges (f. only 
in Lucr. abl. once contftgS); propages (f. once in Pacuv.) ; 
Btrfi^res (f.). 

-Ikgl JUgis (adj.). 

-ngvl angvls (m. f. abl. rarely in -1); hiUngvis (adj.); exsan- 
gvlB (adj.^; nlngnlB (f. once in Lucr. same as nix); 
plagvls (aaj.) ; uxigvls (m. abl. sometimes in -i). 

JO^ v§heB (f. also vehls Colum., gen. pl.Tehiim in God. 


Examples of declensions of stems with labial or guttural 416 
before -1. Compare § 447. 

m. f. n. 









and&ce-m n. audax 












navl } 
navd 3 

(rarely andacd) 





audac6-B n. audad-a 


nubS-B or 

nav9-8 or 

audao6-B or 



n. audad-a 






Loc. . 





142 ll^FLEXIONS. [jScok II. 

3. Stems with a dental before -1 4x7 

(a) Most stems in -tl, preceded by a consonant or long vowel, 
and a few others drop 1 (and then t also) in nom. sing.; but stems in 
-Btl, and a few others retain it. Two or three have nom. sing, in -68. 

-&ti n&tls (f.) ; r&tis (f.). Comp. also adfatUa. 

-Oti pOtls, pdt6 (only in nom. and both forms alike for all 

genders and numbers). For compos, &c. see § 443. 

-Uti cutis (f.). Perhaps also Intercus, § 443. 

-6tl bfibSs (adj. abl. in -i, but in Celsus once in -e; tfirte 

(adj.). No gen. pi. ; hebetla, teretia occur once. 

-Stl (-Xtl) ancipltl-, nom. s. anceps, also (once in Plant.) ancipes 
^adj. abl. s. always in -i, no gen. pL): so also Mceps, tri- 
ceps, pmceps (ace. & prsBCipem (Lsev. or Liv. Andr.?), 
abl. prsBclpte £nn.). 

-Iti sitis (f. ace. in -im, abl. in -1, no plur. Comp. sltas, § 396). 

-atl crfttls (f. nom. s. only in Veget., ace. s. eratim Plant, and 418 

xsratem; comp. eratfoola); grates (f. pi; only nom. ace. 
and once, in Tacitus, aU. giftttbus) ; vfttes (m. f. also 
rarely vaUs; gen. pi usually vatum). So £eate (abl 
in -e). 

Burgher names (adjectives); e.g. Arplnas (old form Ar- 
plnatis); Larin&s; Fidenas; Antias; Privemas; &c.: also 
eOJas (nom. cujatis, Plaut.); nostras; opttan&s (nom. 
sing, not found) ; ptoates (m. pi.) ; snmmates (m. pi) ; 
Inflmatls (nom. s.) occurs once in Plaut. [prlmas, mag- 
nas only late]. For sanates see Fest. p. 321, Mull 

-auti cautes (f.). 

-6tl c6a (f. no gen. pi) ; dOs (f. gen. pi usually in -ium). 

-SU Idctiples (adj. abl. s. usually in -6; gen. pi sometimes in 

-nm); rete (n. abl. sometimes in -e; ace. s. also re- 
tem, m.); tapSte (n. sing. ace. m. tapSta, abl tapSte 
(both in Sil only) ; plur. nom. ace. tapStia, tapSta; dat. 
abl tfipStibus, tapStis); trap€tes (m. pi, ace. trapStas, 
abl trapStlbus; but forms from a stem in -o are gene- 
jally used). 

-Itl Jis (f., older stlis); dis (adj., contracted for dives), nom. 

sing- once only (Ter.); miti-s (adj.); Qniris (adj.); Sam- 
il8(adj.); vlti-s(f.). 

-pti Biq;)tis (f. abl once in -i in Tac). 

-ctJ nox (f.j also abl. s. noctu, chiefly adverbial); lac (n., 

also lact (Pliny, H.N, xi. 39, 95, &e. ed. Detlefsen) 
andlacte; abl s. lacti; no plur.); lactes (f. pi); vectis 
(m. abl. rarely in -i). 

Ckap. X] Declension cf -l Stems, 143 

The neuter names of towns, Bibracte, Soracte, have 
abl. in -e (Sa^iiractl Varr. once). 

•ntl- Adjectives and participles. Abl. sing, usually in -1 when 4^9 

used as epithets, in -e as substantives; participles always 
in -e as participles proper (e. g. in abl. of circumstances, ' 
or with an object). Nom. pi. sometimes in -Is, usually in 
-68 ; ace. plur. in -Is or -es indifferently; gen. plur. in 
4UIU, except, not unfrequently, for metre sake in poetry. 

Participles (very numerous) ; e.g. &mans, mdnens, s6- 
quens, pr»sens, &c. 

Adjectives; e.g. ftinens, olSmens, contlnens, dSmens, 
dnigens, 616gans, SlOquens, ingens (abl. always in -i), 
ixmOcens, Insdlens, Ubens, pettUans, prsBstans, prUdens, 
rficens, rfipens, s&idens, sons (nom. s. not used), Insons, 
vSbeniens, &c. 

Substantives have abl. in -e ; gen. pi. in -wn occasion- 
ally in poets, except from monosyllabic nominatives; 
adulescens (m.) ; ftn!ma,TiB (m. f. in plur. n.) ; antes (m. 
pi.); diens (m. also clienta f.); consentis (m. plur.; 
gen. consentum); dens (m. gen. pi., according to Yarrows 
express statement dentum; but MSS. and later gramma- 
rians give denttum) ; bidens, a rake (m. abl. in -i once 
in Lucr. at end of verse; a sheep f.); tridens (m. abl. 
in -i sometimes at end of verse) ; deztans (m.) ; dodrans, 
&c. (m.); fons (m.); frons (f., in old writers some- 
times m.); gens(f.); infans (m. f.);.lens (f. ace. s. some- 
times in -Im) ; mens (f. old nom. s. mentis) ; mens (m.) ; 
ocddens (sc. sOl m.) ; 5rlens (se. sol m.) ; p&rens (m. f. 
gen. plur. often in -um even in prose) ; pons (m.) ; rtldens 
(m. gen. often in -nm) ; sementis (f. ace. sometimes in 
-Im); sentes (m. pi. rarely f.); serpens (f. generally); 
sponte (abl. s. f.; also rarely spontls gen. sing.) ; tOrrens 
(se. fluYlns m.) ; triens (m.). 

-Iti pnls (f. gen. pi. only in Amob.). 420 

-rtl ars (f.); Iners, sollers (adj.); cohon, cors (f.); fors (f. no 

plur.); fortls (adj.); Mftvors, Mars (m.); mors (f/); pars 
(f. sometimes ace. in -im, abl. in -i); ezpers (adj. no 
gen. pi.); sors (f. abl. s. rarely sorti; old nom. s. sortls); 
censors, ezsors (adj. no gen. pi.). 

-sti agrestls (adj. abl. as substantive (m.) in -e rarely); 

pSBlestis (adj.) ; fastis (m. abl. often in -i) ; hostis (m. f.), 
pestis (f.) ; postis (m. abl. often in -i) ; resUs (f. ace. 
usually in -im); testis, (m.), a witness (m. f.); tristis 
(adj.); vestis (f.). So Pr»neste (abl. in -e except once 
in Propert.). 

144 Inflexions. \Bo0kIL 


(fi) Stems in hU. 421 

All in -dl preceded by a vowel retain -i or -e in nom.ang. except 

.Hdi rftdls (adj.); rftdis (f.); sftdls (f. not found in nom. s.); 

tr&des (f. plur. rare). 

-Ml pMlB (m. f.). 

-idl fidls, a harf string (f. fides once Cic. Arat. 381) ; "vlrMia 


•141 clftdes (f. also cladls Liv.). 

-audi ftaiis (f. sometimes with n for au) 

-Odl enOdlB (adj.). 

-»dl sodes (f. also sBdis) ; osodes (f. also cadis Liv.), 

-Sdl sSdes (f. gen. pi. usually sedum). 

-ndl flrons (f. old nom. frondls and firos); glans (f.); graadls 

(adj.); Jnglans (f.); lendes (f. pi.); llbrlpens (m.); ne- 
frendes (adj. pi.). 

-rdl sordes (f. plur., also sing. 8ordem;sordlsgen. Plaut. once; 

sordl once in Ulpian • abl. sorde rare ; sordS once Lucr.). 
Adjective compounds of cor, stem cord- (abl. s. always 
in -i) : excors, concors, dlscors, mlsfolcors, socors, yScors. 

Examples of declension of stems <with a dental before -L 43a 

Comp. § 447. 







sedes or 



n. sequezLS 













Loc. ) 
Abl. 1 


sequentS or 









n. sequentl-a 
sequente-s or 



Ace. J 

ratS-s (or 


artis or 

»dl-s or 


n. sequentl-a 









Loc ' 





Abl. ) 

Chap. X] Declension of -i Stems. 145 

4. Stems ending in -nl, -ui -rl, -si. 423 

(a) iS/««J i« -nt 

All retain -1 in nom. sing. None have nom. sing, in -es. 

-anl iTnTYigTiia (adj.); Infinls (adj.); mane (n. indecl. abl in 

-e) ; mSnes (m. pi.) ; pAnis (m. no gen. pi.). 

-tol cltLnis (m. f.); fOnls (m.); mOnls (adj. Plaut.). 

-oeni xnodnia (n. pi.). 

-Sni effrSnls, lnfl:6nis (adj. stems in -0 more frequent) ; lien 

(m. also liSnis Cels., gen. pi. in -ium and -urn) ; p6nis 

(m.); rSnes (m. pL gen, pi. sometimes in -nm. Also 

a stem rlen-). 
-Inl acdinls (adj.); crtnls (m.); finis (m. f. in plur. rarely 

f. abl. s. often in -i); afflnia (adj. as subst. m. f.; abl. in 

-e and -i), 

-mni anmis (m. abl. often in -i) ; Indemnls (adj. post-Aug.) ; 

insonmls (adj. Aug. and post-Aug.); onmls (adj.); sol- 

lemnis (adj.). 
-ffnl Insignia (adj.) ; ignis (m. abl. usually in -i) ; segnls (adj.). 

-nnl biennis, sezennis, &c. (adj.) ; bipennis (adj. also subst. f. 

abl. in -i) ; perennis (adj.). 

-mi bicomis (adj.). 

(^) Stems in -li. 424 

All retain -i or -e in nom. sing, except neuters in -aii, which 
sometimes drop it. 

-611 inddles (f. no plur.); sdbOles or suboles (f. plur. rare; no 

gen. pi.). Comp. proles, § 426. Also Interpdlis (adj.). 

^01 ftgUis, dSbllis, f&cXlis, and many other verbal adjectives; 

gr&cllis (adj. also a stem in -0, Ten Lucil.) ; novensiles 
(adj. m. pi.); shnllis (adj.); stfirilis (adj. vrith -0 stem 
once in Lucr.) ; strlgUis (f. abl. usually in -i). 

-Sll saquSlis (adj. also subst. m. abl. in -i) ; canalis (m. f. abl. in 423 

-1); contftbemaiis (m. f. abl. -e and-i); Jtlg&lis (adj.); nft- 
tSlis (adj. as subst. m. abl. often in -e: see also § 331); 
n6vail8 (as subst. f. and -ale n.); quSlis (adj.); rivaiis 
(adj. as subst. m. abl. in -e and -i) ; s6d&lis (m. abl. in 
-e and -i equally); tfilis (adj.). Proper names, e.g. Jil- 
T6nSIis, have abl. in -e. 

Neuter adjectives used substantively often drop the 
final -e and shorten final -al; e.g. &nlm&l, Bacc&n&l, bi- 
dent&l, c&pXtal, cervlc&l, Ltlperc&l, pilte&l, tdral, tribOnftl, 
yectigftl, &c. But fQcUe, pendtrftle. 



[Bifok If. 

Plural names of feasts; e.g. BaocftnMla, oompltuia, 
F15rSlla, Satumftlia, sponsftlia, Sec. have gen. pi. some- 
times in -drum, as if from -0 stems. So also YectigUio- 
nim (Varr. Suet.). 

callls (m. fi) ; valles (f. also yallls) ; convallis (f.). 

caulls (m. also cdlis). 

m61e8(f.;; prSles (f. the plur. once only, viz. ace. in 

collls (m. abl. rarely in -i) ; follls (m.) ; mollis (adj.). 

SdiUis, cOriUls, trlbUis (adj.). 

f Sles (f. also fSlls) ; mSles (f. also msdlifl Varr.) ; cradSlls, 
fldSlis, patruells (adj.). 






Imbema (adj.); perduems (adj.); pellis (f.); yersipellis 

sedms (m. aidlles in very early inscr., abl. usually in -e; 427 
as adj. once in Plaut.) ; Aprms, Quintllls, Seztms have 
abl. in -1; bms (f. abl. usually in -e); Ctvllls (as proper 
name, abl. in -e) ; vms (adj.) ; eidlis, sersilis, and other 
derivative adjectives. 

Neuter adjectives used substantively: e.g. aacile (gen. 
pi. ancmorum), ctibne, Squlle/ liastne, mantXLe, mOnlle, 
dvile, sSdile. 

imbecmis (adj. in Seneca rarely; regular stem in -0); 
mme (adj. indecl. in sing.). 

Examples of declension of stems in -ni, -It Comp. §§ 4ji, 461. 428 

Nom. lgnI-8 

I. \ 







Igni or igng 


-8 ) 

-m J 




ignl-s or 



Bimm-s or 









Chap. X.] Decktision of -i Stems. 147 

(y) Stems in -rL 4«q 

Stems ending in -rl preceded by ft usually drop the 1 in the 
nom. sing. masc. and drop the S before r in all other cases; those 
ending in -Sxl usually drop e or i in the nom. ace. sing, neuter. 

ftrl Arar (m. ace. in -im; abl. in -1 or -e); liMris (adj. also 

with stem in -0, Plant. Ter. Gic.) ; m&re (n. abl. some- 
times in -e in poetry; pi. only nom. ace. except manim 
Naev., maribus Caes. once); bIm&riB (adj.); pSr (adj. 
cf. § 454)} Unpar, dispar (adj.). 

-dri f6riB (f.); bIfOris (adj.); mSmor (adj. gen. pi. only once 

used, viz. memdrum in Verg., no neut. nom. ace.) ; Im- 
m&nor (Immemorls nom. Caecil.); inddc6ris (adj. no 
gen. or neut. pL). 

-&rl cdler (cdlerls m. in Cato); Ilger (m. ace. in -im; abl. in 430 

-i or -e); TibSris or Thybris (m.) ; YdsSrls (m.). 

(-X»rl) vepres (pi. in sing, only veprem, vepre; usually m. Pro- 
bably had n. sing, in -is, comp. veprScula). 

(-bzl) billbrls (adj.); bimembrls (adj.); cdldber (adj. ceiSbrls 
as m. sometimes); December (adj.); febris (f. ace. often 
in -im; abl. usually in -i) ; ISnebris (adj.) ; fOnfibris (adj.) ; 
Imber (m. abl. in -1 frequently); lOgHbris (adj.); mtilie- 
bris (adj.); November, October (adj.); s&lUber (adj. often 
salubris m.). 

(-cri) ftcer (adj. in Naev. and Enn. also as f.; acrls is rarely 
m.); &l&cer (adj. alacris as m. rarely); mSdiocrls (adj.); 
YdlUcer (adj., rarely volucris as masc. adj. cf. § 456). 

(-gri) tigris (usually f., also with stem tlgrid-). 

(-tri) llnter (or lunter f. rarely m.); pater (adj. usually 
putris); venter (m.); titer (m.). Also tres (pi.). 

(-strl) aplustre (n. also rare pi. aplustra); bilustrls, illustris, 
sublustrls (adj.); bimestris (adj. abl. rarely in -e Ovid); 
campester (adj. also campestris as m.); equester (adj. 
equestrls as m. once); p&luster (adj. also palustrls); 
pddester (adj.); sequester (m.; an ace. and dat. abl. s. 
and nom. pi. from a stem in -0 occur rarely) ; Silvester 
(adj. usually silvestrls) ; terrester (adj. usually terrestris). 

-tot Numerous adjectives, with contemporaneous or subse- 431 

quent stems in -io. The neuter when used as substantive 
often drops e in nom. sing. 

articnlaris, auxiliaris, popularis, &c. (see BqoVl\\\>). 

148 Inflexions. [Saok II. 

mOlftrlB (m. sc. dens, abl. in -1); nftris (f.); pngUl^ros 
(m. sc. codlcilli). 

Neuters: altSria (pi.), alveare, calc&r, codilefUrB, exem- 
plar (exemplfire Lucr.), lacunar, l&que&r, l&p&n&r, pnl- 
Yinflr, tai&ria (pi.), torciUar. 

-auri aurls (f.). 

-dri discdlor, venAcdlor (adj.). 

-orri torris (m.) ; extorris (adj.). 

-iiri lyiLrls (m. ace. in -im; no abl. found; also with -a stem); 

sdcilris (f. ace. often in -im; abl. always in -1). 

-urrl tUTTifl (f. ace. usually in -im; abl. often in -i). 

-erri verreff (m. also verrls Varr.). 

(5) Stems in -sL 4^ 

All retain -1 in the nom. sing., except as, mas, mns, glla 

-S,si (-&rl) mfto (m.). 

•asBl as (m. rarely assis). So also its compound semis: but 

bessls, decussis, centussls, Sec. (probably adjectives) are 
parisyllabic. Casses (m. pi. also casse abl. s.); (dassia 
(f. abl. often in -1). 

-ilsi (-iiri) mfls (m.) ; pltls (n. abl. s. plnre rare, no dat. s.; in plural 
nom. pltlres (m. f.), plOra (n.); gen. plilrium; dat. abl. 
plllribus; so also complibres (plur.), but complurla once 
Ter. and so in other old writers (Gell. v. ai). 

-ussi amussim (m. only ace. s.) ; tussis (f. ace. in -Im ; abl. 

in -i). 

-C33i messls . (f. ace. sometimes in -im) ; nScesse (indec., used 

only as secondary predicate, '/? matter of necessity,^ The 
form necessum is found in pne-Ciceronian writers and 
Lucr.; necessus as nom. in Ter.; as genitive (according to 
Lachm. ad Lucr. 6. 815) in S, C. de JBacc). 

isi(-Iri) glis (m.); via (f. ace. vim, abl. vl, gen. and dat. rare: 
in plural ace. vis is found once or twice in Lucr., but 
the regular pi. is vires). 

-nsl ensis (m.). Also numerous derivative adjectives; e.g. 

Gastrensis, Narbonensis, Sec. So atriensis (m. sc. eervus 
abl. rarely in -e) ; circenses (m. pi. sc. ludi) ; Maluglnensis 
(as proper name with abl. in -e); bimensis (adj.). For 
mensis see § 460. 

-xi axil (m. also written assis } abl. rarely in -i). 

Chap, XI ^ Declension of Consonant Stems, 


Examples of declensions of steins in -rl, and declension of vis. 433 
Comp, § 461. 

Nom. IxnbSr 
Ace. Imbre-m 
Gen. Imbri-s 
Dat Imbrl 
Loc. ) tmbrl or 
AbL ) imbrS 

Noni. Imbr5-B 
Ace. tmbrl-s or 

Gen. Ixnbrl-iim 
Dat. 1 

Loc. f-lmbrl-lras 
AbL J 


m. f. n, 

acer(m.) acri-8(f.) ) 
acre-m 3 



acrI-8 or 







vis (rare) 

vi (rare) 


vlri-s or 




The suffixes for masc. and fern, nouns with stems ending in a 434 
consonant are: Singular Nom. -s (which however has fallen off or 
was intolerable in stems ending in -n, -1, -r) : Ace. -em ; Gen. -is ; 
Dat. -I; Abl. -6. Plural Nom. Ace. -6s. Gen. -um. Dat Abl. 
-Ibns. For the older forms see Chap. xii. 

The locative was usually the same as the ablative, but in some 
words what was probably its original form remains, the same as the 
dat. (e.g. CartliaginS or Cartbaglni; tempori (written temperi),rurl). 

These suffixes are appended without alteration of the stem 
except for nom. sing. 

The suffixes of neuter nouns differ from the above only in having 
the bare stem, sometimes with the vowel modified, for nom. ace. 
sing.; and -& (instead of -es) suffixed for nom. ace. plural. 

A large proportion of the consonant stems have two syllables, 435 
the second syllable being a derivative suffix. The final stem eon- 

150 Inflexions. \Book II. 

. — * 

sonant is always preceded by a vowel (except in cor, from stem 
cord-, mensis, vducris), and this preceding vowel generally diort^ 
(Gomp. § 408.) The principal exceptions to this short quantity 
are the numerous stems in -tftt, -6n, -Or and a few in -Ic 

The following enumeration is tolerably complete, except that 
specimens only are given of such classes of derivatives as contain 
very numerous instances. 

I. Stems ending in mutes (and m). 43^ 

Stems ending in mutes form the nominative singular by adding 
8, but the dentals (t, d) being assimilated to it fell away. A short ft 
preceding the final stem consonant is usually changed to X in other 
cases than the nom. sing. (§ 234. 3 ^). 

e.g. princep- nom. princeps, ace. prlnclp-em; Jfldec- nom. 
jiidex, ace. JMXc-em; rftdlc- nom. radix, ace. r&dlc-em; ^u6t- 
nom. SoLuSs, ace. $qult-em ; p8d- nom. pes, ace pSd-em. 

Only three substantives are neuter, viz. aiec (also alez f.), 
caput (with its derivatives occiput, sinciput) and cor. The ad- 
jectives have no neut. nom. ace. plural. 

{a) Labial Stems, 437 

-ap daps (f. nom. s. rare ; no gen. pi.). 

-6p ops (f. nom. s. only as name of goddess) ; Inops (adj.). 

-6p (-tip) auceps (m.) ; manceps (m. manclp- is more usual than 
the older manctip-). 

-6p (-Ip) forceps (m. f.); muolceps (m. f.); princeps (adj. abl. s. 
always in -fi)^; parUceps (adj. abl. s. always in -6); 
adeps (m. f. sometimes written adips : no gen. pi.). 

-Ip sUp-em (f. no certain nom. s. or gen. pi.). 

-6b (-ib) Calebs (adj.). 

-m Memps (f. sometimes written hlems; cf. § 70). 

^ Consequently, the accentuation of the syllables is not altered, as it 
would have been, if the gen. pi. had ended in -ium, or neut. nom. acc 
pi. in la ; e.g. princeps, prlndpum, but principlnm, prlncipla. 

2 The genitives, munldplum once or twice in inscriptions, prind- 
plum often in MSS. of Livy, fordplum in extract from Lucilius, are 
probably only mistakes of scribes. So hospltlum in good MSS. of 
Cic. and Liv., obsldlum in Li v. and Caes., Judicium, axtiflclum, &c. 

Chap. -X7.] Declension of Consonant Stems, 151 

(J)) Guttural Stems, 453 

(a) Steins in ^: 

-&c fax (f. no gen. pi. ; old nom. s. faces) ; fir&ces (f. plur. 

no gen.). 

-lie cmx (f. no gen. pi.) ; nux (f.) ; dux (m. f.) ; traduz (m. 

rarely f.); rSdux (adj. abl. in -i except as oblique predi- 
cate) ; trux (adj. no gen. pi.). 

-*c foBnisez (m.); nez (f.); pTdc-em (f. no nom. s.); rSsez 

(m.); sSmixiec-em (adj. no nom. s.). 

-*c (-Xc) Chiefly masculine. &pez (m.) ; cSrez (f.) ; caudez or 439 
cOdez (m.); cimez (m.); cortez (m. sometimes f.); 
ctUez (m.) ; forfez (m. f.) ; frtttSx (m.) ; nez (f.) ; Ulez 
Tm.); imbrez (m. f.); l&tez (m.); mtlrez (m.); 6Mce 
(only in plur. and abl. ang. f. sometimes m.) ; psalez or 
peiez (i. probably ttoXXo^); p5dez (m.); poUez (m.); 
pfUez (m.); pQmez (m.); r&mez (m.); rtimez (m. f.); 
Bllez(m.f.); Borex(m.); vortez or vertez (m.); Yltez(f.). 

Semi-adjectival compounds; e.g. indez (m. f.); Jildez 
(m. f.^; Ylndez (m. f.); artifez (m. f.; abl. sing, as 
adjective in -1) ; camifez (m. f.) ; dpifez (m. f.) ; pontlfez , 
(m. f.) ; aiispez (m. f.) ; eztispez (m. f.). 

Adjectives: sdpplez (abl. i in prose; 6 frequently in 
metre); Uvertez, &c. 

Iblc-em (m. ace. s.); pantioes (m. pi.); nrpicem (m. 
ace. sing.; Irplces nom. pi.) are not found in nom. sing. 

-Xo Chiefly feminine, appendlz (f.) ; c&liz (m., kv\l^ f.) ; 440 

dlclB (gen. s. only in phrase dlcis cau8& or grati&) ; f Xliz 
(f.) ; forniz (m.) ; fttliz (f. usually fiilica) ; lariz (m. f.); 
plz (f. no gen. pi.); s&liz (f.); yftrlz (m. f.); vic-em (f.; 
no nom. sing, or gen. pi.). 

-&c Umaz (usually f.). For adjectives see § 414. 

-6c voz (f.). 

-fto luz (f. abl. sometimes in -1 ; no gen. pi.). 

-te ftlez or hallez (f. also a neuter form alec or halec) ; 

yexrez (m.). * 

.Xc All fem. cic&triz; cervlz; comlz; cStumlz; cozendlz; 441 

lOdlz; xn&trlz; mdrdtriz (the adjective has -1 stem); 
nfttrlz; nUtrlz; rftdiz; stniiz; vibic-em (no nom. s.). (Of 

152 Inflexions. [Book IL 

dcatrlz, cervix, meretilz, instances of an ace. pi. in -Is 
are found). 

(jS) Stems in^i 44« 

-tig conjimz, often written conjux (m. f.) ; b](jtkgem, qnadz^il- 

gem, Sec. (adj. no nom. s., stems in -o more usual). 

-8g grex (m.) ; segreg-em (adj. ace. s.); ftqnllez (m.). 

-Ig strix (f. gen. pL Btrigium in Vitruv.) ; r6mex (m.). 

-tig trtlgem (f. no nom. sing.; ftux and flrnges quoted as 

early forms of nom. s.). 

-8g rex (m.^; lex (f.); exlex (adj. only nom. and exlSgem, 

ace. s., m use) • 

(r) Dental Stems, 

(a) Stems in -t : 443 

-&t ftnas (f.), (gen. anituxn, C. N, D, 2. 48). 

-At compds (adj.); Impds (adj.). 

-tit InterciiB (adj. not found in abl. s. or nom. ace. or 

gen. pi.). 

-tit (-It) c&put (n. abl. in -1, CatuU.) ; occiput (n.) ; sinciput (n.). . 

-6t Nom. sing, in -Ss; &bl6s (f.); &rl3s (m.); p&rl9s (m). 

Nom. sing, in -6s; interpres (m. f.); indlges (m., rare in 
sing.) ; perpes (adj. abl. sometimes in -i) ; prsapes (adj. 
abl. sometimes in -i) ; sdges (f.) ; t^ges (fC) ; iznpStd (abl. 
s. also rarely Impdtis gen. sing.). 

-fit (-It) Nom. sing, in -6s; 

Substantives: &xnes (m.?); C88spes(m.); fQmes (m.); 444 
gurges (m.); limes (m.); merges (f. ?); palmes (m.); 
poples-(m.); stipes (m.); termes (m.); tr&mes (m.). 

Semi-adjectival: antistes (m. f., also aatlstlta f.); 
csdles (m., also in Ovid csdlltibus regnis); cocles (m.); 
c6mes (m. f.); dques (m.); liospes (m., sometimes in 
poetry f. ; also hosplta, as f. sing, and neut. pi.) ; miles 
(m. f.) ; p6des (m. f.) ; prsBstes (m. f.) ; s&telles (m. f.) ; 
ygles (m.). 

Adjectives: aies (mostly as subst. m. f.; gen. pi. 
usually, because in dactylic verse, alituum); Cserfis of 
Care (from which Vei^il has abl. CsBrSte, and gen. 

Chop, XL"] Dedetision of Consonant Stems, 153 

Csorltls); dives; sospes (also sospita, old form selspita, 
as epithet of Juno) ; stlperstes. 

-at A very numerous class of (chiefly abstract) substan- 445 

tives (all feminine) in -t9.t, e.g. civltas, SBstas. c&l&xnXtas, 
stmnltas, hSrSdltas, tempestas, voluptas, cupiditas. The 
genitive plural is occasionally formed in -liim, especially 
from civltas and the tliree nouns next following, but from 
others than civltas rarely before the Augustan age. 

s&tlaB (f. usual only in nom. s.; ace. and abl. also in 

damnaB (adj.; in formula damnas esto, sunto both for 
nom. ang. and plur.). 

-6t nSpOs (m.) ; s&cerdds (m. f.). 

-fit jfiventfts (f.); senectfls (f.); servitfls (f.); vlrtilB (f.); 

6&lils (f. only sing.). 

-8t qulBs (f.); Inquies (f. also in nom. sing, as adj.); requlSs 

(f. no dative, or plural; also as an -e stem, § 340). 

(/3) Stems in -d: 446 

-&d vfts (m. f. no gen. pi.), haiL 

-lid pteiLs (f.), a head of cattle. 

-M p68 (m.); trlpSs, comlpSs (adj.), &c.; comp8d6s (f. pi. 

also abl. s., compede, gen. pi. once compedlnin Plant.) ; 
qnadrftpes (f. usually, also m. n.; abl. sometimes in -i: 
nom. pi. qnadrftpfidla once in Colum.). 

-M (-Id) obste (m. f. ; prsosSs (m. f.) ; d§s6s (adj.) ; rSsSs (adj.). 

-Id capis (f.); cassis (f.), a helmet; cuspis (f.); hence trl- 

cusplde (abl. sing.) ; l&pis (m. rarely f.); promulsis (f.). 

-rd cor (n. no gen. pi.). Compounds of cor have stems in -1 

(§ 447)- 

-»d pr»s (m. no gen. pi., ancient form of plur. prsBvIdes). 

-Od custCs (m. f.). 

-and lans (f., gen. pi. rarely in -lum). 

*11d pfillls (f.) ; IxLcfls (f.) ; subscus (f.). 

-Sd hSrSs (m. f.); ezhSres (adj.); mercSs (f.). 



[Bai>k 11. 




Ace. \ 


Examples of declensions of mute stems. 

Compare §§ 416, 422. 

(adj. m. f. n.) m. or f. f. 

prlncep-B Jfldex * »t&Hi 

prind[p-Is Judic-ls SBtftt-ls 

princlp-l Judlc-I atat-I 



prlnclp-Ss (no 


Judlc-d atat-d 











Judlc-Ibus at&t-Ibfts ped-Ibns 

a. Stems ending in -n. 

Stems ending in -n form the nominative singular in one of two 448 

Either the nom. sing, is formed by dropping the final n; thus 
stems in -6n, -d6n, -g6n, and a few others which are all masc. or 
fern.: e.g. sermSn-, sermo (m.); Mgi5n-, legio (f.); granddn-, 
graiido (f.) ; drigdn-, 6rigo (f.). In the oblique cases -6n becomes 

Or the stem becomes the nom. sing, without alteration or addi- 
tion. Thus stems in -mSn, which, except one, are all neuter, and 
a few others which are mainly masculine: e.g. agmdn (n.), gen. 
agmXnls; tiblcSn (m.^, gen. tibiclnls. Three words, cftn-is, Jilvdn- 
Is, sdn-ex, are exceptional. 

-fin c&nls (m. f., old form c&nes (Plant.), The derivative 

canicula sieems to imply an -i stem). 

-6n (-In) nom. s. in -0. All except some here named, are femi- 449 
nine, hdmo (m. also in old language with stems homon-, 
hemon-); nSmo (m. f. gen. and abl. sing, rare; cf. § 372); 
turbo (m. turben, Tib.) j cftro (f. no gen. pi. The stem 
is cam- for c&rdn-). 

Chap, XI^ Dedmsion of Comonant Stems, 155 

margo (m. rarely f.) ; Origo (f.) ; ftbdrlgines (m. pl.^ ; 
aspergo (f.) ; comp&go (f.) ; ambSgine (f. abl. s. only) ; 
Indfiginem (f., also in gen. and abl. sing.); and other 
feminine substantives in -gOn. 

cardo (m.); ordo (m.); grando (f.); h&rondo (f.); hlrtldo 
(f.) ; testUdo (f.) ;- alcSdo (f.) ; gr&vSdo (f.) ; flredo (f.) ; 
c)lpIdo (f. sometimes m.) ; sGUttldo (f.), &c. ; and some 
other abstract feminine substantives in -Iddn, -tUddn, &c. 

-to (-In) flSmexL (m.), a priest; fidlcen (m.); oscen (m., some- 
times f.^; tibicexL (m.); tUblcen (m.); peoten (m.), 
fi^fLtexL (n.); sangyen (n.), and more frequently sazigyfis 
(m.); polllxL-em (m. also gen. and abl. s.). For stem 
fSmen-, nom. fSmur (n.), see § 454. 

And the numerous verbal neuters; e.g. agmen, ISnlmen, 
pHt&men, vOltlmen, n5men, Sec. ; fl&men (n. is little used 
except in abl. s. and pi. and nom. ace. pi.) ; binSmlnls 
(adj. gen. s. no other case) ; cognSmlnem (adj. also abl. 
sing, and nom. pi.). 

-to 8to-6z (m. sometimes in poetry f.) : the other cases do 

not contain -ec- (which is seen in senec-tus, seneclo^ &c.) * 
JUvSn-is (m. f.). 

-Cn All masculine, except abstract substantives in -15n, which 450 

are all feminine, even when used with concrete meaning. 

fig94io (m.) ; ftqullo (m.) ; bfixo (m.) ; bilbo (m. once 
fem.) ; btlfo (m.) ; caupo (m.) ; cento (m.) ; cfldOn-e (m. 
only in the abl. case) ; leo (m.) ; Ugo (m.) ; mango (m) ; 
mflcro (m.) ; Opillo or upillo (m.) ; p&pUio (m.) ; prsddo 
(m.) ; pugio (m.) ; sermo (m.) ; stellio (m.) ; vesper- 
tilio (m.); titio (m.); and others. 

C&plto (m.) ; and other descriptive names of persons. 

temlo (m.) ; senio (m.) ; and other names of numbers. 
. Anio (also stem in -en with nom. Anl6n). 

conuntlnio (f.) ; perduellio (f.) ; rdglo (f.) ; ISgio (f.^ ; 
Opinio (f.) ; dicion-em (f. ace. also in gen. and abl. sing.) ; 
and other derivatives from adjectives and present stem of 

lectio (f); 6r&Uo (f.); canatio (f^; sorbltio (f.); 
n&tio (f.) ; and many other derivatives from supine stem 
of verbs. 



[Book 11. 

Examples of declension of nouns witb -n stems. 



Ace. i 
Dat. I 

tlbicdn ] 



Compare § 428. 







homin-S leglon-S 

agmlxi-& homln-SB legl5xL-§8 

agmln-um homln-iim l6gl5xL-iun 

tlbicln-Ibils aiimin-IblLB homXn-IblUi leglOn-IbilB 

3. Stems ending in -1, -r, -s. 

Stems ending in -1, -r, -s are used as the nominative singulai 452 
without addition or change, except that some neuters change te 
into Us, and others change Or into tr, Os into Us. 

(a) Stems in -1. 









bSI (m. sometimes in sing, n., no gen. pi.); Hannibal; 
Adherbal; 6c c. 

consul (m.); exol (m. f.); prsasnl (m. f.). 

vigil (m. sometimes f.); pervlgll (adj.); pligll (adj.); 
mflgll (m. also mtlgUis). The ablat. sing, when it occurs 
(as in YlgU and pervlgU) b in -1 (cf. § 424). 

sflpellectU- (nom. s. sUpellez, f., no plural; abl. s. in i 
frequently) ; sil (n.). 

851 (m. no gen. pi.). 

£61 (n.) ; m61 (n.). Both drop the second 1 in the nonu 
sing., and in plural have only nom. ace. 

Stems in -r. (Some are properly in -s: cf. § 183.) 

LSr (m.) ; bacc&r (n.) ; jubftr (n.) ; instftr (n. only in nom. 
ace. sing.) ; pSx (m. f.) ; compSx (m. f,, as adjectives the 
last two have -i stems). 

eequor (n.) ; marmor (n.). 


Chap. XI^ Declension of Consonant Steins. 157 

Four neuters change -or- to -ur- for nominative and ac- 
cusative cases; Cbur (n.); fiSmur (n., in other cases stems 
femdr- and femSn-, § 449, are alike used); J8cur (n., in 
other cases stems jficdr-, jdcinSr-, are alike used, and more 
rarely j6cln6r-) ; rSbur^n., probably once had stem in -a; 
comp. robus-tus; and Cato probably wrote in one place 

'fa augur (m. f., once had stem in -s; cf. augus-tus); furfur 

(m.); Lfimtires (m. pL); turtur (m. f.); Tultur (m.); 
dcur (adj.). 

fulgur (n.); guttur (n. rarely m.); murmur (n.); 
BUlXtur (n.). So Anxur (n. m. § 324), Tlbur (a). 

-«r ftclpenser (m.) ; agger (m.) ; anser (m. rarely f.) ;. asser 455 

Tm.); career (m.); Cfildres (m, pi.); later (m.); laver 
(f.) ; Muldber (m. also Mulciberl in gen. s.) ; mtilier (t.) ; 
Opiter (m.); passer (m.); prdcSres (m. pi., sing, rare); 
tUber (also with stem in -ur), a kind of fruit-tree (f.?); 
the fruit (m.) ; vesp&r-e (m. abl.; otherwise with -0 stem) ; 
YOmer (m. sometimes in nom. vSmls). 

dSgener (adj. abl. always in -i) ; pauper (adj.) ; fiber 
(adj. abl. almost always in -'i^^ fruitful, 

ftcfir (n.); c&d9.ver (n.); cicer (n.); gibber (Plin. n.?); 
Iter (n. rare except in nom. ace. sing.) ; itlner (n. rare in 
nom. ace. sing.); JUgdra (n. pi; in sing, has stem in -0); 
p&p&ver (n. also in Plaut. m.); piper (n.); slier (n.); 
siser (n.); sflber (n.); tflber (n.), (i) a hump, (2) a 
moril; Hber (n.), a teatjvetb^TSi. ( also abl. sing. 
verbfire, and rarely gen. s. verbfiris). 

-to (-r) p&ter (m.) ; m&ter (f.) ; frftter (m.) ; aodplter (m.) ; all 
omit e before r in all cases except nom. sing. 

-arr far (n., in plur. only nom. ace). 

-6r All, except three, masculine. 456 

dlor (m.) ; s6ror (f.) ; uxor (f.) ; ftdor (n. also quoted with 
stem in -6r) ; prim5r-em (ace. m., nom. sing, not found). 
ardor (m.); ddlor (m.); ftmor (m.); cruor (m.); ful- 
gor (m.) ; and other verbals from present stem. 

actor (m.); auctor (m. f.); &m&tor (m.); auditor (m.); 
censor (m.) ; and other verbals from supine stems. For 
adjectives m comparative degree see § 460. 

Slave names; e.g. Marclpor, i.e. Marcus^ slave (por= 
puer, old pover), Luclpor, Publipor, Qulntipor, &c. were 
disused in Quintilian's time. 

158 Inflexions. [Book IL ' 

-ttr far (m.). 

-€r v6r (n.). 

-cr TdlUcris (f. Cf. § 430). 

(y) Stems in -s. 457 

All except vas, os {a bone), mensls, change 8 into r before a 
vowel; i.e. in all cases except nom. sing. 

-Os (-Or) All neuter, except lOpus and arbos. ^^g 

corpus (n.); dOcus (n.); dSdOcus (n.^; fiUdnus (n., also 
stem fieudnOr-) ; tSnus (n.) ; firlgus (n.) ; Utus (n.) ; nOmus 
(n.) ; pectus (n.) ; pOcus (n. See sdso § 395) ; pOnus (n., 
more usually f. with stem in -u; see § 398); plgnus (n., 
also stem plgnOr-) ; stercus (n.) ; tempos (n., but tempOrl 
is the best attested spelling for the locative) ; tergus (n.). 

lOpils (m.); ajrMs (f. also arMr). 
tonus (indecl.), stretch} used as adverb. 

-ils (-Or) nom. sing, -ns; other cases, -Or. Originally -Os, § 213. 5. 

&CUS (n.) ; foadus (n.) ; fOnus (n.) ; gOnus (n.) ; fi^5mns 
(n.) ; jtlgOrum (n. gen. pi. and jugeribus dat. abl. pi.; tlie 
other cases from an -0 stem); l&tus (n.); mlinus (n. in 
nom. ace. pi. both munera and munia); hOlus (n.); Onus 
(n.) ; Opus (n.) ; pondus (n.) ; raudus (n.) ; rfldus (n.) ; 
sflcus (n. only nom. ace. sing.) ; scOlus (n.) ; sldus (n.) ; 
vellus (n.) ; vlscus (n.) ; ulcus (n.) ; vulnus (n.). 

VOnus (f.); vOtus (adj.). 

-Os (-Or) nom. s. -Os (gen. -Oris). ^^^ 

COrOs (f.); pflbes (adj.); Impilbes (adj., oftener iznpll- 
bis, neut. imptlbe). 

-Is (-Or) cinis (m. rarely f.); ciiciimis (m., also with stem cucumi- 
§ 4 1 a); pulvis (m. rarely f., also pulvis). In oblique 
cases -is becomes -er; e.g. pulvis, pulvOrem (§ 184. 3). 

-is y&s (n., plural vS^d., vasOrum, vasis, from stem in -0, of 

which the singular is found in early writers), a vessel; 
fas (n.), nefas (n., both only in nom. ace. sing.). 

-OSS Os (n. See also § 398), a bone; exOs (adj. once in Lucr.). 

-Os (-Or) All masculine except Os, a mouth, ^^ 

lOpOs (m.); hOnOs (also hOnOr); l&bOs (more frequently 
l&bOr; once in Verg. l&bOr); cOlOs (also cOlor); p&vOs 

Chap, XL\ Declension of Consonant Stems. 


(usually pav6r); ddSs (also 6d6r); rOmdr (cf. rumus- 
cnlns); fids (m.); mSs (m.); rOs (m.); 5s (n., no gen. 
pi., dat. and abl. rare). 

Adjectives of the comparative degree; e.g. m61i6r (m. 
f^, menus (n.); dOriOr (m. f.), dariiis (n.); &c. have 
ablat. sing, rarely in -i. Instances of the neuter also in 
-or are found in writers of the seventh century u.c; e.g. 
prior, posterior bellum in Valerius Ant., Claudius Quad. 

-iUi(-i&r) Ml{Ui(f.). 

crOs (n.) ; jtls (n., gen. dat. abl. pi. very rare) ; ptls (n.) ; 
rtUi (n.); ttls (n.): (the last three have in plural only 
nom. and ace). 

-8B8 (-»r) as (n.; the gen. dat. abl. plural are very rare). 

-ens mensis (m.); menslum and mensuum genitive pi. are 

sometimes found in MSS. but mensum usually. 

Examples of declension of stems in -1, -r, and -s. 


Compare § 

\ 433. 









m6U6r (m. f.) 
meliiis (n.^ 
meliOr-em (m.f.) 

or honOr 






melius (n.) 











Loc. ) 
Abl. J 





(rarely mellori) 


Nom. ) 
Ace. J 



meliSr-§s (m.f.) 


meliOr-^ (n.) 






Dat. \ 

Loc. \ 





Abl. 1 



[Book IL 






Nom. I 
Ace. ] 






6pil8 - 




Loc. ) 
Abl. ] 





(cf. § 434; 

Non*. ) 
Ace. ] 






Dat. ' 
Loc. > 
Abl. . 







Singular Number. 

Accusative. On the omission of the final m see § 86. Its 46* 
omission in writing was gradually given up during the 6th century 

Genitive. On the omission of the final g see § 193. 5. Cicero, 
in his poems, and Lucretius appear to be the last who made use of 
this omission. 

I. Stems in -u. Four endings, besides the regular -fUi, are 463 
mentioned, viz.: 

{a) -UO8, e. g. Senatuos four times in the S, C de Baccanalibus, 
Augustus is said to have written domos. Ritschl conjectures domnos. 

(fi) -His, the uncontracted ending is mentioned as used by seve- 
ral writers; e.g. senatuls (Sisenna); anuls (Ter. Varr.); partols, 
Cructuls, domuls, victuis, graduis, rituis (Varr.). Gellius (4, 16) 
believed that Varro and Nigidius Figulus wrote so always. 

Chap, X/L] Old forms of Cases (Nouns of Class II,). 1 6 1 

(r) -uns as found in MSS. (e.g. of Pliny the elder) was pro- 
bably merely so written to denote the length of the fL It is found 
also in the nom. ace. plur. 

(d) -1, see §399. 

a. Stems in -t Partus is found on the Bantine bronze a.u.c. 464 

3* Consonant stems. An ending in -us is found in some in- 
scriptians, but rarely later than 100 b.c.; e.g. Castonu, Venerus, 
Cerems, Honorus, Casarus, patrua, nominus, hominus, pnevari- 

An ending -es is found in Salutes, Apolones (before the and 
Punic war), and Ceres. 

Dative. Consonant and -1 stems, -e is found in inscriptions 465 
chiefly before the end of the sixth century u.C; (a) e.g. Junone, 
autre, salute, Biove; also in one -i stem marte. It appears to have 
been retained in some phrases; e.g. solvendo sore alieno; Jure dlcundo, 
even in Livy and Suetonius. 

(Jf) -el in prae- Augustan inscriptions; e.g. Apolenei, legel, here- 
del, IMovel, Hercolel, &c. The only instances from -1 stems seem 
to be fraudei, martei, urbel. 

Both -el and -e appear in the oldest inscriptions; 1 not till the 
time of the Gracchi. Corssen with others holds -el to be the 
CNiginal dative suffix, -1 the locative. 

Ablative, i. Stems in -u and sterns in -1. The ablative 466 
probably ended in -tld and -Id (older -ed). BuC no certain instances 
occur in inscriptions except navaled, marid in the Duillian in- 

In one or two instances we have uu to denote long u; e.g. 
pequlatnu, arbltratuu. 

From -1 stems we have, in prae-Augustan inscriptions, both -el 
and -1; e.g. parte!, parti; fontel, omnel, sort!. 

a. Consonant stems. In these it ended in early times in -e and 467 
-id. Thus in very old inscriptions we have airid and aire; patre, 
nominid. In the Duillian inscr. also -ed; e.g. dictatored. (But 
the copy which we have is post-Augustan, and, as Ritschl thinks, 
not even a faithful copy of the original.) In the S. C, de Bacc. 
is ooTBiLtloiild. (No later examples.) Hence the ablative occa- 
sionally appears with i, the d having fallen off; e.g. dedltionl, per- 

1 62 Inflexions. [Book If. 

tlonl (praR- August inscrip.) ; canU, YftaArl, onmi (Plaut) ; mttoni, 
xnucxoni (Lucr. in eliaon), ^c. But since the time pf the Gracchi 
the ablative in -d is much the most common even in inscriptionB. 

Plural Number. 

Nominative and Accusative, i. -una sometimes in in-^468 
scriptions and MSS. for-Os (see Detlefeen's edition of Pliny, KN,). 

2. Consonant stems. A few instances are found in MSS. of the 
ending -ia. 

Genitive, t. Stems in -u. The contraction of -uwn is rare; 469 
but comun (Verg.), passum (Lucil. Mart) are found; exerdtnin 
in Mon. Ancyr., maiglstratiim (Liv. C(?^/. Feron.). 

2, Consonant stems, Varro speaks of old forms bovemm, Jc- , 
yexum for bourn, Jovum; and Charisius speaks of the annalist 
Caelius having used nucerum, and Gellius, the historian, regemm, 
lapidenun, (i^om nuz, rex, lapis). Possibly such forms are due to 
a collateral stem in -Is (-6r) ; as in cacumis, §§ 405, 459 ; bus gen. 
sing., sufir-is (Plant.). But they may arise from the simple addition 
of -11m to the gen. sing.; e.g. nuds-um would become nncemm. 
Compare famillas sing., familiamm plural. 


Dative and Ablative. The final s was (Knitted or not 470 
pronounced in early poetry before a word beginning with a con-. 

The early form was in -ebns; e.g. tempestatebus. 



Greek nouns in the prae- Augustan period generally received 471 
slight changes, especially of vowels, to adjust them to the Latin 
usage. These forms were generally retained by the prose writers, 
but the Augustan poets, especially Propertius, Ovid and (later) 

Chap. XIII,'\ Greek Nouns, Class I. 163 

Statius, often introduced the Greek forms instead ; and many words 
not in common use are found in the Greek form only^ 

i. Stems in -a. 

The Greek nouns corresponding to the Latin -a stems, ended in 47-« 
the nom. sing, as follows: masc. -as (-&»), fem. -d (-1), after a vowel 
or r: otherwise, masc. -17s (-58), fem. -ij (-€). If Latinized all 
become simply -&. 

In oblique cases the Greek declension has (usually) -ft, -§ in the 473 
vocative, -fin, -9n in the accusative singular. But the Latin voca- 
tive in -& and ace. in -am (or -em, from Greek gentile names) are 
often found even when the nominative retains the Greek form. 
Stems in -tea had vocative (Greek, as well as Latin) -tft, e. g. Thy- 
Mta; also-t€, e.g. Bo6t3. Patronymics in -des had vocative -de, 
e.g. T^dS, JE&(flde, AlddS; sometiipes -dfi, e.g. JE&dLdfi, Cecrdpldft 
(Ovid), AncMHlftdft (Verg.); accusative always -dSn, e.g. Laertia- 
dfitt, PiUden. So also feminine nouns with nom. s. in -S; e.g. Cir- 
oBn, SrlSnSn. 

The genitive, dative, and locative almost always take the Latin 
form -«. But Propertius, Ovid and later poets usually make the 
genitive in -es from nominatives in -8. So ^so Quintilian in names 
like musics. A dative in -S is rarely found except in some (not 
early) inscriptions, e. g. BseblsB Phcsbe ; Julia Stratonice, &c. 

The ablative of. stems in -Ss and -8 is usually -e. 

The plural is almost always in the Latin form. (Names of 474 
peoples &c. often have -um for -amm. See § 364.) 

The following examples will serve to show the variety in the 475 
nominative case singular. 

I. Greek nouns in -ay (-fta), or -lyy (-Ss). Masculine, 

(a) jippellatives, B^cdphanta, pMta, .nauta, pir&ta always. 
Simuany athlSta, Mbllopfila, propOla, (fltharlBta, and in Plant, 
trapestfta (rpcmc^irris) ; danista (dai/cion/f ). In Cicero, anaisnoBtes, 
geOmetres, sophistes. Later djmastes, choranles, allptes, comdtes, 
pycteg, tetrarches, pyrites, &c. So satr&pes (ace. usually satr&pam). 

* "Nunc recentiores instituerunt, graecis nominibus grsecas declina- 
tiones potius dare, quod tamen ipsum non semper fieri potest. Mihi 
autem placet rationem latinam sequi, qnousque patitur decor/' 
Quintilian (i. 5. 63). 

1G4 Inflexions. 

(If) Gentile names. Pena (Plaut), Penes (Cic.) ; Soytlies (Cic. 
Hor.), Scytha (Lucan). In Cicero AbdSrItes, Orotonlfttes, EpMteik 

(c) Names of men. Hermla (Cic), Mlda (Ter.), Moraya (Hor. 
Ov.), Faus&nla (Cic), Phadrla (Ten), Penllcca (Curt.), iBita 
(Ov.), Prnsia (Cic. Liv.). On the other hand Arcbias, Amyntas. 
(Cic.) ; Pnutas (Liv.) ; JBneas, &c. 

AncblBes, Ach&tes, Tbyestes. Patronymics rarely have -A. Thus 
HSradldes, Alddes, AsclSpi&des, PeUdes. But Atxid& is found (Hor. 
Ov.). Lucretius has two patronymics from Latin names: MemmUU 
d» (dat. sing.), son of Memmiiu; Sdpi&das (nom. s.; . Sctpladani 
ace. s. Hor.; ScipiadsB gen. s., Prop., Hor.; Sdpiadas ace. pi., Verg.), 
son of Scipio. 

2. Greek nouns in -a (-ft) or tf (-5). Feminine, 476 

(a) Appellatives. ApOtli6c&, aiil&, 1}11}llotli6c&, tragcedlA, oomiB- 
dl&, prOr&, ni&clUBr&, purptlrft {iropffivpa), ancdrft (ayKvpa), iiaiiae& 
(uava-ia), eplsttUa (cVtorroXiy), BCflsna ((riajinj), always. In Cicero, 
graminatic&, dlalecticft, rliet0rlc&, infL8ic&: in Qiiintilian graia- 
maticd, &c. 

(b) Names of places. JEtn&, Gret&, lAhyk, Spart&, Id&, Itbftcft, 
Sec, but in Ovid usually JEtnS, CretS, &c. Thess&lonXca (Cic.) ; 
Thessalonice (Liv. Plin.). Always Cyr6n6, MeroS. 

(r) Names of fwomen. For *A\KfirjvT} Alcuin6na (PlauL), ille- 
mSna (Cic), AlcmSne (Ovid). In Cicero, Varro, &c., Andr6mftcha, 
AntlOpa, EorOpa, H6c&ta, HSlSna, Sdmfila, $cc. In poets usually 
Androm&chS, &c. But nsnnplia (Cat. Verg. Ov,), nsanphS (Ov.). 
Always BdrdnXce, Hebe, Daphne, Fersdplidne, Fhcsbe, BhOdOpe, 
ThUle, TUAphOne, &c. 

ii. Stems in -0. 4 

The -o stems in Greek had -oy (-da) in nom., -ov (-to) in accus. 
(and neuter nominative) singular. The Latin form (-um) for the 
accus. is often found, even when a Latinized nominative (-tUi, 
sometimes -er for -firus) is not found. The other cases rarely re- 
ceived any other than a Latin form. 

The following are instances of the usage: 

Singular, i. Appellatives (Feminine), e.g. methddus, peri 
due, atfimus, antidOtus, dialectus, always. So trlmetms or trlxr 
ter; tetramStrus, or tetrameter; on the other hand dlametros (a 
diamGtrus), perimdtros, barbltos (m. and f); phasSlos, a o: 
fasSluB, a bcat^ a bran. 

Chap, XIII!\ Greek Nouns, Class I. 165 

a. Names of plants^ &c., e.g. acantlms (m.), asp&rftgus (m.), 
asphOdaus (m.), hyacinthus (m.), helldbdrus (m. more frequently 
liellSbOram, n.), papyrus (f.), &c. But 15td8 (f.), aspalftthOs, &r. 
Precious stones (mostly feminine), ametliystus (f.), zmaragdus (m.), 
eleetnun (n.), topazos (f.), &c. Animals^ arctos (f.) ; scorpios or 
Bcorpius (m.), camelus (m. f.), &c. 

3. Names of tofivns and islands (feminine), e.g. Ab^dus, Cor- 
Intlius, LampB&cus, P&plius, Cjh^rus, RhOdus, TdnSdus, ^Irus, &c. 
The forms in -os (-01/) in the poets chiefly. Always Agsrptus, but 
(nom.) ImliroB, Lexnnos, DSlos, S&mos, Sestos, Tsrros, &c. 

Names of rivers and mountains (masculine), P9n6us, Caystrus, 
Maander, PamaBsas, &c. Also FenSos, &c. Usually Fellon (n.) 
and nom. Olympus (m.), Cauc&sus (m.), ace. Olsnnpiim, Caucasum. 

4. Names of men. Usually Latinized, especially those in -/joy 
(-nu), preceded by a consonant; e.g. Teucer, Mdleager, rarely Me- 
laagros, Antip&ter, Alexander, Menander, sometimes Menandros, 
Bfander, sometimes Evandrus. So we have as accusatives Dald&lon, 
OsypliTiiii, &c. 

The genitive is sometimes in -u; e.g. Menandra, Apollodoru. 

FanthfLs, voc Fantlm is a contracted form (jlavBoost HavBoi). 

Greek words in -fcoy (-eOs), are either completely Latinized ; 
e.g. TyndardtiB, FSndldlis, or sometimes have nom. -6s, ace. -(Jn or 
-0, e.g. AndrOgeos (gen. Andrdgeo, and AndrOgei in Vergil). 

So also a few names of places, viz.: Athos, CeoB, ace. AthOn 
(Cat Ov. Verg.), Atho (Liv. Plin.),.Ceo (Cic). Coos (Mela), Cdfts 
(Liv.) for Kooiy, KoJy, has ace. Coum (Plin. Tac), abl. Coo (Cic. 

For some stems in eu- (eu-) see § 48a. 

Plural. The Nominative rarely in -oe; e.g. Adelphoe (Ter,), 479 
eanfiphdrcs, arctoa, coBxnoe (Cic), Soloe, lotoe (Plin.). The Greek 
genitive in -<ov (-5n) is found sometimes with liber as the name of a 
bodk; e.g. Vergil's BfLcdUcon, Qeorgicon; Manilius' ABtronOmlcon; 
rarely otherwise; e.g. Colonia Theraon, for Tberaeonun (Sail.), 

On the genitive in -um, e.g. Pelasgum, Grajum, see § 365. 

1 66 Inflexions. [Book II, 



Greek nouns of this class, as of the first class, fiiequently retain 480 
such of their Greek inflexions as are not very dissimilar to the Latin 
inflexions. Plautus, Terence and Cicero for the most part Latinize 
the inflexions. Propertius, Ovid and the post-Augustan poets very 
frequently retain the Greek vowels and -n (for -m) of the ace. sing, 
and short pronunciation of the final syllables. Intermediate between 
these two parties stand Veigil and Horace, who with Com. Nepos, 
Pliny and other post- Augustan prose writers share the same ten- 
dency as Ovid, but use many of the Latin forms. The Greek 
forms in all writers are much more frequent in proper names than in 

I. Stems in -0, -eu, -y, 48* 

-o {a) Masculine, nom. in -Ob; ace. -6em or (poet) -(HI; 

gen. -518; dat. -OL Plural nom. -568 ; ace. -O&s; gen. 
-Sum; dat. abl. -0ibii8?(-5l8ixi cmce in Ovid). 

e.g. liSros, Minos. 

(b) Feminine. All, cases in -o, except gen. -tte. Ovid 
occasionally has accusative in -on. The early poets (En- 
nius, Pacuvius, Accius, and once Plautus), treated them 
as having stems in -5n (e.g. DidOnem, &c.). So also the 
late writers, e.g. Servius, Macrobius. 

e.g. Allecto, Argo, Calllsto, C&lypso, Dido, Echo, HSro, 
lo, Ino, Manto, Tbeftno, Sappho. 

-en Masculine, Nom. -Slls; voc. -611; ace. -eum or (poet.) 482 

6a^; gen. -el or (poet.) -eOs; dat. abl. -eo. The poets 
(e.g. Verg. Ov. Prop.), often treat -el, -eo as one syllable 
(see § 232). 

^ Cicero in a letter to Atticus (6. 9. § i) had used the expression 
*'1\\ Pirseea cum exissem," and, Atticus having commented on it, Cicero 
replies (7. 3. § 10), ** Venio ad 'Piraeea,* in quo magis reprehendendus 
sum, quod homo Romanus * Piraeea' scripserim, non 'Piraeum,* sic 
enim omnes nostri locuti sunt, quam quod * in ' addiderim." 

Chap. XIV.] Greek Nouns. Class IT. 167 

e.g. Atreus, Oepliens, Ereditlieiui, Kntotheus, NSrens, 
OxTlieiui, P61eii8, Peraens, Fr6m9tlien8, Piraeus, FrOteus, 
firen8, TliSsem, l^ypl^oeoSi Tynd&rens, &c. For metre's 
sake we have in ace. IdOmdneft, HldnSa (Verg.), C&p&nS& 

The plural is rarely found; e. g. accus. Megareos 

(QH^^^*)> ^Uno^ or PUnSas (Mart). 

The name of the Macedonian king Perseus had an e- 
stem used in Cicero, and an -en stem used in Livy. 
Other Moiters generally follow Livy. Thus in Cicero, 
nom. Penes ; ace. Peisen, rarely Persem ; gen. dat. Persas ; 
abl. Pena. In Livy, nom. Perseus; ace. .Perseum and 
Persea; gen. Persei; dat abl. Perseo. 

In Horace are found Achinei, UllzO. 

The Greek d/i6opevf (m.), is in Lat always amphOra 


-y Nom. -ys Voc. -y (in poets) ; ace. -3m or *ym ; gen. -3rls 483 

or -yoB; dat -3rl; abL -ye. 

e.g. chSljhi (f.), Cotsrs (m.), Exlnys (f.), H&lys (m.), 
Phorcys (f.), *r9«byB (f. dat T^tbj^ once Catul.). 

a. Stems in -e and -i. a^a 

^ (a) Masculine. Nom. s. -Bs^. Ace. -em or more fre- 

quently (especially in post- Augustan writers), in -Sn. 
Gen. usually in -1*, sometimes -Is. Abl. in -S, rarely -6. 
In plural these stems are often treated as if they ended 
in -a'. 

•ee e.g. Pliarnftoes. 

-elM e.g. L&dies. 

-te e. g. Aoestes, Abh&tes, BMtes, Enphrfttes, HIpp6or&te8, Iphl- 

cr&tes, Isdcr&tes, UfUiridates, Orestes, Phradtes, POlj^cr&tes, 
Bdcrfttes, Tbyestes, Tlrldfttes, TImder&tes, ZfinAcr&tes, &c. 

A genitive in -se is occasionally found in the poets; 
e.g. Antlpli&tn, Bootn, Oresta, Thyests. 

^ These stems properly end in 'O^^ or '^%\ e.g. Sw/cpaTfy, 7^yos. 
The final s, which is changed to r in Latin (§ 183 b\ is omitted in 

* In Greek inscriptions such forms as* liUKpdrov, KaWiKparoVf KaX* 
Xta$iwov, &a, (instead of 2wK/»(irov$, &c ), occur, even in Attic. 

* Forms like 2w^drai, IIpot^trAac, &c occur in Greek since Plu- 

i68 Inflexions. [BooklL 

-de e.g. AloIU&des, Aristldes, Gazne&des, DUmSdes, EmfpIdMi, 

a&nj^edAS, Hypdrldes, Milti&dM, Pftlftm6de8, PazmtaXdes, 
Simonldes, Thtlcj^dldes, Proper patronymics belong to 
the first class, § 475. 

-ne e.g. Art&phemes, GUsthfinefl, Demostli&ies, IMog§iiM, 


-le e.g. Achilles (see §482), ArlstOteles, Hercftles, Fraidtfilei, 

Thales (see § 494); Ag&tli6cles, Empddddes, ThfimlstObles, 

A few instances of ace. in -& are found from stems in 
-ole, e.g. Pdrldea, Str&tdclea (Quintil.) ; PytliSclea, SdpliS- 
<flea (Sen.) ; Eteocie& (Stat). 

*Be (*ze) e.g. Ootarzes, Oazes, Ulizes (see § 482), Xerxes, VologSses 
(some cases of a stem in -0 are found from the last-named). 

()3) Neuters. Nom. ace. sing. -6s or -tlB, Nom. ace. 48s 
pi. -6 (no other cases), e.g. cStOs, mdlOs, pfiUirfts; Temps 
(plur. only). Pel&sos (n.), and cetus (m.), are also used 
with -o stems. So also drdbum (ace), erebi, (gen.), erebo ; 
cliao (dat.), c&cOSthes (adj. n.). 

-1 (a) Feniinine (chiefly, except names of rivers). Nom. 48^ 

in -l8. Ace. in -im or -In, abl. -1. 

Appellatives: e.g. I>&si8 (ace. also in -em), cannftUs, 
phthisis, p&r&l^sls, pOSsis, prlstls, tlgris {also with stem 
in -Id). 

Names of Persons, e.g. Sesostris (m.), Mephitis (f.), 
Alcestis (f.). * 

Names of Places, e.g. Amphipdlis, Ne&pdlis, &c.; 
Gh&ryt)diB, Hisp&lis, Leptis, Memphis, Sj^h&ris, &c., also 
the plurals Oadls, Sardls, Syrtis, Trains. 

Names of Rivers. Masculine. e.g. Albis, BsBtils (abl. 
also in -6), LigSris, Liris, Tamteis, T&nais, Tigris (see also 
§ 501), TIb&iB; Vesdris, Visurgis. 

A gen. pi. in -On occurs in the word mdt&morphoseOn as 
part of the title of Ovid's work. 

(/3) Neuter. Nom. in -i. Capp&ri, gmmni (or cnmmi), 4^7 
slxi&pi, &c. These three are also found with nom. in -is, 
ace. in -Im. 

3. Consonant stems. 

The Greek forms are: Singular gen. -Cs (Lat. -Is); ace. -8:488 
(Lat. -em); Plural nom. -6s (Lat. -Ss). Other differences apply 
only to particular stems. 

Chap. XT v.] Greek Nouns. Class 11, 169 

(a) LaiiaJ stems: 489 

4lp e. g. LsBlaps (m.). 

^ e.g. £tlilopB (m.), PeiopB (m.). 

-«P e.g. Cyclops (m.). 

'Sph e.g. gryps (m. In plur. alsogrypM, gryphomm, gryphia). 

-ftb e.g. Arabs (m., also nom. Ar&bus; abl. Ar&M). 

-yb e. g. caiftlybs (m.). 

(^) Guttural stems: 490 

tAc e.g. antlirax (f.), Cdraz (m.). 

-te e.g. Capp&dox (some cases from stems in -0 in post- 

Augustan writers). 

-fc e.g. Bryx (m. ace. Erycnm; abl. Eryco Cic. Tac). 

ifc e.g. choeniz (f.), CIllx (adj.), hsrstrix (f.). 

•fto e.g. tbOraz (m.), AJax (m.), Tbraz (m.), Phsdaz (m.). 

r^c e.g. Ceyz (m.), bombyx (m.). 

-fth, e. g. Onyx (m. f.), sardOxiyx (f.). 49« 

-nc e. g. lynx (f. rarely m.). 

-tg e. g. Pliryx (m.), Styx (f.), Upyx (m.). 

-y« e. g. coccyx (m.). 

-ng e.g. Spbinx (f.), syrinx (f.), ph&Ianx (f.). 

(f) Dental stems: (a) rtems in -t. 452 

-&t (i) Neuter. Nom. s. in -ft: Plural nom. in -tft; gen, 

in -tOmm ; dat abl. in -tis, sometimes in -tXbos. 

e.g. diploma, emblQma, dplgramma, pftrftpdgma, pdrl- 
strOma, plasma, p6Sma, prOblSma, tOrenma. The early 
scenic poets and Sueton. treated schema as having an -a 
stem with short penult (but Naevius has scbSm&td) : Varro 
is said to have used schSm&sin as the dat plur. In 
Plautus glaucilmam (ace.) for y\avK<a}ia (n.). 

(2) Neuter. Nom. s. in -&s; e.g. artdcreas, bUcfeas, 

-It Nom. s. in Is; e.g. Chftris (f.). ^^3 

Neuter. Nom. s. in -I; e.g. oxjhndli, bydrOmUl. 

-Ot Nom. s. in -5s; e.g. iBgOcdros (m.), rblnOcfiros (m.), 494 

Eros (m.). 

-•t Nom. s. in -5s; e.g. ISbes (m.), magnes (m.) ; Cr6s, D&res, 

Tbftles, ChrtoiQs, PbllOl&clies, &c. The last thx^!^ Va^^ 

1 70 Inflexions. [Saifk If. 

I - I II 

also forms as from -1 stems; e.g« TUSlett, TbftU, Tbftle 
(§ 484. It has vowel, not dental, stem in Herodotus 
and Attic Greek). 

•6tli Nom. s. in -ta; e.g. Fsmei. 

-ant Nom. & in -as, rarely in -ana; ace. in -anta, often in 495 

poets; vocative sometimes in -&; e.g. Calchft, Pallft. 

e.g. Mftmaa (m.), gigaa (m.), il4i»]iaa (m. the other 
cases most frequently formed as from a stem in -ante) ; 
Atlas (m.), Calchas (m.), COrj^bantes (m. plur.), Pallas 
(m.), Tlioas (m.). 

For the Greek forms Aarftgas (m.), Tftxas (m.) in prose 
we have regular -o stems; e.g. Agrlgentum, T&rentum. 

-ont Nom. s. in -On. All masculine. 496 

e. g. hOxXion, Bcasoo, Anaoreon, AntdmMon, Chfiren^ 
FhaHhon, dr&co, chftmaleon, Greon, Antiphon, XSnOplion. 

The last three words, and others ending in -phont, 
have in Plautus and Terence and sometimes in Cicero 
stems in -phOn, nom. •^pbo, only; e.g. OtMXpho, ace. 
CtesiphOnem, &c. 

-unt Nom. s. in -ns. 497 

e.g. FesBlniis (m.), SitBsiis (f.), Trftpezus (f.). For 
SiTToOf Cicero has S^ontum; Lucan and Silius SlpfU 
(m.); so in Livy and Pliny, Bydruntum (*Ydpovy). 
Achemns (Plant, Lucr.), Acberon (Cic. Sec), 

-ent Nom. s. in -is; e.g. SImoIs. 

-ynth Nom. s. in -ns; e.g. TfxynB 

(P) Stenu in -d. 

In nom. sbg. -d gives place to «8. . 

-S4 Nom. s. in -&s. All feminine; e.g. helMlOmas, lampas 

(ace. s. generally lamp&da) ; Pallas (dat. s. PaU&dX once) ; 
Areas, C^clas, Drj^, Hftm&dryas, Bj^, Ulas, Mssnas, 
KOmas, (tarSas, Fleias, Thsras. 

A few instances of gen. pi. in -fln occur; e.g. helMlO- 
m&don, Arc&don (Varr.); and of dat pi. in -&sln; e.g. 
E&madrj^&sln, &c. (Prop.) ; TrO&sin, Lemni&sin (Ovid). 

-Od Nom. s. in -Os; e.g. trlpOs (m.), dftsj^ns; Melampns^ 499 

m. (voc. Melampu, once in Stat). From (Edipus (m.) 
the following forms are found, cniefly in Seneca (Trag.) 
and Statius: nom. -Us, -Odes; voc. •*; ace. -tun (Cic), 
-6da? -ddem, -6den; gen. -6dis (Cic, Stat.), -Oda (Sen., 
Stat); dat -Od»; abl. -Ode (Cic), -Odft. 

Chap, X/K] Greek Nouns. Qass IL ifi 

^td Nom. s. in -^b; voc. in - j^ in poets; e.g. cbl&mys (f.), 

pCUmys (f.), Iftpys. 


-Id Nom. s, in -Is; voc» in poets (not PlauL or Ter.), fre- soo 

quently in -L Other Greek forms are frequent; dat 
sing, in I occurs once, viz. HDnSiiSl (Catul.). 

As regards the ace. s. these stems fall into two elates: 

(i) Ace. s. in -Idem in prose and prae- Augustan poets; 
in -Idft in post- Augustan poets. All feminine. 

Appellatives: e.g. agis, aspis, canth&rlB, endrdmls, 
Splifimerls, hSrfiis, pdriscOis, prdbosds, pj^rSinis, pyzis, 
tjhraimls (ace. s. in -ld& once in Cicero). 

Names of persons: e.g. Am&ryms, Bacobis, Clirysls, 
D5ri8, Lftis, Lj^cdrls, Pliyllis, Tliftls. 

Patronymics, &c. : e. g. BrlsSls, CadmSls, CkdcMs, OnOsls, 
mOnOis, Frl&meis, SalmOnis, nt&nls. 

Names of countries: e.g. Anils, dialds, Locris, Fends, 

(2) Ace. s. in -Im or, sometimes, esp. in Augustan sox 
and post-Augustan poets, -in. So all masculines and 
some feminines. An abl. or dat. s. in -I is found in some; 
e.g. Eupdll, Oslrl, Fh&l&ri, TbStl, Semlr&mt 

Appellatives: e.g. Ibis (f., also in plur. Ibes, Iblum), 
Iris (f.), tlgris (both river and animal, also declined as 
if with stem in -1. Dat. abl. plur. only tlgribus). 

Names of persons. Masculine; e.g. Alexis, AdOnis 
(in Plautus once ace. Adoneum), Dapbnis, Eopdlis, Nabis, 
P&rls (the last three have ace. also in -Idem), Moezls, 
Thsrrsis, zeuzis, Antlbis, Buidris, Osiris, Ser&pis. 

Feminine; e.g. Isls, S6mlr&mis, Frocris, ThStis. 

Names of countries: e.g. FhSsis (f.), FhtbiOtis (f.) 
have also ace. in -Idem or -Idft. 

-Id Nom. s. in -Is; e.g. apsis (f.), crSnis (f.). (From KpijirlS' 503 

we have only an -a stem, crdplda.) 

(^) Stems in -XL 503 

These generally retain -n in nominative (except some in -dn) ; 
ace. s. frequently in -ft; plur. in -fts. 

-ta Nonu s. usually in -dn; gen. s. sometimes in -nOs; e.g. 

cftnon (m.)» daemon (m.), gnOmon (m.), sindon (f.), 
Arlon (m.), Gorgon (f.), Menmon (nu), IzXon (m.). 

172 Inflexions. [BooJ^ IL 

Some have also nom. s. in -o; e.g. Agftmenmo (m.), 
AmpUo (m.), L&cddsBmo (f.), M&cddo (m.), Strymo (m.). 

I&Bdnl dat. sing, in Statins. 

-to e.g. FhUdpomen. 

-ftn Masculine; e.g. pasaii, Alcman, Acaman, Titan (rarely 504 

declined as with -o stem), Fan (ace. s. always P&na). 

-On Mostly masculine. 

Names of persons and things. Nom. s. usually in -o ; 505 
e.g. arrh&bo (sometimes f.), myOp&ro, isiplio, Apollo (also 
e.g. ApolUnem), L&co, Amphltruo, Drdmo, Phormio, Simo, 
Trftnlo, Bio, Hifiro, MUo, Farmenlo, Plato, Fyrrlio, Zeno. 
So also stems in -phOn, see § 496. 

But Triton, Tdl&mon, CMron. 

Names of places. Nom. s. usually in -on; e.g. CdlOphon 
(m.), Mftrftthon (f.), Mcj^on (f.), BaWon (f.), Cftlj^don (f.), 
HfiUcon (m.), Cithseron (m.), (Rilbico (m.), is not a Greek 
word). For Ancon, GrOto (m.), we have often -a stem, 
viz. AncOna, GrOtOna. 

-€n e.g. attftgen (m. Also a stem in -a, attagena) ; Siren (f.), 506 

splen (m.), TroBzen (f.). 

-In e.g. dolphin (m. usual nom. delphlnus); Eleusln (f.), 

Trftchln (f.). Rarely nom. s. in -b; e.g. BSI&mls (f.). 

(f) Stems in -8 or -r: exhibit simple stem in nominative. 507 

•&r e.g. nectar (n.). 

-Or all masculine, e.g. rhetor (m.), Amyntor, Antdnor, Castor, 

Hector, Mentor, Nestor. 

-lis (ftr) Nom, s. in -us ; e. g. Ugua. 

-6r Nom. s. in -5r; e.g. fter; (m. ace. s. usually agril, but 

aerem in Cato and Celsus); »ther (m. ace. always 

-€r e.g. ch&racter (m.), crftter (m.)acc. crfttOra (Cic). Also 

with stem in -a ; nom. s. cratdra and creterra. For pan- 
ther, stater, we have always panthSra, statOra. 

Chap. XUi] Adverbs and Conjunctions, J73 



Adverbs and Conjunctions are indeclinable woi'ds, some (»f 508 
tliem cases of existing words, others cases of lost words, others 
words with case-suffixes, different from those in conmion use in 
Latin, others mutilated remnants of fuller expressions. 

They are here arranged according to the final letter of the 
ending, which sometimes is a suffix, sometimes part of the stem 
or some modification thei^eof. 

-* Abl. sing. fem. from -6 or rather -a stems. (Cf. § iiao.) 509 

ea, in that direction; liac, lilac, and (Plaut., Ter.) 
ilia; alia; qua, quaque, quanam, qualibet; nequaquam, 
by no means; usquequaque, everyfwhere; utralibet, in 
ivbicbever direction you please. These ablatives are often 
used with tonus; e.g. eatenus, thus far ^ hactenus, qua- 
tenus, quadamtexLUs, aliquatenus. So drca, about; Juxta, 
dote; erga, towards. 

Supra (supera Lucr. often), above; Infra, below; 
extra, outside; intra, within; ultra, beyond; cltra, on this 
side; contra, against, (See § 160. 6.) So frnstra (in Plaut 
sometimes frastr&; ne frustra sis, not to deceive you)y 
in vain. 

So with prepositions, which in the ordinary language 
take an accusative; e.g. antea (antidea old), antehac 
(antidhac old), before; postea (postidea old), posthac, 
afterwards; interea, meanwhile; prsdterea, prsterhac, 
besides; propterea, therefore; quapropter, nvherefore. 
These expressions may be compared with paucis post 
diebus, &c. 

-i Appareritly accusatives plur. neut, 5»o 

Ita, thus (comp. iti-dem); quift, whereas; aliuta (in 
old law), otherwise: it stands to aliud, aliut in same 
relation as ita to id. 

-8B prsB, in front (old locative?). 

-5 Adverbs chiefly of manner (e.g. certo for certod; camp. 5" 

OVTCOS, OVTa>)» , 

(i) from substantives. 

174 Inflexions, \^Boak IL 

ergo, on account ofy therefore (Jspyai) ; extemplo, at once 
(eztempulo, diminutive of esctempore) ; nico, on the spot^ 
instantly (in loco) ; mddo, only, just noeiv (lit. in measured 
terms)\ nuinero (prae-Ciceron.), y«j/ (PI. Amph, i8o), 
quickly (Varr. K,K, 3. 16. 7), usually too soon (lit. by 
numherX)\ oppldo (prae- August.), very (lit. on the plain ^ 
cf. cViTTedcar) ; postmodo, after^iuards (cf. § 528); prasto, 
at hand; prOfecto, really (for pro facto?); propemodo (Pi. 
Ps. 276), almost {pi. § 528). 

(2) From noun adjectives and participles. 

arcano (Plaut.), secretly; assiduo (Plant.), constantly; 
certo, for a certainty; cito, quickly; contlnno, straight- 
*wiay; cxelaro^ frequently; denuo, afresh (de novo); dlrecto, 
directly, straight; talao, falsely; fortulto, hy chance; gra- 
tuito, gratuitously; liquldo, clearly; manifesto, palpably; 
merlto, deservedly; mntuo, mutually; necessarlo, necessa-- 
rily; onmino, entirely (as if from an adj. onminus) ; per- 
petuo, perpetually; precftrlo, on siifferance; rSxo, seldom; 
secrSto, secretly; sedfllo, actively; sSrlo, seriously; sero, 
laie; suMto, suddenly; supervacuo (post-Aug.), super ^ 
Jluously; tdto, safely; vero, indeed, no doubt. 

blpertXto, tripertlto, qnadrlpertito, divided into t(wo, 
three, four; improviso, unforeseen; inaugur&to, Without 
taking auspices; inoplnato, necoplnato, unexpectedly; Sec. 

(3) Ablatives of order, 

prlmo, in the first place; secundo, tertio, &c.; postremo 
nltizno, in the last place; inimo (imo, at the bottom]) at 
the least, nay rather, 

(4) Direction tonuards a place, 

•0, thither; eodem, to the same place; eousque, adeo, 
so far; qno-ad, as long as; hue (for hoc), hither; adhuc, 
hitherto; lllo, illuc (illoc Plant.), thither; isto, istuc (istoc 
Plaut); alio, elsenuhither ; quo, <ivhither; qnonam, quo- 
vis, quocumque, quoquo, quousque; allquo, somewhither ; 
dtro, to this side; vitro, further ; Intro, inwards; retro, 
backwards; utro (rare), to winch of the two sides; utro- 
que, in either direction ; neutro, in neither direction. 

j^XTO, further (noppa))', quocirca, cf. § 160. 11. 

-o-vorsus or c-vorsum, lit. turned towards; but versus and vorsum 51;? 
were used indifferently and not inflected. 

horsum, hitherwards (lio-vorsum) ; quorsus, quorsum, 
whitherwardsf istorsum, Ulorsiun (Gate ap. Fest.), 
aliorsum, allquovorsum, utroquevorsum, altrovorsuni 
(Plaut., Sec), qvoqvoversns (Gic), qvoqveversum (Cass.). 

Chap. Xy.] Adverbs and Conjunctions. lyj 

oontroYBnnu (adj.), in dispute {turned against); In- 
troniis, ^tronmni; retrmrsum, dsxtromim, BinistrorBiun. 

deonnmi, do<wnnvards; Beomun, separately (se-TOZBum, 
turned to itself^ or turned aside)\ Bunmni, uptwards; pror- 
awni, prorauB, for<uiards\ mrsuni, rursus, backivards 
again. (Susuxn, prosum, nunun (ruBsum), are forms 
also found in Plaut., Lucret., &c.) 

"Co quando, <when (quam-do) ; allqaaiulo, sometimes; quando- 5^3 

que, (whenever, some time or other; quandocnmque, fwben- 
soever; endo, also Inda, old forms of In; (comp. indupe- 
rator for Imperator, Enn., Lucr.; Indlgeo, indlpiscor, &c.). 

-d dlu, for long; Interdiu (interdiuB Cato, Plaut., cf. 514 

§ 828), in the daytime; noctQ, by night; Bimltn (also, in 
an Augustan inscription, Bimitur), at the same time; du- 
dum, a long time (for dlu-dum). 

-5 Appaiiently old forms of ablative. (Comp. feudlumed in s^s 

S. C. de Bacc) From adjectives with -o stems both posi- 
tive and superlative. 

e. g. SBgre, hardly (sdgro-) ; blande, soothingly (blando-) ; 
* eerte, surely (certo-); coiuiderate, ivith consideration 

(considerato*) ; docte, skilfully (docto-); plane, quite 
(piano-); ornate, in ornate manner (onuiito-); promlBce 
(Liv. 5. 48); recte, rightly (recto-); sane, of course 
(sftno-); valde, very (valido-); vere, truly j actually 
(vero-); &c. 

ardentlBBime, most eagerly; andadBslme, most boldly;, 
creberrime, very frequently; doctiBBlme, very skilfully; 
mazlme, especially; mlnlme, least of all; psBnlBsume 
(Plaut), very nearly; &c, 

apprlme (prae-Giceronian), exceedingly (ad-prlmo) ; fSre, 
ferme (superlative of fere?), almost. 

-$ (i) From -o stems; Wn6, qvell (bono-); male, badly 516 

(malo-) ; Infeme, below (inferno-) ; supeme, above (su- 
pemo-). Perhaps here belong tSmSre, rashly; mactS, 
blest. (Some take macte for a vocative; but it appears 
to be invariable in form, though used with a plural (cf. 
however, Plin. H. N. Ii. la), or as an oblique predicate.) 

(2) From other stems; abunde, abundantly; ante (for 
antid), before; forte, by chance (abL of fom); facll«, 
easily (facUi-; comp. dulce ridens, &c.); Impilne, with 
impunity (as if from adj. imponis); m&gd (cf. m&giB, 
§545)> more; pmie, almost; rdpente, sudaenly (repent!-); 
itte, duly; B9pe, often; sponte, of its own accord (abl. of 
a nom. spon*); aubUme^ al^ (BubUxnl-); vOlilpe (or 
better yqIx^),. wtitjb pleasure (almost alwa)r$ with est). 

176 Inflexions. [Book IL 

So the ablatives mSne, in the morning; Itlce, by day- 
light; noote, by night; magnopere, greatly (magno opere^. 

herde, ^pon honour (for bercnleB. See Syntax). 

•pS A form of que (compare qiilspiam, qniBiiuam) ; nem-pe, 517 

indeed (nam-pe, comp. namque) ; quippe, indeed (for qui 
per comp.utliiiie); prOpe, ;2^?^zr(comp. proximiis,§754,a). 

-▼S Perhaps for rel. Sive (old sere, hence sen), or if; nere 5 '8 

(neu), or not. 

ro6 ceu, oj (for cere, ce being of pronominal origin ?). 519 

Uc, lllic, &c., see §524. 3; ecce, behold (for ence); sic, 
thus (cf. §524). 
-qv6 Appended to pronouns (a kind of reduplication); e.g. 520 

quisque, each; quandoque, fivhenenjer; quicmnque (qiii- 
qnomque), ivhosoever; ubiqne, everywhere; nndlque, 
from all sides; utique, anybo<w; usque, ever; uterque, 
each. Also absqye, ivithout (abs); atque (ac), and also 
(for ad-que, cf. p. 50); nSque (nee), not; namque^ybr. 

-pt« e.g. suopte; see § 389, For p6te? comp. utpote, as. 531 

-dd i.e. the preposition de shortened by losing the accent?; 5^2 

e.g. inde, thence (im-de); indldem, ^ow the same place; 
delude, exinde, thereupon; prelude, perlude, just so; sub- 
lude, immediately after^wards^ repeatedly; uude, iv hence 
(quom- or cum-de); uudlque, yro;72 all sides; uudScum- 
que, tivhencesoever ; quamde (Enn., Lucr.), than. 

-nS slue, (without; p5ne, behind (for pos-ue comp. % SZS^ ^^^ 

for -u6 comp. superud from superuus). 

u5, not, lest; u5 (wrongly written u»), verily (comp. 523 
vat, j/17); US interrogative particle, perhaps the same 
as ue. Comp. u6-fas, nd-quis, ud-vls, § 728. 

-X (rarely 1) (i) Ablative cases of manner, ^^^ 

qui, (interrogative and relative like ut), hoiv, in (which 
case; qulu, <why not? but (qui-ue); alidqui, alioqulu, ce- 
teroqul, ceteroqulu, in other respects (the final n is of 
obscure origin); uequlquam, by no means; atqui, but; 
perhaps also quippe; si, if (abl. or loc. of pronoun, in 
<which case) ; nisi, unless (for ue si) ; quidem, indeed; sl- 
quldem, if indeed, since; qu&si, as if (quam si); sic, thus 
(sl-ce, in <which or this <way)] nl, not (for ue, uei), also 
used as = nisi; quldnl, <why notf iiti (ut), ho'w (for 
quo-ti); utique, any ho^w; utilnam, O that! ue utiquam 
(utltiquam), by no means. (For Itldem J<?tf §§ 510, 531.) 

(2) prsBfisciul (also prsBfisclue), ^without offence (pr» 
flEUKduo-, for i. e. to avert beavitchments) ; proclivi (or pro- 
diTd), downward (proclivi-, old stem procllvo-); brevl, 
in few words (brSvi-). 

Chap. XV,\ Adverbs and Conjunctions, 177 

(3) Locative cases; Ull, Isti (Plaut, Ten); mic, Istic, 
there (UI0-, isto-); Mc, here (ho-); pridem, some time 
ago; and perhaps htoi (in Quintilian's time here), yester- 
day; peregrl, more commonly peregre, abroad^ from 
abroad; tempeii, in good time (temvoB") '^ and others; see 
in Syntax. 

-hi ibl, there (Is); inibl, therein; postibi (Plaut.), thereupon; 5«s 

inteiibi (!^laut.), in the meantime; ibidem, in the same 
place; tlM, ivhere (for quobl, cubl); ubique, everywhere; 
ubicumque, ^wheresoever ; sl-ciibi, if anyewhere; aJi-cnbl, 
some<where; alibi, else^where (ali-); utrilbi, at fwhich of 
tfwo places (utro-); utrtLblque, at both places, 

-b ab (9.\}B),from; 6b (obs), opposite to; sUb (subs), under, 

-am Jam, no^w; etiam, also (et Jam); quOniam, since (quom 526 

Jam) ; nimciam (Plaut.), no^w (mmc Jam) ; nam, for, 
(f noew)] quam, ho^Wy as; quamquam, ho^wever, although; 
&lIquan-do, sometimes; aliquamdiu, for some time; ntlti- 
quam (§ 524), not at all; uspiam, usqnam, any nvhere;. 
nusquam, no <where; prsBquam, compared with; tam, so; 
tamquam, as if; tandem, at length, 

c5ram, face to face (com, os-) ; fHam, secretly (comp. 
oc-cul-o, conceal) ; obviam, opposite (obvio-; or ob viam, 
comp. obiter) ; p&lam, prOpalam, openly (pad- 7 panddre) ; 
perpSram, badly (per-per-am? thoroughly f)'^ promiscam 
(Phut.), promiscuously ; protlnam (Plaut.), immediately. 

So the compounds with f&riam; e.g. bifariam, divided 
in two (bi-); trifariam, quadrifariam; multifariam, in 
many places; plnrifariam, in several places, 

-dam quondam, at one time, (Comp. quidam, a certain one.) 527 

-om (um) Probably accusative cases. 

ddnlcum (Plaut., donique Lucr., donee commonly), 528 
until; dum, while; dtl-dum, a long time (diu dum) ; inter- 
dam, for a time; quidum, how sof primumdum, ^rj/ of all; 
appended to imperatives, e.g. agedum, come now; mane- 
dum, stop pray; &c.; num (in questions), nowf nimc 
(i.e. num-ce), no<w; etiamnum, evennow; quom, cum, 
when (quo-) ; quom (sometimes in prae- Augustan inscr.), 
com (in composition), cum (prep.), with (comp. ^vv)\ 
quon-dam, at one time (quom-dam); quandocumque, 
whensoever; tum, time, then; umquam, ever (um for 
quom; cf. § 121. 3); numquam, never (ne umquam); 
nonnunquam, at times, 

acttltum, instantly {on the movef actu-) ; circum, round 
(circo-); clanciUum, secretly (clam, cf. § 862. c)\ com- 
m6dum, suitably, just now (commodo-); dSmum, at length \, 

178 Inflexions. {Book IT, 

eztrSmtim, for the utmost (i.e. last^ time (extremo-); In- 
casBiua, to no purpose (In oassum) ; mTtiTnnim, in phrase 
quam mlnlTnum, as little as possible (minimo-) ; nimiuni) 
too much; nosniiiii (generally contracted to ndn), not (ne 
liniun) ; p&rum, little; p&romper, for a little awhile; pie- 
rumque, for the most part (plero-, que); postmodum 
(Liv.), afterguards (cf. § 511: i); poBtrSmum, for the 
hindmost (i.e. last) time (postremo-) ; potlssimum, espe- 
cially (potisaimo-) ; prinmm, for the first time (primo-) ; 
propemodum, ahnost (cf. § 511. i); it6rum (§ 888), for 
the second time; tertium, quartom, &c.; ultimum, ^br the 
furthest (i.e. last) time; Bscundum, T^rep, following, along 
(sequondo-). For rarsam, adyersum, &c. see § 512. 

Imprsesentifirum, at the present time (for In prsBsentla 529 
renim? cf. § a 8. a). 

-em propddiem, very shortly (for prop5 diS, on a near day ?) 

-tern autem, however; Item, likewise (comp. ita, itidem) ; 530 

saltern, at least, 

-dem qnldem, equidem (for et quidem?), indeed; pridem, some- '531 

time ago; tandem, at length (tamdem); tOtldem, Just so 
many; ItiLddm, likewise (ita); Identldem, repeatedly (for 
idem itidem? or idem et Idem?). (Comp. Idem, the 
same, foris-dem; tantusdem.) 

-Im denotes at or from a place; Mn-c, hsnce (him ce) ; iUim, 532 

istim, mine, istinc, thence; im in inde (§522), thereupon; 
exim, exin, exinde, therefrom; dein, deinde, thereupon; 
inter-im, meanewhile; Slim, in those times, i.e. formerly or 
hereafter (ollo=illo); 6nim, for (i.e. in im?); utrinque, 
on both sides (utro-). 

altiinsecus (for altrimsecus ; Plant.), on the other side; 
extrinsecus, from outside; intrinsecus, from within; fo- 
rinsecns (Col., V\m.),from out of doors (comp. foris). 

t-im (sim) Formed from or similarly to past participles ; e. g. csasim, 533 
edgewise (csedere) ; carptim, by pieces, separately (lit. 
plucking at it, carpere) ; cautim, cautiously (cavere) ; con- 
fertim, compactly (conferclre) ; confestim, immediately 
(confSrIre? cf. § 704); conjunctim, unitedly (conjun- 
gere) ; contemptim, scornfully (contemnere) ; cursim, 
swiftly (currere) ; dispersim, dispersedly (dispergere) ; 
efllictim, desperately (eflElIgere, to kill, hence efflictim amare, 
to love to death) ; exsultim, friskingly (exsIUre) ; furtim, 
by stealth (fur, a thief, fura-ri) ; incisim. in short clauses 
(incldere) ; juxtim, close at hand (comp. Juxta) ; mixtim, 
mingling (misc^re) ; partim, partly (paxti-) ; passim, here 
and there (in a scattered (way, pandere); p6detentim, 

CAap. XV.] Adverbs and Conjunctions, 179 

feeling the nuay (pede tendSre); prsssertlm, especially {put' 
ting in front, prsdsSrdre) ; punctixn, pointfwise (pungfire) ; 
raptlm, hurriedly (rapSre) ; sensim, gradually (lit. per~ 
ceptibly, sentlre) ; st&tixn, immediately (lit. as you stand, 
8t&-, st&re); strictim, slightly (lit. grazing, stringere); 
tractim, in a long~dranun tway (traliSre); vicissim, in 
turns (vici-); ^Xyertim, plentifully (uber-), &c. 

-at-im (i) From verbs with -a stems; e.g. &c&rva.tim, in heaps , 534 
summarily (acervft-re); centiiriatixn, by centuries (centu- 
fia-re); certatini) vying (with one another (certft-re); 
dt&tim, at full speed (clt9xe) ; d&tatim (datatim ludere, 
to play at ball), giving and regiving (d&t&-re frequenta- 
tive of dSxe) ; gr&yatixn, <Lvith difficulty (gravSri) ; mlnH- 
tatim, by bits (as if from xnlnutare') ; nSmlnatim, by name 
(nomln&re) ; privatim, individually (prlySxe); prOpSra- 
tim, hurriedly (properSxe), &c. 

(2) From nouns (compare barbatus, &c.) ; e. g. c&ter- 
vatim, in troops (caterva-); genSratim, taking classes 
(genus); gr&datlm, step by step (gradu-); grSgatixn, in 
flocks y herding together (gr$g-); membratizn, limb by limb 
(membro-) ; ostiatim, from house to house (ostio-) ; 
paullatim, little by little (paullo-); pectinatim, comb^iuise 
(pecten-); regionatim, region by region (regldn-) ; singlllatim 
one by one (comp. singulo-) ; summatiin, slightly, summa^ 
rily {taking the tops, summo-); turmatlm, by squadrons 
(turma-) ; vicatim, street by street (vlco-) ; &c. Plautus 
used also tuatim, after your fashion (tuo-) ; Sisenna had 
• noBtratlm, and meatlm is mentioned by the grammarians. 

-at-lm mlntltiin, in small pieces (minu6re) ; toltltim, full trot 
{raising the feet, tollCre) ; tribtltim, tribe by tribe (tribu-). 

-It-im "vlritiin, man by man (viro-). 

-t ast, but; at (for ad?), but (also atque, atqul); aut, or 535 

(comp. avT^\ fit, fl«^/(comp. ert); tit (for utl), as (prout, 
prsaut, Bicut, velut) ; post, after (also pos, poste, postidea ; 
comp. ante, antidea). 8&t is shortened for satis. For 
-met see § 389. 

-d Old ablative suffix ? cf. § 160. 6; ftd (cf. § 160. 10), to; 536 

&pild, at; hand (or hau), not; sed, but (properly by itself f), 
Qudd, because, is neut. ace. (comp. on), but in quod si, 
quod quia, quod utinam is by some taken to be an old 
ablative (see Ritschl, N. Plaut, Exc. p. 57). 

-n quin, ^why not? (qui ne); sin, but if (si ne, if notf): 537 

(comp. Yiden, audin, &c.); &n, ^whether; forsan, forsltan 
(fors sit an), perhaps ; t&mdn, yet; 6n, lo! In (cf. § 513), /«. 

I So Inflexions. [Book II, 

-1 pr6clil, qff^ afar^^im^ older semol (for simile), together ; s6- 538 

m61, once ; v61, or (probably imperative of volo, hence choose). 

-ur Igitur, therefore; quor or cilr, nuherefore (for qua re). 539 

For simitur see § 5 14. 

•Sr Suffix of comparative degree: siiper, 010*06 {higher; sub, 

up)\ desuper, insuper. Per, through; ter (for tris, cf. 
§429), thrice; q}aJk\»x^ four times, 

-pfir nUper, lately (novumper) ; p&mmper, for but little time sa<^ 

(panun) ; paiillisper, for a little nvhile (paullo-) ; quau- 
tisper (Pompon.), ybr how long (quanto-); tantisper, ycr 
so long (tanto-); semper, alivays (slm-, nuholei comp. 
simplex, simul). 

-ter (i) From adjectives with -o stems: duriter (also dure), 541 

hardly (dilro-); firmitef (also firme), firmly (flnno-); 
hllm&niter, inhum&niter (also humane, inhumane), polite- 
ly^ impolitely (humano-); largiter (also large), lavishly 
(largo-); longiter (Lucr.),^r (longo-); nftviter, ignftyi- 
ter (also n&vS, ignave), skilfully, unskilfully (gnavo-); 
luculenter (also luculente), brilliantly (for ItlciUentlter 
from luculento-) ; ptlrl-ter (Catull., but commonly pure), 
purely (pure-); turhulenter (also turhulent§), confusedly 
(for turhulentiter from turhulento-) ; violen-ter, *viole?itly 
(violento-; the -i stem is not till Augustan time). Also 
from pras-Ciceronian writers are quoted: sequlter, ami- 
citer, ampliter, aspdriter, avSriter, avldlter, blanditer, 
iracunditer, mastlter, misSriter, mundlter, parciter, prse- 
clSjlter, primiter, prognSiiter, prop6riter, proterviter, 
ssBViter, severiter, superbiter, torviter, and a few othefs. 
Also in Varro, cadHciter, prdbiter. 

(2) From adjectives with -i stems, and one (supplex) 
with consonant stem: acri-ter, eagerly (acri-); &li-ter, 
otherwise (all-, § 373); aman-ter, lovingly (for amanti- 
ter); atr5ci-ter, audac-ter, br6vi-ter, cel6rl-ter, Clemen- 
ter (for clementi-ter), concordi-ter, constan-ter (for 
constanti-ter), cupien-ter (Plaut., Enn.), decen-ter, 
demen-ter, dillgen-ter, el6gan-ter, fellci-ter, ferven-ter 
(Gael. ap. Cic), frequen-ter, gravl-ter, indulgen-ter, 
laten-ter, 16ni-ter, ISvi-ter, medlocri-ter, memdri-ter, 
with good memory, misericordi-ter, p&rl-ter, saltlbri-ter, 
scien-ter, simili-ter, simplici-ter, sollemnl-ter, soller-ter 
(for sollerti-ter), suppUci-ter, tenvl-ter, vemili-ter, vigi- 
lan-ter, utili-ter, and others from stems in -ntl, of which 
-ti is dropped before the suffix. 

(3) From other words: circl-ter, about (circo-); in- 
ter, between (in); prseter, beside (prse); prop-ter, near 
(prdpe) ; sub-ter, beneath (sub). 

C/t^/f. XF.] Adverbs and Conjunctions, i8i 

nSquI-ter, badly (nequam). Obiter (not ante-Augustan), 
on the way, is apparently ob iter (comp. obyiam). 

-3 abs (ab, a,), from; bis, t<ivice (cf. § 76); cIs, on this side 542 

(comp. ci-timus) ; ex, out (ec in compounds, cf. § 113 and 
e); moXj presently ; obs (ob), on^ opposite; subs (sub), under 
(m subs-tralto, &c.); trans, beyond; uls, beyond (comp. 
ul-timus) ; us-quam, us-plam, anywhere; viz, scarcely, 

Ddinceps, next, is like particeps, but indeclinable. 

siremps (old), alike, according to Ritschl, for si (=.sic) 
re ipsa, m being inserted as in rumpo, cumbo. 

-is alias, at other times; eras, to-morrow; fdras, (to) out of 

doors (cf. § mo). 

-{is mordl-c-us, with the teeth (mordS-, mordere) ; sdc-us, other. 543 

wise; tSnus, as far as (subst. ace. s. extent f cf. § 1086); 
"prSt^mis, immediately. Ea^VLS, from a distance ; commlxius, 
hand to hand, are probably compounds of manus, hand. 

-tfis from; same as Greek -Qtv (comp. ypd(t)ofi€p, scribimwj). 544 

antlqul-tus, from of old (antique-) ; div!ni-tus, from 
the Gods (divine-) ; Itmdl-tus, from the bottom (fondo-) ; 
htimfini-tus, after the manner of men (humane-) ; in-tus, 
from within (in) ; p6ni-tus, from the interior (pdne-) ; 
priml-tus, at first (prime-); publXcI-tus (Plant., Ter. 
&c.), on the public account (publlce-) ; r&d!ci-tus, from 
the root (radici-) ; stirpi-tus, from the stock (stlrpi-) ; 
BUb-tus, underneath (sub). From prae- Ciceronian writers 
also are quoted, medulll-tus, yro»j the marrow (medulla); 
immertaU-t^us, dcilll-tus, pugnl-tus, and from Varro 

* cemmunl-tus. 

-Ss pdnes, in the possession o/*(comp. pdnltus). 

-is for -les, the stem or neuter ace. of the comparative 545 

suffix ; e. g. nlmis, too much (for nlmies-) ; m&gis (m&gS, 
sometimes)^ more (for magles-) ; s&tis (also sat), enough. 
Fertassis (fertassd), perhaps. Perhaps the same is the 
origin of -is in paulis-per, tantls-per, quantls-per, § 540. 

Fdris, out of doors; imprimis, in the first place; ingrft- 546 
tis, thanklessly (gratiis); multimodls, many wise; quotan- 
nis, yearly ^ ai'e locatives or ablatives, 
-lens post- Augustan -i6s ; the regular suffix for numeral ad- 547 

verbs: tdtiens, so often (tot); qudtiens, how often (quot); 
aliquetiens, sometimes; "pl^ocienB, often (plfLs-) ; qulnqulens, 

f've times (qulnque) ; seziens, six times (sex) ; septiens, 
se'ven times (septem) ; dSdens, ten times (decern) ; viclens, 
twenty times (for viclntlens, cf. § 28 ; from viginti) ; duo- 
detiiciens, twenty-eight times; quinqu&giens (in Plant. 
Men. 1 161, qulnquagensiens) , ffty times (qulnquaginta) ; 
centiens, a hundred times (centum); quadringentlens^ 

four hundred times (quadringentl),aivdo\3ftRX^. ^^fc K^^J^» 

t82 Inflexions. [Book IL 


Latin verbs have inflexions to denote differences of voice, 548 
pei*son, number, mood, and tense. 

1. There are two nyoices^ the Active and the Passive (sometimes 
called Reflexive or Middle). 

Some verbs have both voices, some have only the active, except 
in the third person ; others, called deponents, have only the passive, 
but with the signification (apparently) of the active. (Cf. § 1215.) 

2. Two numbers^ the Singular and Plural. 
In a few verbs no plural is found. 

3. There are three persons (First, Second, Third) in each 
number. In the imperative mood there is no form for first person 

A few verbs are used only in the third person. 

4. Three moods^ Indicative, Subjunctive (often called Con- 549 
junctive). Imperative. 

6. {a) Six tenses^ in the Indicative mood, active voice: 

{a) Three, denoting incomplete action ; the Present, Fu- 
ture, and Imperfect (sometimes called respectively, present 
imperfect, future imperfect, past imperfect). 

(J)) Three, denoting completed action; the Perfect, 
Completed Future, and Pluperfect (sometimes called re- 
spectively, present perfect, future perfect, and past perfect). 

{h) In the Subjunctive mood there are only four distinct tense 
forms, called Present, Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect. In the 
Imperative there are only the present and future. 

Some verbs in the active and all verbs in the passive have in the 550 
Indicative only three simple tense-forms, those of incomplete action, 
and in the Subjunctive only the present and imperfect. The de- 
ficiency of the tenses of complete action in the Passive voice is 
supplied by participles in combination with certain tenses of the 
verb of being. 

Certain verbal nouns are from their mode of formation and 551 
use usually treated in connexion with the verb. These are 

Chap. XVL] 

Inflexions of Verb, 


{d) Two indeclinable substantives, called Infiniti'ves (or 
the Infinitive Mood). They are the Present infinitive, 
denoting incomplete action, and the Perfect, denoting com- 
pleted action. 

{h) Three verbal adjectives, called Participles^ the Pre- 
sent and Future belonging to the active voice; tlie Past 
participle belonging to the passive voice. 

(f) A verbal substantive and adjective, called the Gerund 
and Gerundf've^ usually classed, the first with the active, the 
second with the passive voice. 

{i) Two supines^ i.e. the accusative and ablative (or 
dative) of a verbal noun. 

The forms of the verb proper are often called collectively the 
Finite Verb ; the verbal nouns above named are sometimes called 
the Infinite Verb. 

The following are the usual English equivalents of the several 553 
tenses and verbal substantives connected with the verb: (See Book 
IV. Gh. XVIII. XX.) 

Finite Verb. 





Present. Sing. I. 




I am loving 

I am praying 

lam being loved 

or / love 

or Ipray 

or / am loved 

Future. Sing. I. 




I shall love 

I shall pray 

/ shall be loved 





He <will love 

He <willpray 

He twill be loved 





Sing. I. 

I <was loving 

/ ivas praying 

leivas being loved 

or / loved 

or I prayed 

or I <was loved 

Perfect. Sing. I. 


pr6cS.tu8 sum 

&mS.tus sum 

I loved or Ihavt 

r I prayed or I 

I twos loved or 


have prayed 

/ am loved 

Comp. Future. 


pr6ca,tU8 6ro 

&mS.tus Sro 

Sing. I. 

/ shall have 

/ shall have 

1 shall have 



been loved 

Sing. 3. 


prdc&tus Srit 

ftrnfttus drlt 

He cwill have 

He ivill have 

He <will have 



been loved 



prdc&tuB 6ram 

ftmatus 6ram 

Sing. I. 

/ had loved 

I had prayed 

/ had been loved 

1 84 


[Book IT. 


Present Sing. I 



I be loving ov I 

I be praying or 

I be loved 







/ twere loving 

I fivere praying 

I <were being 

or / loved 

or I prayed 

loved or / 
<ix)ere loved 



pr6c3.tns aim 

&iii&tns Sim 

1 have loved 

I have prayed 

/ fwere loved or 
/ am loved 



pr6c&tuB essem 

ftma.tU8 essem 

/ bad loved . 

/ had prayed 

I had been loved 
or I cwere loved 


Present. Sing. a. 

, &m& 





be loved 

Future. Sing. a. 




Thou sbalt love 

Thou s halt pray 

Thou shalt he 

Verbal Nouns. 






to love 

to pray 

to he loved 



prScatna esse 

&niS,tus esse 

to have loved 

to have prayed 

to have been or 
to he loved 










going to love 

going to pray 




having prayed 

having been or 




being loved 






to love or to be 

to pray ox to he 




Every single word in the Latin (finite) verb is a complete sen- 554 
tence, the verbal stem being used, not by itself, but in combination 
with abbreviated forms of pronouns of the first, second, and third 

Chap. X V1I.\ Inflexions of Person and Number, 185 

The principles, on which all verbs are inflected, are the same. 
The differences in detail which are found are due, some to the 
nature or ending of the stem of the particular verb, some to the 
unequal preservation of parts of an originally fuller system of 

The inflexions for tense, mood, person, number, and voice are 55s 
attached to the stem in the order now given. The forms of the 
present tense, indicative mood, singular number, active. voice, are 
the simplest, and arise from the union of the stem and personal 
pronouns. All other parts of the verb contain modifications for 
tense, mood, number, and voice ; and of these the modifications for 
tense and mood are made between the stem and personal pronoun, 
and the inflexions for number and voice appended after them. 

Thus r6g-6r-§-m-UB is the ist pers. plur. active, imperfect sub- 
junctive of a verbal stem meaning rule, R6g is the stem, Sr denotes 
past time, 6 the mood of thought (instead of fact) ^ m the speaker 
himself, us the action of others with the speaker. And, if for -us 
we have -ur, the speaker and others are passive instead of active. 

These inflexions will be discussed in regular order, beginning, at 
the end of the word, with the most characteristic and universal 



The suffixes, which denote person and number in the active 556 
voice, aie the same in all tenses of the indicative and subjunctive 
moods, except in some persons of the perfect, and in the first person 
smgular of the present and completed future of the indicative mood. 

In the passive voice the inflexions for this purpose are the same 
in all tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moods, which are ex- 
pressed by simple forms. (The tenses denoting completed action 
are expressed by compound forms.) 

i86 Inflexions. [Mook II. 

These suffixes are as follows, the initial vowel being given in 557 
the oldest form (cf. § 196) in which, apart from early inscriptions, 
it appears in any verbs. For earlier forms, see § 234, and compare 




Perfect Active. 


ist person 




2nd „ 



3rd „ 





ist „ 




2nd „ 




3rd i» 



The short initial vowel of the suffix (6, ft, 8, I) is absorbed ^^^ 
by an inmiediately preceding a, e, or I; except (i) in the ist pers. 
sing., if the m is not retained; (2) in the 3rd pers. pi. present, if 
-tint follow -i. In a few other verbs (sum, do, fero, volo, edo) some 
of these suffixes drop the initial vowel in the present tense. 

First Person. 

The -m in the ist person singular and plural is the same as is ^,59 
seen in the oblique cases of the pronoun me. 

Singular, -m is dropped (see § 86) in the angular of the pre- 560 
sent indicative of all verbs (e.g. reg-o) except two; viz, sum (for 
6s-om), / am^ and inqua-m, quoth I; also in the completed future of 
all verbs, and in the future indicative of all verbs with stems ending 
in -a or -e, and of some with stems ending in -1; e.g. &, 
mdnSbo, Ibo. 

In a- verbs the final a is contracted with the initial of the suf- 561 
fix; e.g. am-o for ama-om; do for da-om. Other vowel verbs 
retain their characteristic vowel; e.g. trib-u-o, m6n-e-o, aud-i-o, 
c&p-i-o. But three 1 verbs change 1 to e; viz. 80 (stem i-), qneo 
(stem qui-), and its compound nequeo. Inquam has apparently 
a stem in a, which except in ist sing. pres. passes into i. 

In the perfect indicative the personal suffix has dropped off al- 562 
together. The final 1 has another origin. (See § 658.) 

In the passive voice the only change from the active is the 563 
addition of r, if the m has dropped away, or tlie substitution of 
it for m if the m has been retained in the active. This r is generally 
considered to be a substitute for s, the proper passive inflexion 
being, as is supposed, the reflexive pronoun^ se. 

^ A passive formed by a reflexive pronoun is seen in Germ. Das 
versteht sick von sdbst; French Le corps se trouva; Ital. Si Icda Vuomo 
modesto (*The modest man is praised'); Span. Ijis aguas se secaron 
(*The waters were dried up*). Key, Lot. Gr. § 379. 

Chap, XVIIi\ Inflexions of Person and Number, . 187 

-i . I - 

Plural, The vowel before m is weakened (see § 341) to I in 564 
all verbs with stems ending in u, or in I, or in a consonant, except 
in the present indicatives of three verbs; viz. sUmaB, fiue are^ v61- 
ilinus, and their compounds, and the old form qusesfimiis (stem 
qusds-), twepray^ where we have the older vowel u. d&-maB i-etains 
the radical a. With these exceptions the suffix is the same in all 
tenses of all verbs, except when the initial vowel is absorbed by a 
preceding a, e, or I. 

The final -us is the part of the suffix which distinguishes the s^s 
plural number. By some it is considered to arise from the pronoun 
of the second person, by othei*s from the pronoun of the third 
person ; so that we (-mus) wbuld be expressed by /, thou, or by 7, 
be; by others again it is considered to be the same as the s, which 
is used to mark the plural of nouns. 

In the passive the final s is changed to r. 

Second Person. 

The consonant contained in the suffix of the second person is s s66 
in the singular, (changed before another vowel to r in the passive), 
and t in the plural. The perfect indicative has t in the singular 
also. The personal pronoun of the second person sing, in Latin 
(tu]), and the Doric dialect of Greek (jv) exhibits this t; in the 
Attic dialect of Greek it exhibits s (ot5). 

Singular, In the present tense of f6ro, v61o, 6do, the short 567 
vowel (1) is omitted or absorbed; hence fera (for ftria), vis (for 
v511s, vilis, vlls), and §8 (for 6dls, eds). es (Ss Plautus and 
Terence, Ss in subsequent poets) is also the and pers. sing, present 
indicative of siun. 

All a-, e-, and I- verbs have the final syllable long; viz. 9.S, Ss, 
Is. (Not so the verbs with i; e.g. capio, capls.) 

In the perfect indicative the suffix for the second pers. sing. 568 
ends in -isti, of which ending -ti is the proper personal suffix. (For 
the rest of the ending see § 658.) 

In the passive -firls (at first sight) appears to be formed by 569 
placing the characteristic passive r before the personal suffix ; the 
true theory however is no doubt that the passive suffix, with a short 
preceding vowel, being placed after the personal suffix caused the s 
between two vowels to change to r, necessitating also the change of 
the vowel i to e before r. The passive suffix itself (i.e. s for se, 
§ 183) was allowed to remain s, instead of being changed to r, as 
usually, in order to avoid having two r's close together. 

-re (e.g. amabare, cf. § 193. 5. f. 234. 2) is more common than 570 
-rls (e.g. amabarls) in Plautus, and, except in pi*esent tense, in Cicero 

1 88 Inflexions. [Book IL 

and Vergil. It is frequent in Horace, rare in Livy; and is usually 
avoided by all writers where the form would then be the same as 
the present infinitive active. Hence -rls is retained in pres. indie, 
with rare exceptions in verbs which have an active voice; but in 
deponents (where there is no risk of confusion, as the infinitive 
ends in i) -re is frequent in Plautus, sometimes found in Cicero ; 
-ris is usual in Vergil and Horace. 

Plural. The plural suffix -Itls contains the personal pronoun 571 
of the second person (t), and the syllable -Is, which is either 
a pronoun of the second person in its other form, or a suffix of 

In the present tense of the four verbs named above (§567) the 
initial 1 of the suffix is again omitted: fertis, vultis, estls, for fSritis, 
vOUtlB (§213 ^), Cdltis (§ 151. ^\ye eat^ and for (originally) fisItlB, 
ye are. So also in d&-tls. 

In the perfect s is simply suffixed to the singular form. 

In the passive voice the suffix -Imlnl is probably a masculine 572 
plural participial form. The Greek present passive participle is of 
the same form; viz. -dmSnOs, plur. 6m6noi. Originally, perhaps, 
estls was used with it, as in the perfect passive. (This form may 
have been resorted to because of the unpleasant forms which the 
course observed in forming the passive of other persons would have 
produced ; e. g. regltis-er, am&tls-er woi^ld become r6git6r6r, amS,- 
tSrgr, or, if the analogy of the and pers. ang. were retained, re- 
giterls, ainS.tdris, which would then have come to regetrls, amatrls 
(§ ^^s, 2), or rfigiter, amftter (§ 184. 5) ; both of which forms look 
more like adjectives or adverbs than verbs.) 

Third Person. 

The -t in the suffix of the 3rd person, both singular and plural 573 
in all tenses, is a demonstrative pronoun, found in the Greek (so- 
called) article, and in iste, tot, talis, tantus, &c. 

Singular, In the present tense of sum, 6do, ffiro, v61o, the short 574 
vowel before -t is not found; viz. est (both for sum and 6do), fert, 
vult, or (older) volt. 

The third person sing, active of a,-, e-, and 1- verbs was origi- 
nally long, as may be inferred from the passive voice (amat-ur, 
jnonet-ur, audlt-ur), and is actually found not unfrequently in 
Plautus, and sometimes in Augustan poets. 

In the perfect active the suffix is the same as in the present 575 
(-It). Plautus sometimes, and more rarely Augustan poets, have 
this -it long. 

Chap.XVIII,'] Inflexions of Mood, 189 

To form the passive, -ur is suffixed to the active form. 

PIuraL The plural suffix is usually -nnt, but in prae-Augustan 576 
inscriptions, in Plautus, and Varro, the older -ont was retained 
after v (or u) ; e. g. vivont, confluent, loquontur. The forms nequl- 
nont and sont are also found (for nequeunt, sunt). Of this suffix 
the t is probably the same as in the singular; the origin of the n is 

The passive is formed (as in the singular) by suffixing -ur to 
the active form. 

The perfect suffix is the same as the present, the ending being 577 
er-unt, of which the -er is the same (cf. § 184. 3) as the -Is (before 
t) of the second person. The penult (-er) is usually long, but the 
dactylic poets,, beginning with Lucretius (not Ennius) often, and 
othei-s occasionally, shorten it; e.g. dormlSrunt, loc&vSrunt, subSgS- 
runt, &c. (Plant.), Smgrunt (Ter.); dedSrunt, fUdrunt, exidrunt, 
&c. (Lucr.). 

For -erunt is rarely found -eront (cf. Quint. I. 4. 16); but -§re 578 
is found in some of the earliest inscriptions, and is not uncommon 
in Plautus and Terence, rare in Cicero and Caesar, but frequent in 
dactylic poets and Livy. 

In the completed future indie, the suffix-vowel is 1 instead of 579 
u (-erint for -erunt); probably in order to avoid confusion with 
the perfect. 


1. Indicati*ve Mood, 

The indicative mood contains no special inflexions to distin- 580 
guish it. The imperative and subjunctive moods are distinguished 
from it by certain modifications. 

2. Imperati've Mood, 

(d) Present, The imperative present appears to consist of 581 
shortened forms of the indicative present. The final s is thrown 
off, and -I is changed to -ft (or rather, as tlie form originally ended 

1 90 Inflexions. [Book IL 


in -es, the a is simply thrown o£F, cf. § »34. a). Hence the active 
regis (older rdgte) becomes rtgd; rSgitlB (older r^get^s), reglte; 
the passive rdgdris (older r^gdrds), xdgdrfi: the 2nd pers. plural 
rfiglmliil is the same as in the indicative. But from verbs with 
vowel stems in a-, e-, I- (not i-) the s is thrown o£F in the singular 
without further change ; e. g. amft, monS, andL The exceptional form 
noli is formed from the and pers. sing, of the juhjunctive present. 

In the verbs dilco, f6ro (and their compounds), f&do (with 582 
compounds which retain the radical ^, and dico, the final e of the 
singular was always dropped after Terence's time; e.g. dtlc, f6r, 
f&c, cftlefac, die. In Plautus and other poets the imperatives often 
occur before words beginning with a vowel, in which case it is 
di^cult to decide between due and duce; &c, 

6s or 6s (from sum, cf. § 720), 6s from 6do were used for the 
imperative and pers. sing, as well as for the indicative. 

In verbs with short penult, and having vowel stems in a-, e-, 1-, 583 
and also in the compounds of eo, the imperative-forms in Plautus 
and Terence often shortened the final vowel (cf. § 295); e.g. com- 
in5d&, xndne, JtLb6, &dl, &bl; especially in colloquial forms; e.g. 
m&nedum, t&c6diim, mOndsis, vid6sls. 

(^) Future. The future imperative active is distinguished by 584 
a suffix, originally -6d^. In the form which is common to the 
second and third persons, e.g. reg-It-6, and the form for the third 
person plural, e. g. regunto, the -d has fallen- off, as in the ablative 
case of nouns (cf. § 160. 6). The suffix appears to have been 
simply added to the present indicative forms of the third person 
singular and plural. (The use of this form for the second person 
singular was probably due to -t being a characteristic of the second 
personal pronoun.) The plural second person is formed by ap- 
pending -e (for -es, later -is) as the sign of plurality in this per- 
son to a modified form of the singular; e.g. r6g-It-6t-e (for r6g- 
It-5d-e). Others (e.g. Schleicher) consider the -tote to be simply 
the demonstrative pronoun doubled (as in the Vedic Sanskrit -tat). 

The passive forms substitute -r for the final -d ; e. g. regit-or 535 
for r6git-od; regunt-or for r6gunt-od. 

The form in -to (for t-od) was apparently at one time also used 586 
as passive; e.g. censento, initianto, in prae- Augustan inscriptions; 
and from deponents; e.g. arbitranto, partiimto, utunto, &c., some 
of which verbs however had once an active voice, of which these 
fonns may be relics. 

^ Only one instance is actually found in Latin; viz. in Festus, 
p. 230^. 14, * Si nurus... sacra divis parentum estod.' The Oscan had 
this d; e.g. estud, licitud. (See Ritschl, Neu. Plant, Exc. I. p. 100.) 

Chap, XVIIIJ] Inflexions of Mood, 'iQt 

In Plautus, Cato, and old inscriptions, a form in -xnlno is 587 
(rarely) found for the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, of the imperative of 
deponents; e.g. profite-xnino, prsBfa-mlno, progredl-xnlno, fra-I-mlno. 
One instance of a passive verb denuntiajnlno is found. This old 
tbrm is formed just like the and pers. plur. indicative in -mini. 

3. Subjuncti*ve Mood, 

The subjunctive is characterised by a lengthened vowel knme- 588 
diately before the consonant of the personal suffix. 

Present, This vowel is ft in the present tense of all verbs, ex- 
cept verbs with ft- stems, in which it is S; e.g. reg-ft-mus, regftmur; 
moneftmns, moneftmur; audiftmus, audlftmur; trlbu&mus, tribuft- 
mur; but amemus, amSmur. Except also some in which it is I; 
viz. Bixn, sis, &c. from sum; velim, veils, &c. from vdlo; and the 
compounds of both ; e. g. posslm, abslm, &c. noUm, mallm. 

So also (besides the more usual forms) edim, edis, edit, edimus, 589 
edltls, edlnt (Plant, esp. in phrase * habeo quod edim,' Gat., Hon); 
comedlm, comedls, comedlnt (Plant.), exedlnt (Plant.); also from 
duo (an old form of do?^), dulm, duls, duit, dulnt (Plant., Ten, 
and old law language) ; Interdulm (Plant.) ; perdulm, perduls, per- 
duit, perdulnt (Plant., Ten, chiefly in phrase 'Dite perduint,' 
which is also used by Cicero); creduls, credult (Plant., who has 
also forms from this verb with the more regular ft; e.g. duas, cre- 
duas, creduant, accreduas. Cf. fUat, § 722). 

Sum and its compounds had an older form slem. Bias (see 590 
§ 722), from which slm, sis, &c. are contracted. The -as, -et 
is perhaps only the older form of the personal suffix -Is, -It. (But 
comp. Gn a,r}v, Sansk. sydm.) 

Imperfect and Pluperfect. The long vowel in these tenses is 6 in 591 
all verbs; e.g. rezlssemus, amavissemus, &c. 

Perfect, The vowel (assumed to have been originally long) is I, 592 
which however, probably from confusion with the completed future, 
is in dactylic poets as often short as long. The pertinent instances 
are as follows: 

Perf. subj. -6rl- dederitis (Enn.) ; fueris (Hon in hexam.) ; 

respueris (Tib.) ; dedans, credldarls, contu- 
leris (Ovid). 

^ The forms Interduo, PI. Capt. 694, concreduo, Id. Aid. 577, are 
used apparently as completed futures ind. ; concredul in PI. Ccls. 2. 6. 43, 
as a perfect indie. In PIm. J/. N. 21. 3. 5, is dultur (comp. fut. pass.?), 
for which dultor (imper. pass.) is usually read. See Neue II. 339; 
Schcill, Le^. XII. tad. reliq, p. 82. 

192 Inflexions. [Book II, 

-dri- egerlmoB, respezerls (Vo:^.), dixerls (Hor. 
in hexam.). 

Comp.Fut.Ind. -Sri- dederltis, tramiexltis, contlgeiltls (Ov]'d^, 

fecerlmuB (Catull. in a hendecasyllable), 
dedeiis, ocdderis, mlBGnerlB, audieris (Hor. 
in hexam.), dederls (Prop., Ov. several 

-dri- yidezlmiis (Lucr.); Tideritls, dlzerltis 

(Ovid); suspexeriB, revocaverls (Verg.); 

yitaverls, detorseris, acceperls, coBperls 
(Hor. in hexam.). 

In Plautus and Terence there appears to be no instance incom- 
patible with the rule of i for perf. subj., I for compl. fut. indie. 
(See Neue 11. 196.) 

The forms for the subjunctive appear best explicable by as- 593 
suming the proper suffix to be I (seen in the Greek optative), which 
was contracted with a preceding ft to e. Thus amas, ama-i-s, ames; 
amSxa-s (an assumed indicative, see below, § 610), am9xa-i-s, 
amarfis; am&ylBsa-B (an assumed indie), amftylssa-i-s, amavlsses 
(or esses for esa-i-s may be supposed to have been suffixed at 
once). But as I suffixed to the present indicative of other than a 
verbs would have given still the same form when contracted, an 
& (seen in the Greek subjunctive) was substituted in all such cases. 
Sis and veils, &c. retain the I, because they have other points of 
difference from the indicative. 


The inflexions of tense are divisible into two classes; viz. those 594 
which are common to several tenses or forms, and those which are 
peculiar to the particular tense. 

The inflexions common to several tenses or forms may be re- 
ferred to three forms of the verbal stem, called the Present stem, 
the Perfect stem, and the Supine stem. 

Chap. -X7X] Inflexions of Tense, T93 

1. The present stem is very often identical with the verbal 59* 
stem, but not unfrequently is more or less modified. From this 
present tense are formed all the tenses and verbal forms which' 
express incomplete action ; viz. both in Active and Passive voice,— 

TnMcative, Present, Future, Imperfect. 
Imperative, Present, Future. 
Sulfjunctive, Present, Imperfect. 

Also the following verbal forms : 

Present Infinitive ; 

Present Participle, (none in Passive) ; 

Gerunds and Gerundive. 

2. The perfect stem is sometimes identical with the verb-stem 596 
and with the present stem, but usually is considerably modified. 
From this perfect stem are formed all the tenses denoting com- 
pleted action; viz. in the Active voice, — 

Indicati've, Perfect, Completed Future, Pluperfect, 
Subjuncti've, Perfect, Pluperfect. 

Also the perfect Infinitive, 

3. The supine stem is always a modification of the verbal stem, 597 
and from it are formed certain verbal nouns, of which the forms 
called the supines, and the passive past participle, and future parti- 
ciple active are generally treated in connection with the verb. 

The past participle passive is used with certain tenses of the 
verb to form the pwiect and pluperfect passive both in the indi- 
cative and subjunctive. 

In accordance with the order of discussion which has been thus 
far followed, the inflexions of the derivative tenses, being nearer to 
the end of the word (§ sss)^ will be discussed before the formation 
of the stem to which they are appended. 


194 Inflexions. [Bdok IL 



Present, The present indicative is formed simply by suffixing 598 
the inflexions of number and person. The present subjunctive has 
the mood inflexion as well. 

Future, The future indicative is in consonant, in 1- verbs and 599 
in ti- verbs a modified form of the present subjunctive. The first 
person singular is the same: the other persons have long 6 wrhere 
the present subjunctive has &; e.g. fut. reges, reget; pres. subj. 
regaji, regat. In the 3rd pers. sing. act. the final syllable was short 
in the ordinary language (§ 152. 7). 

Cato the Censor is said (Quint, i. 7. 23) to have written dice, facie, 600 
for dicam, faciam, and so in other verbs. Probably this statement 
refers only to the future indie, not to the present subjunctive. 

This S probably arises fix)m suffixing I (compare the Greek 601 
optative) to the present subjunctive of these verbs; e.g. reg-ft-mus, 
reg-ft-I-mus, regS-mufl; just as amenms, pres. subj. was formed 
(§ 59S)* Sut this formation would not do for a- and e- verbs; 
because in a- verbs such a form (e.g. amSmiis) is already used for 
the pres. subj.; and in e- verbs, it (e.g. monSmus) would be iden- 
tical with the present indicative. 

Accordingly in a- and e- verbs there is a different mode of 603 
forming the ftiture indicative ; viz. by suffixing lb- to the present 
stem, with the final vowel of which it is contracted; e.g. ama-, 
ama-Ib-, ain&1>-; ist pers. plu. amab-imus, aum-e, mone-Ib-, moneb-; 
I St pers. plur. monSblmoB. 

A similar future (besides the ordinary form in -am, -es, -et), is 603 
not unfrequently formed from i- stems in early writers (Plautus, 
Terence, &c.); e.g. aperlbo, adgredlbor (comp. adgrediri for adgredi), 
larglbere, opperlbor, 8(^0, &c. But of these forms none are found 
so late as the first century B.C., except Ibo, qulbo, nequlbo, which 
are the only forms in use at any time (with a few doubtful excep- 
tions). Lenibo is also found in Propertius. Veniet (from v5n-eo) 
for vgnlbit is found however in the lex Thoria (64a A.u.c), and 
in Gaius; eziet in Seneca. 

Chap,XX,'\ Tenses formed from the Present Stem, 195 

The verb do has a short penultimate d&bo. Its compound reddo 604 
(which usually has reddam), has reddXbo (i.e. red dabo) in Plaut. : 
who has also ezugebo, as if firom an e- stem exuge-. 

The verb sum and compounds have apparently merely a different 6oj 
form of the present for the future; viz. 6r-o, ist pers. plur. 6r-Imus 
(compare pres. stimus for ds-tlxn-us). Most philologers consider 
ero, &c. to be for esio, the 1 being similar to that of the present 

Imperfect, The imperfect indicative has in all stems a long a 606 
(except in 3rd sing. act. §§ 152. 7. 574) preceding the personal in- 
flexions, and in all stems but one (that of 6s-, be) b prefixed to this 
long a. Moreover in all stems but dft- the vowel preceding b& is 

The long a, which is always found, serves to distinguish the 
imperfect from the future where the forms are otherwise similar; 
e.g. amabftmus (for amabaimus), amablmus; monebamus, monebX- . 
mus; ibftmus, Iblmns; d&bftxnus, d&blmiis; dr&mus, drimus. It is 
apparently a sign of past time, and as such is found in the pluper- 
fect also. 

In consonant stems the suffix is -6b&-, and this is usually" found 607 
also in verbs with 1 stems; e.g. reg-9b&-mus, audi-§b&-mus. But 
this long e is not found in eo, queo, and their compounds, and 
is not unfrequently absent in the earlier language (Plautus, Ter., 
Van*., Sec); e.g. sclbam, nesclbam, ftibam, &c., gestibat, gnindi- 
bat, insanlbat, molllbat, prasag^bat, servlbas, stabillbat, venibat. 
So also, apparently for metrical reasons, in the dactylic poets 
(CatulL, Lucr., Verg., Ovid, Sil., Stat.); e.g. audibant, lenlbat, 
B3dvibat, redimibat, mollbar, ferlbant, 6cc. 

Probably the suffix was originally the same as the future suffix 638 
of a- and e- verbs with & added, i. e. -Ib-a-. The form -3ba^, seen 
in consonant and most i- verbs, is difficult to explain. It is gene- 
rally supposed to have been erroneously borrowed from the 
e- stems. 

Imperfect subjunctive. This tense had the suffix -€r (for fis). 609 
which with the modal suffix § made -6rS. The first vowel coalesced 
with a preceding a, e, or I; e.g. reg-Sr-emns, tribu-^r-emas, am- 
ar-SmuB, mon-6r-6m-U8, aud-Xr-6muB, and caused the omission of a 
preceding I; e.g. capl-, capdrem. 

In BTun, 6do, vdlo, fdro, and their compounds, the vowel 6 was 
dropped out; e.g. ist pers. plur. es-sem-us (for es-es-Smus, or 6d- 
fis-Smus); vel-lem-us (for vdl-er-am-us) ; fer-rem-us (for f3r-6r- 
Sm-us). Do has d&rdmus. 

196 Inflexions. [Book II, 

The suffix -fir (fis; is probably from sum. So that reg- with the 6ia 
imperfect of sum, is reg-eram; hence reg-era-l-m, regerexo. 

The imperative tense suffixes have been ah^ady discussed 

The present infinitive active has the suffix -fc6 (for -fisfi, §§ 183, 6it 
193. 3), in which the first e coalesces with a preceding &, e, or I; 
e.g. reg-fire, trlbu-fire; am&re, mon-6re, aud-Ire. C&pSre as c&p- 
firem, § 609. 

In sum, Sdo, v61o, ffiro, and their compounds, the first vowel e 612 
was dropped out, as in the imperfect subj. Hence the infinitives 
,ire esse (for edese), velle (for v61ere), ferre (for ferere). The in- 
finitive is. generally considered to be the dative or locat;j[ve case of a 
verbal noun with stem ending in s- or si-; e.g. dicer-e for daikas-al, 
viver-e compared with Sanskrit Jlvas-aL The final e (=al) would 
be originally long. 

The present infinitive passive has the suffix i appended to the 613 
stem in verbs, whose stem ends in a consonant or in i or in.u; e.g. 
reg-I, trlbu-I, cap-I (but fieri from stem fi-; ferrl from fSf-). In 
other vowel verbs I takes the place of the final e of the active in- 
finitive; e.g. aud-Ir-i, mon-Sr-I, am-ax-I. So also dft-rl from do. 

A further suffix -6r is found appended to these forms (e.g. figler, 614 
amarier, &c.), in old legal inscriptions (not after the S. C. de 
repetundis^ 631 u.c); and frequently in Plautus, Terence, Lucre- 
tius, Cicero (in poetry), and not unconmionly in Vergil and Horace, 
only occasionally in later poets. But the shorter form is more 
common even in the first named poets. In inscriptions it occurs 
first in the •S'. C, de repetundis (darei, beside abduder, avocarler). 

The forms in -ier (-Arlei:, -erier, -Irier) are probably the original 615 
forms, and arose by the addition of the ordinary passive suffix r in 
the form -6r to the active infinitive, whose final § took the form ot 
1 before er. The final r was then dropped on account of its ill 
sound after another r (§ 185), and ie contracted to I. Thus 
axn&rS-6r, amari-er, amarl. 

If the same course had been followed in consonant, and in -i 
verbs, then owing to the penultimate vowel of the active infinitive 
being short (e.g. ducfire), the syllable Sr would have recurred (e.g. 
ducerier). The Romans therefore preferred to omit the first 
(§ 28); i.e. to append -Ier immediately to the final consonant of 
the stem; (e.g. duc-ler, capier). The only instance of the reten- 
tion of at least some part of the first er is in fer-rier for fererier. 
Analogy afterwards reduced dueler, &c. to ducL 

Chap. XX?[ Tenses formed from the Present Stem. 197 

Present Participle, The suffix is'-enti, nom. sing, -ens; e.g. 616 
reg-ens, tribu-ens, audi-ens. But in the verb eo and its compounds, 
an older form of the suffix, viz. -unti, is retained; but the nom. 
sing, is usually -lens. The form nequeuntes (from nequeo) occurs 

In -a and -e verbs the suffix coalesces with the final stem vowel ; 
e.g. amans, monens. 

Gerund and Gerundi've, The suffix is -endo-, which as a sub- 617 
stantive is called a gerund, as an adjective, gerundive; e.g. reg- 
endiim, tribuendmu, audlendum; amandum, monendmu. 

An older form in -undo (probably for an earlier -ondo), is com- 6is 
mon in inscriptions to the end of the 7th century, u.c. ; in Plautus, 
Terence, and Sallust; and, after 1, and in the words gerundus and 
ferundUB, firequently in the MSS. of Caesar, Cicero, and Livy. 
Some law phrases always (or at least usually), retained the form; 
e.g. rerom repetundarom; fiaiiiillsa erciscundss, finibus regundis, de 
Jure dlcundo. But after u or v the suffix is found only in the form 
-endo (cf. § 213. 4. «. r). 

Old Futures in -so, -slm^ 

In the older language, of Plautus and ancient laws and formu- 619 
laries, a future indicative in -so (-aso), subjunctive in -sim (-sslxn), 
infinitive in -sfire (-ss6re), and pass, indie, in -situr (-ssltur) is 
found. Instances of the indicative and subjunctive active of this 
formation are very frequent. (In some instances it is not clear to 
which mood the word belongs.) 

I. From verbs ivith -a stems: amasso (ind.), amassls, axnas- 
sint (subj.), appellassls (subj.), celassls (suoj.), coBnassit (ind.), 
occoeptassit (ind.), reconciliasso (ind.),- creasslt (subj.), curassis, 
curasslnt (subj.), accurassis (ind.), decoUasslt (ind.), indicasso 
(ind.), Indicassis (subj.), InvltassItiB (ind.), exoculassltis (ind.), 
fortimassint (subj.), irritassis (ind.), locasslm (subj.), locassint 
(ind.), mactasslnt (subj.), mulcassltis (ind.), servassit, sennsBint 
(subj.), peccasso, peccassiSj peccassit (ind.), and many others. 

Passive: turbassitiur (ap. Cic), mercassitiur (Lex. Thor.). 

Infin. Act.: aYemmca8sere(Pacuv.), reconciliassere, impatrassere 
(four times), oppugnassere (Plaut.), depoculassere (or depeculassere), 
deargentassere, depoculassere (or despeculassere) (Lucil.), 

^ The fullest discussions of these forms are hy "bJloAvig (Opusc, II. 
p. 64 foil.), Liibbert {Gram. Stud. Breslau, 1867), and Meue (li« 
421 sqq.). 

198 Inflexions. [Book II. 

^_^_ . Illl !■■■■■ ^ ' ^ 

1. From verbs <witJb -e stems, preserving the vowel: halsesslt 
(subj.), proliibessls, pro]ii1>e88it (subj.), prolLi1>essit, proliiljessliit 
(incL), coUbesslt (subj., Lucr. 3. 444), llcessit (subj.). 

3. From verbs nvUb -i stems : amblssit, amblssint (PI. Amph, 
69. 71. ex conj.). 

4. In verbs mjttb consonant or -1 stems, and some tivttB -e 620 
stems, the -so, -aim is attached immediately to the final stem con- 
sonant : 

(a) -e stems: auslm (subj.), nozit (subj.), sponsis (subj.), 
auzitiB (subj.), Jusso, Juasis, Juasit (ind.), Jusslm (subj.). 

Also passive Jussitiur (Cat.), 

(^) -I stems: faxo (ind.), fozls, faxit (ind. subj.), faxim, fax!- 
mus (subj.), faxitis (ind. subj.) frequently, faxint (subj.), eflfexis, 
defexis (ind.), capsis (ind.), capsit (subj.), capslmus (ind.); ac- 
cepso, occepso, recepso (ind.); inoepsit, occepsit; Injexit (ind.), 
objexlm, objexls (subj.); adspexit (subj.), respexis (ind.); rapsit 
(ind.), surrepsit (subj.); exciissit (subj.). 

Passive: faxltur (ap. Liv.); and perhaps nanxitur (Fast.). 

(r) Consonant stems: axim, adaxlnt (subj.), transaxini, axlt; 
Incensit; excessis (subj.); clepsit (ind.) ; occisit (ind.); dixis (subj.), 
induxis, adduxit (subj.); comessis (subj.); afOixint (subj.); amlssis 
(ind. subj.); empsim (subj.), adempsit (ind.), smrempsit; parsis 
(subj.); rupsit (ind.); serpsit; exstinxlt (subj.); taxis (subj.); 
adussit (ind.). 

Of all these forms foxo, faxls, ausixn, aosls, almost alone are 631 
found after the time of Terence, v^^ho himself has only excessis, 
appellassls besides. But the following other instances occur: cohi- 
bessit (Lucr.) ; the phrase, di faxint (Cic.) ; recepso (Catull.) ; a 
few infinitives in Lucil.; Jusso (Verg., Sil.); and one or two in- 
stances in the antiquarians Varro and Fronto. The style of the 
laws, &c. in Livy and Cicero does not of course belong to the age 
of their (real or feigned) recorders. 

These forms are apparently to be explained as a future indica- 622 
tive, subjunctive, and infinitive, formed by the suffix s as in the 
Greek future to the stem, a short I or sometimes e of the stem 
being omitted; e.g. leva-, levaso; proUbe-, proMbeso; sponde-, 
spond-so, sponso; faci, fac-so; die-, dixo. The double s in the 
forms frpm a- and (a few) e- verbs is either a mode of marking 
the place of the accent, or due to a mistaken etymology, as if the 
form were analogous to amasse from amavisse, &c. Possibly both 
causes may have combined. Moreover a single s between two 
vowels was in the prae- Augustan language rare (cf. § 191, 193)* 

Chap,XX!\ Tenses formed from the Present Stem. 199 

The subjunctive is formed by the regular suffix i; the infinitive by 
-6re, as in the present infinitive. 

The use of these forms is analogous to that of the forms in 623 
-ero, -erim, but is confined to those classes of sentences in which 
those forms differ least from a future indicative, or present subjunc- 
tive; viz. (i) the indicative in the protasis (not the apodosis) of 
a sentence; (except faxo, which might be either a simple or com- 
pleted future): (z) the subjunctive in modest affirmations, wishes, 
prohibitions, purpose, and in dependent sentences for the future, 
never for the perfect indicative (as the form in -erlm frequently 
is). In all these classes the English language ordinarily uses an 
incomplete tense (present or future). The infinitives in -sere might 
be taken as either simple or completed futures. 

(The ordinary explanation of these forms, viz. that e.g. levasso 624 
is for leva-y-eso (=levavero) has much in its favour; but it meets 
with great difficulties^ in such forms as eap-so, rap-so, proUbesso, 
&c.; and it does not really account for the double s. For levaveso 
would become leva-eso, levaso, levftro; or if it became levav-so, 
as is assumed, it would be contracted into leTaoso or levaso (le- 
vaiuro, levnro) not levasso. Comp. § 94.) 

The verbs arcesso, capesso, flacesso, laoesso, are probably (Key, 625 
Lat, Gr, p. 88) similar formations from ardo (i.e. addo), capio, 
facio, lacio, ana have been treated as verb stems, and thus received 
new inflexions of tense and mood. Inoesso is probably from in- 
oedo; petesso from peto (pet- or petl-) is also found. 

^ Not removed, I think, either by G. Hermann (f)issertatio de Mad* 
vigii interpretatione^ Lips. 1844), or Curtius {deverbi latini fut, exact., 
Dresden, 1844); o' Key {Lat, Gr. § 566, laogf.); or Schleicher (Vergi, 
Gr. p. 830, ed. 2) ; or LUbbert {ubi supr.). My view agrees partly with 
Madvig's (p. 64, 65), and partly with Corssen's {Ausspr. ii. 37 sq. ed. i. 
See also i. 319, ed. 2). A somewhat different view is given by Merguet 
{Die Entwickelung der Lat, Formenbildung, 1870, p. 224). Pott deci- 
dedly rejects the view that these forms are from the perfect, not the 
present, stem {Etym. Forsch, ii. 755. 4 {1870), pp. 269, 272). 

[Gossrau {Lat, Gr, § 174, Anm, i) derives these forms from a perfect 
in -St Nettleship {Academy^ 15 July, 1871) has taken (independently) 
a similar view to mine]. 

200 Inflexions. [Book //. 



A VERB often exhibits a different stem in the present tense from 626 
that which appears to be presumed in the perfiect or in the supine. 
The changes, which belong strictly to the formation of the pofect 
or supine themselves, or follow from that formation according to 
the laws of Roman pronunciation, will be found in Chapters xxiii. 


Verbs may be divided into consonant verbs and vowel verbs 
according as the present stem ends in a consonant or in a vowel. 

(In the following enumeration the different instances will be 
classified according to the last letter of the verb stem; and some- 
times the perfect and supine added in illustration.) 

i. Consonant verbs. 

1. Most consonant verbs exhibit in the present stem no altera- 627 
tion of the regular stem of the verb; e.g. reg-, reg-o; csed-, c89d-o, 

2. Other consonant verbs exhibit such alteration ; 

(a) The stem is redt^Hcated to form the present tense; e.g. 628 

gfin- (g6no old form), glgno i<x gI-g6no (gfin-ul, gSn-Itum) ; st&-, 
Bisto (stSti, st&tiim) ; 8&-, sdro for sdso (s6vl, s&tiim). 

(Jb) The radjcal vowel is lengthened; e.g, 629 

dftc-, dtlco; die-, (cf. dic-ftre, cansidlc-us), dico; fld-, fldo; ntib- 
(cf. pronftbus), ntllK). (Probably Key is right in supposing the 
radical vowel to be always short, and a long vowel (e.g. scnbo, 
lUdo, &c.) to be due to the formation of the present stem). 

(c) n is suffixed to the stem of the verb ; e. g. to stems end- 630 
ing m 

M. tern-, tem-no. 

R. cer-, cer-no; sper-, sper-no; star-, ster-no. In these verbs 
the perfect and supine have the r transposed; cr5-, sprS-, strft-. 

Chap, XXI.] Of the Present Stem, 201 

A. d&-, <!UL-xLo (old form of doj. 

I. 1I-, U-no; qui-, nequl-nont (old form for nequexmt); I-, 631 
dblnunt (old form for dbeunt); si-, sl-no; and its compound p6no 
for pdsino (old perf. pdsiyi, sup. pOsItum). 

So apparently flrflnlscor from frogv-, fruor. Conquln-isco (con- 
quezi) may be for conqulc-n-lsc-o, or may have vowel stem conqui- 
u-lsc-o and belong here; see § 635. 

Festus speaks also of ferlnunt, sollnunt for ferunt) solent. 

{d) A nasal is inserted before the final stem consonant; e.g. to 632 
stems ending in 

P or B. ctlb-, combo (also cftba-) : rap-, nimpo. 

C or QV. liqv-, linqvo; vie-, vlnco; n&c>, xianc-iso-or (nactus or 

a. frair-, fraaffo; pag-, pango (old pSgo); ptig-> pongo (in the 
compounds the stem contains n in all tenses); rig-, rlngor; t&g-, 
tango (old t&go). In some verbs the nasal is retained in the per- 
fect and dropped only in the supine stem : fig-, flngo (finxl, Actum) ; 
mig-, mingo (mlnxi, mlctum, also minctnm); pig-, pingo (pinzi, 
pictimi); strig-, stringo (striiixi, strlctum). In other verbs the 
nasal is constant in the verb stem; e.g. Jungo, Junxi, Junctmn (from 
Jtig-, comp. JtUrum). So nlngult from nlgv- (nix). 

D. fld-, Undo (fldl, flssiim); fad-, ftmdo (fCldl, fUsum); sdLd-, 
Bdndo (scldi, scissam); tftd-, tondo (ttltddi, tUsimi, or tunsom). 
Perhaps also firendo (frendi, frSsam) may have fjred- for stem (but ^ 
cf. § 168. 3). 

In mStior, mensas (properly a vowel verb) the n appears to 633 
have been dropped in the present stem. 

In piso, a collateral form of plnso, the n is dropped in present 
and supine stems. 

(i) 8C- (isc) is suffixed to verbal stems, especially to vowel stems 634 
in -e, and gives often the special meaning of beginning or becoming. 
This inchoative form sometimes exists alone, sometimes is used be- 
sides the ordinary stem, sometimes is found in a compound, but 
not in the simple verb. The perfect and supine, if any, are the 
same as those of the ordinary stem (real or assumed). A very 
few stems carry the suffix -bc- throughout all the tenses. 

To Consonant stems: ftl- (ftlfire), ftl-esc-ere; die-, dl-sc-dre (for 635 
dic-8C-Sre), dXdIci; Cnrn-, finm-isc-i (frOnitum); gfim- (gemdre), 
Ingem-isc-ere (ingdmol); here- (or ere-), herc-isc-ere (berctam); 
mftn- (perf. mdmlnl), conunln-isc-i (commentam) ; p&c-, p&o-lsc-l 
(pactum) ; p&s-, pasc-fee (for pas-sc-ere, comp. TraT-eofiai) ; trfim- 
CtremSre), contrfim-lBO-tee (contrSmul); perg- (pergl^re^ espeig- 

302. Inflexions. [Book If, 

iBC-l (experpectum) ; v6d- (comp. W6re), ve-sc-i (for ved-sc-i); 
vlifv- (vlvdre), revIv-iBC-6re (revlxl) ; ulc-, ulc-isc-l (ultum). For 
esdt, see § 722. 

PoBcdre (pOposqi); compesc-ere (compescul ; comp. pasco) re- 
tain 8C throughout; miscSre (for mlg-sc-ere ; comp. ixiyvvfii) appears 
to contam the same suffix, but with an -e stem. 

So perhaps conqulniscere, conquezl (see § 672). 

To Fowel stems: A. !r&-, Ira-ac-l (Ir&tnm) ; l&bft-, laba>sc-ere 63' 
(also Iftb&re) ; xi&-, na-sc-1 (n&tuin) ; ▼espdrft-, yespera-sc*ere (ves- 
per&verat, Gell.); v6t6rft- (inveterftre, tran.), yetera-sc-Sre, also 
inyeter&-sc-6re (mtrans., Inyeter&v-, tran. and intran.). 

0. no-, na-BC-6re (ndvl). 

E. ftc$- (acSre), ftce-sc-fire (ftcul), and many others from -e 63: 
stems, with perfect in -ui; see §§ 677 — 680. 

»gre- (ssgrere, rare), sagre-so-Sre; albd- (alMre, rare), albescfire; 
arde- (axdSre), ezarde-sc-dre (ezarsl) ; auge- (angSre), auge-so-Sre 
(intrans.); calye- (calySre rare), calye-sc-^re ; c&ne- (cSnSre), 
cane-sc-6re; fironde- (frondSre), £ronde-80-&:e; reftlge-, reMgescdre 
(refdzi); flay6- (flaySre),; hmrh- (liscrSre), Inlisdre-sc- 
6re (inlisBsi); li6bd- (hSbSre), bSbe-Bc-ere ; bflme- (hflmSre), hume- 
BC-Sre; lactC- (lactSre), lacte-sc-ere ; llyft- (llygre, rare), llye-8c- 
ere(rare); Wee- (luc§re), llluce-sc-Sre (illuxit); niace- (macSre, 
rare),.in9,ce-sc-ere; mUcd- (mucSre), muce-sc-^re ; splende- (splend- 
fire), spl8nde-BC-6re; turgg- (turgfire), turge-BC-6re. 

ere-, cre-8C-6re (crgyi); quiS-, qule-8C-6re (quiSyl); snS-, 
sue-sc-6re, mansuescere, &c. (suSvl). 

1. dorml- (dormire), obdorml-sc-Sre (obdonnlvi) ; obllyl- (comp. 63 
llvere, intrans.), obllyi-sc-i; 8cl- (scire), 8ci-sc-dre (s<ayl). 

&pl-sc>i (aptum); cftpl- (ctlpdre), concupi-sc-dre (concuplyl) ; 
f&ti- (?), f9.ti-BC-ere and fati-sc-i (fessum) ; fSlcI- (f&c8re), profLd- 
BC-1 (profectnm) ; gll-, gli-sc-Sre; hi- (comp. hl-Sxe), hi-sc-dre; 
nanci- (nanciam, old fiit.), nand-sc-l (xiactiun); 8&pl- (s&pdre), 
resIpi-8C-Sre Creslpul and reslpivl). . 

For a number of inchoatives formed directly from noun stems 
see in Book III. (§978). 


(/. i) The guttural is omitted in some steins which probably 63 
— ed in -gy; e.g. conlgv-, conlyeo (coniyl or conixi); flugv-, fluo 
(fluxl, adj. fluxus, subst. fluctus); frugv-, fruor (fructus); strugv-, 
Btruo (struxi, structuiii); ylgy-, -^vo (ylxl, yictmn). 

Of these coniyeo properly belongs to the vowel verbs. 

(/a) Other stems vary between -gy and -g; e.g. stlngyo, stingo; 64 
tliigvo, tlngo; ungyo, ungo; nlngvit, ningit Similarly urgveo, urgeo. 

Vhap, XX/.] Of the Present Stem, 205 

(^) In tr&ho (traxl, tractum), vfilio (vezl, yectnm), the b re- 641 
presents a fiicative guttural, which becomes partially assimilated in 
the perfect and supine, and is weakened in the present. 

(h) 8 is changed, between vowels (according to the general 64a 
law, § 193. 3), to r; e.g. ges-, gdro (gessi, gestcun); haus-, haurio 
(liausl, haustmu); lisds-, liareo (liasl, liasiim); qnas-, qnaro 
(quasivl, qusBSItmu) ; quSs-, quSror (qnestus); lis-, Uro (ussi, 

Of these haurlo, liareo properly belong to the vowel verbs. 

(i) A few verbs have 11 in present stem, but not in perfect; 643 
the supine appears however to show the effect of 11 (of. § 705). 

c61- (?), percello (percnll, perculsixm) ; p61- (?), pello (peptUi, 
pulsum) ; t61-, toUo (tettOi) ; veUo retains 11 in perfect (velli, vul- 
8iim) ; sallo, salt^ is a byform of s&lio (salBiim). 

ii. Vowel verbs. 

1. Ferbs fwith stems ending in a: 644 

(a^ Most of these verbs have the stem ending in a-, and pre- 
serve it in all tenses; e.g. 

FUI-, fl&re, (fl&vl, fl&tTim); f&-, f&s% (f&tiis); In which a is 
radical. In na-, nSxe (n&vl, n&tmu), the ft is constant, but the 
derivative n&to shows that & is radical. In 8tr&-, stemfire (stravl, 
stratum); tia-, tolldre (tetull, latum for tiatum); the present-stem 
is consonantal. 

Derivative verbs with a- stems are very numerous; e.g. amU-, 
amare; crea-, cre&re; nuntia-, nuntiare; leva-, levaie, Sec; all 
have perfects in -avl, atimi. 

(b) Ferbs (with stems ending in k'^ e,f^, 645 

da-, dare, (dSdl, datxmi), but das has a. 

In all other verbs of this class, the final a- combines with the 
initial vowel of the suffixes in tenses formed from the present stem, 
so as to exhibit a; e.g. 

Sta-, stare (stdti, statum, but sometimes statum) where a is 
radical, crdpa-, crepare; cliba-, cubare; ddma-, domare; frica-,' 
£rlcare; mica-, micare; en6ca-, enecare, (but neca- usually in simple 
verb); -plica- and -plica- (cf. §§677, 688), pllcare; eeca-, secare; 
sOna-, son&re (also sonSre); tdna-, toxiare; vSta-, vetare; all which 
have perfects in -id, and most of them usually supines in -Itum. t 

io4 Inflexions. {Book IL 

Also 1&T&-, laYftre (and lavdre); Jiiv&-, Juvftre ; which vocalise 
and contract tiie radical V with -ul of the perfect; and contract or 
omit it in the supine (cf. §§ 669, 688). 

(c) In some verbs derivative stems in ft are found besides other 64 
derivative stems in e or i; e.g. 

Artftre, old artire;- bullftre, later Iralllre; densSxe, old dens6re; 
ftilgurftre, old faJgurlre; Impetrftre, impetrlre, especially in sacrificial 
language; singaltftre, old singultire; tintinn&re, tintinnlre. 

2. Of 'verbs with stems ending in 0, the only traces are nO-, 64; 
which has the inchoative suffix in &e present tense, noscSre (nOvi, 
nOtnm), where the root has d, comp. ndta (subst.), ndtfire, cognl- 
tum, &c.; p5-> (pOtnm), the frequentative pGta^, potare being other- 
wise alone in use. 

3. Ferbs ivitb stems ending in u: 

(a) Most have stems in fl, which however becomes short 64^ 
before the initial vowel of the suffixes; e.g. acil-, actiere, actlis, 
actUstl, adlas, acildbam, actiSrdm, &c. The supine has tL (See list 
in § 690.) 

Plu- is apparently contracted for pliiv- (pl6v-), (cf. § 684). 
And the same may be the case with all: comp. fluo, fltLv-ius. 

Qf) mo has rii- in supine of compounds (but rata (n. pi.) 
according to Varro: see § 691). pti.- is found only in adj. ptltus 
and frequentative pfltare. 

(r) A few verbs have u vocal in supine, but consonantal usually s^c, 
(see § 94. 2), in present and perfect. 

loqy-, Idqvl (locfltum) ; seqy-, seqvl (secHtum) ; solv-, solvere 
(solvi, sOldttim); volv-, volvfire (volvi,v61tltiim). 

4. Verbs ivitb stems ending in e: 650 

(a) Few verbs have the stem ending in 6, and these are mono- 
syllables, where e is radical ; e. g. 

dele- (compound), del6re; flS-, fiSre; nS-, nSre; -plS, -plSre. 
All these have perfect and supine in -Svl, -Stum. 

Other verbs with S (-$vi, -etum) have consonantal present stems ; 
cr9-, crescSre; also crO-, cemere; -Old-, -olescdre (also aboleo, abolSvl, 
abtilltiim; and addlesco, adultum); qvl6-, qLYiescfire; sve-, sveBcdre; 
8pr6-, spemSre. 

(b) In most verbs with stems in -e, the e is short, as may be 651 
inferred from the perfect being in -ui (for -eui), and supine in -Itum 

Omp, JrXZ] Of the Present Stem. 205 

/old -dtiim, cf. § 234. i), which m some verbs was reduced to -torn. 
Contraction with the initial vowel of suffixes gives S in most forms 
of the present stem; e.g. monSre, monSs, moxiSmuB, monSbam, 
mbnebo, monSrexn, monStur (mondt, as am&t, audit). In the impera- 
tive (2nd pers. sing, act.) of verbs with short penult, it is in early 
Latin not uncommonly used as short; e.g. tdnS (§ 233. 4); e.g. 

mdnd-, monSre (monxii, mosXtam), and many others; see 

c&ve-, c&vSre (cS,y1 for o&Yul, c&vltam contracted to cantmn), 
and others; see § 669. 

(r) Many verbs have e (probably 6) in present stem, but drop 65a 
it entirely and show consonantal stems in the other parts of the 
verb. (If the vowel had not been dropped, and a perfect in -si or 
supine in -sum had been formed, there would have been a tendency 
in the 8 to become r. Where -si, -snxn follows a vowel now, a 
•consonant has been omitted, § 193. 3). 

morde-, mordSre (momordi, marsum), and others, in § 666. 

vide-, vld6re (vldl, visum); sSde-, sedfire (sSdl, sessum); 
prande-, prandSre (prandi, pransum). 

arde-, ardSre (arsl, arsum); and many others in §§ 672 — 676. 

(d) Some have a present stem in -e, besides another (older or 653 
poetic) consonantal stem; e.g. 

f ervSre, fervdre ; folgOre, folgOre ; OlSre, emit scent, OUre ; BC&tSre, 
Bc&t6re; stiidSre, strldfird; tergSre, tergGre; taSrl, -tol; dSre, -olre. 
(Among other forms the ist persons fervo, falgo, (flo, scato, 
strldo, tergo, fervlmus, &c. appear not to occur.) 

5. Ferbs <witb stems ending in 1: 6^^ 

{a) Some verbs with radical 1, and many derivatives have I, 
and retain it through all the tenses; 

scl-, scire; ci-, -cire (also dSre); i-, Ire; qui-, quire. In these 
the 1 is radical. 

audi-, audire; dorml-, dormlre; and many other derivatives. 

In all these the perfect is in -Ivl, aud, in the derivative verbs and 
sclo, the supine is in -Itum. For the others see § 696. 

(b) Some verbs have I in present stem, but drop it and show 655 
a consonantal stem in other parts; e.g. 

amid-, amicire (amlcni, amlctnm); fiard-, fiudre (fieurai, far- 
turn); ftQd-, folclre (falsi, ^tuxn); hausl-^ haurire (liausi, liaus- 
tum); mSIA- (for menti-), mStiri (mensum); ordi-, grdlri (oirsum); 
-peri-, &perlre (&perai, ftpertuxn); rtperlre (r^pperi, r6pertanL\^ 

i66 Inflexions. [Book II, 

and other compounds (Chap, xxx.); sapl-, ssaplre (aspsi, septum); 
sanol-, aancire (aaudl, saiictnm, rarely 8an<Ataia); sard-, sarclre 
(Band, Barfeom) ; senti-, sentire (aenal, aenaum) ; v&il-, vdnXre (vSnl, 
ventum); vlncI-, vlndre (vlnal, Tlnctnm). Sepdli-, aepelire has 
jperfect aep^vl, supine aepnltnm. (But see Pref. p. c.) 

Oil-, Arlrl (oranm); pOtl-, potlrl show in some tenses a present 
'Stem either in I or consonantal (See Chap, xxx.) 

(c) Some verbs have the stem ending in I, which fell away 656 
l)efore I or 6r; and as final in imperative, was changed to (or if e 
was the original, remained) 6 (§ 434. a). The 1 is generally dropped 
in the supine stem. 

e&pl-, o&pfoe (c9pl, captmn); ooapl-, coapdre (ccapi, cceptam); 
. flUd-, f&o6re (fSd, fiustnm) ; fOdI-, fOddre (fSdl, fosBcim) ; ftigl-, f&g- 
6re (fOgl, fut part filgltfbraa) ; gr&dl-, inf. gr&dl (gressimi) ; j&cl- 
J&c9re (Jed, Jactom); -II0I-, -llcdre (-lezl, -lectum); mdrl-, inf 
mdrl (also mdrlrl, fiit. mdriturus) ; p&il-, pftrdre (pepdrl, parttun, 
old pres. part, p&rens) ; p&tl-, inf. p&tl (passum) ; qu&tl-, qu&tere 
(-quassL, auassum) ; r&pl-, rSpSre (r&pul, raptum) ; -spld-, -spl- 
cdre (-spezl, apectam). 

Two have I in other tenses than those derived from the present ; 
cnpl-, dipdre (diplvl, dipnnm; in Lucr. also ouplret); s&pl-, 8&p6re 
(saplvl, rdaU>ul and rdaXpIvl). 

{d) A few verbs have consonant stems in present, but I stems 657 
in other parts; pdt-, pdtdre (pdtlvl, pdtltnm); r&d-, rtUldre (rftdivi) ; 
411UB8-, qoffirSre (qunslvl, qasedtTmi); arceaso, capesao, facesso, 
too6880, Inceaso, all have inf. -6re, pert -Ivl, sup. -Itnm; til-, tfirfire, 
(trivl, tiittun). So Svdno is found for 5T6nlo. 



The suffixes for the tenses formed from the perfect stem; i.e. 658 
for the perfect, completed future, and pluperfect in indicative, and 
perfect and pluperfect in subjunctive, are the same in all verbs; viz. 

Comp. Future -6r-; Pluperf. Ind. ♦&:-&; Perf. subj. -6r-I; Plu- 
pcrf. subj. -lB8-e. The perfect indicative has a suffix -is which. 

Chap,XXIL\ Tenses from Perfect Stem, '207 

however is not found in the 3rd p6rs. ang. and the first pers. plural; 
in which the same personal suffixes as in the present indicative are 
used. This suffix -is in the first pers. sing, loses its b ; in the third 
X)ers. plural, being followed by a vowel, changes to -er. 

The perfect infinitive is formed by the suffix Is-se. This is 659 
apparently composed of the suffix la- just mentioned, and -se for 
-tee as in the present infinitive. (Comp. esse from Bum, §§611,612.) 

The great resemblance of these suffixes to the parts of the verb 660 
sum, which are used to form the samte tenses in the passive voice, 
suggests (and the suggestion has been generally adopted) that they 
are identical in origin. 

This theory would give a complete explanation of the pluper- 
fect and the completed future indicative, with the exception that 
the 3rd pers. plural of the latter has firint instead of Snint, perhaps 
in order to avoid confusion with the the 3rd pers. plur. perfect 

The perfect subjunctive would be explained by assuming as 
the suffix an older form of slm; viz. -dsim, or with the usual 
change, -Srim. 

The perfect indicative and infinitive and pluperfect subjunctive 
seem to require the assumption of a long I being suffixed to the 
perfect stem before the respective parts of the verb Bum were added ^. 
Thus audiylssem, audivlsse would stand for aud-Iv-I-esBexn, audlv- 
I-esse, rezlssem, 6cc. for rez-I-ssem, &c. 

In the perfect indicative the and pers. sing, e.g. audlvlsti would 
stand for aud-Iv-I-estl (the personal suffix -tl being lost in the 
simple verb Btun es), and pers. plu. e.g. audlvistlB for aud-lY-I-estiB; 
3rd pers. plur. e.g. audiverunt for aud-Iv-I-Ssunt. The? 3rd pers. 
sing, may have the simple personal suffixes, or may have been re- 
duced from a fuller form; e.g. au-divl-est, audivlst, audivlt. The 
-It is sometimes found long. The first person singular, e.g. audlvl, 
may then be for aud-iy-I-esnin^ ondlvlBm, audivlxn. And the ist 
person plural may have had a sjmilai\ pedigree. 

It must however be observed that the resemblance t9 the parts 
of the stem es-, on which this theory rests, is in some degree decep- 
tive, for it consists largely in personal and modal suffixes, which 
even on another hypothesis might be expfeqted to be the same. And 
the rest of the suffixes is, as has been ssen, in some tenses but 
poorly eked out by the simple stem ds. 

The perfect stem when formed by a suffixed v (§ 681); is fire- 65x 
quently modified by the omission of the v in all tenses and. persons 

1 The same view is taken and certain Sanskrit forms compared by 
Corssen, Ausspr, I. 614 sqq. ed. 2. 

^o8 Inflexions. ^ [Book IL 

and both numbers, except in the ist pers. sing, and plu., and 3rd 
pers. sing, of the perfect indicative. The voweb thus brought toge- 
ther are contracted, (excepting -le, and sometimes -li); e.g. ind. 
perf. amastl, amastls, amftnint; pluperf. amaram, &c.; comp. fut. 
amftror&c; subj. perf. amarlm, &c.; Plup. amassem, &c.; infin. 
amasse ; so flesti, fleram, &c. ; and (though here the y omitted is 
radical) mostl, commostl, &c. (from moveo), and derived tenses. 

But we have some instances of uncontracted forms; e.g. audle- 
ram, 6cc. ; audiero, &c. ; audiisti as well as audlstl, &c. And such 
forms occur not unfrequently from peto, eo, and their compounds. 

NOvero (ist pers. sing, ind.) always retains the ▼. (But cognoro, 
narim, noris, &c.) And so does the shortened form of the 3rd 
pers. plu. perf. ind. of verbs with ft stems; e.g. amftvSre. The in- 
finitive being amflra, the perfect, if contracted, would be liable to 
confusion with it. 

In dSsXno, p6to, eo, and their compounds the omission of ▼, 662 
usually, (in the compounds of eo almost always), takes place even in 
the excepted persons; viz. in the ist pers. sing, and plural, and third 
pers. sing, of the perf. indicative;* e.g. desil, desUt, deslixnus. In 
other verbs with -1 stems, -lit is sometimes found; -11 hardly ever; 
^•llmiiB never. 

The contracted forms are sometimes found from the above- 
mentioned three verbs; p6tt (Sen., Stat.); pfitlt (Verg., Ov., Lucan, 
Sen., &c.); dSalt (Sen., Mart.); dealmus (Sen. Epist,); rfidl (Sen.); 
ftbi, Ini (Stat.); It (Ten, Verg., Ov., &c.); ftMt (Plaut, Ter., 
Sen.) ; perit (Lucr., Phacdr., Sen.) ; adit, oMt, redit, &C. 

Apparently Irrlt&t, dlsturh&t, are used as contracted perfects in 

In the older poets, and occasionally in Vergil and Horace, in 663 
tenses formed from perfect stems in -a, an 1 between two ss is omit- 
ted and the sibilant written once or twice, instead of thrice; e.g. 
promlBse (Cat.) forpromisisse ; despexe (Plaut.) fordespezisse; sur- 
rexe (Hor.) for surrexlBBe: oonstunpsti (Prop.) for consumpsisti ; 
diztl (Plaut., and twice or thrice in Cic.) for dixisti; erepsSmua 
(Hor.) for erepsissemua; extinxem (Verg.) for extlnxlBsexn. 

Fercepset for percepisset (Pacuv. ap. C. Of. 3. 26); fazem, PI. 
PsfuJ, 499, are the only instances of such a form from perfects not 
in -8l. The latter passage is generally considered corrupt. 

CJiap. XXIILI Of the Perfect Stem, 209 



The perfect stem is formed in one of five different ways, some 654 
of which are peculiar to, or invariably found in particular classes of 
verbs. All are used without any distinction of meaning. Some 
verbs have two or even more forms of the perfect stem. 

The five ways are: (i) Reduplication; (ii) Lengthening the 
stem vowel; (iii) Suffixing -s; (iv) Suffixing either -u or -v; (v) 
Using the stem of the verb without change. 

In the following enumeration the present stem is added where 
it differs from the verbal stem. All the verbs; whether consonant 
or vowel stems, are arranged under the class to which their final 
consonant belongs: except monosyllabic vowel stems, and u stems, 
which are arranged separately. 

i. Perfect stem formed by reduplication. 

The first consonant of the stem is prefixed with a short vowel, 665 
which is e, if the stem vowel is a or e, and, if not, is the same as 
the stem vowel. In the prae-Ciceronian language the vowel of the 
prefixed syllable appears to have been (always?) e, whatever the 
stem vowel might be. And Cicero and Caesar are said to have 
used memordl, spepondl, pepugl (Cell. 6 (7), 9). 

If the stem vowel is a, it is changed to e before two consonants, 
to 1 before one; 89 is changed to I. Before single 1 d and d be* 
come tl. 

If the stem begins with sp, sc, st, the second consonant is 
treated as the initial consonant, and the s prefixed to the reduplica- 
tion syllable. 

Gutturals, die-, (Pr. disc- for dic-sc-), dI-dIc-1; pare-, p6-perc-l; 666 
pose-, pd-posc-i; p&g-, (Pr. pang-; comp. p&c-isci), pd-plg-i; pi&g-, 
(Pr. pung-), pil-pilg-i; tft«-, (Pr. tang-), td-tlg-i. 

Dentals, c&d-, ce-cId-1; csed-, c6-cld-i; ped-, pd-p6d-l; pend- (also 
pend-e-, intran.), pe-pend-i; add-, (Pr. ednd-), scl-cld-i (old); tend-, 
t6-tend-i; ttid-, (Pr. tnnd-), tH-tild-l (Ennius is said to have used 

2ro iNFLfeXIONS. {Book II. 

mord-e-, m6-mord-i; pend-d- (see above); spond-S-, BpO-];M)xid-i; 
tond-d-, t6-tond-l. 

Nasals, cSn-, cd-cXn-1 (but compounds suffix -u, § 679, except 667 
once, oc-06-cInl); mftn-, md-xnin-i; tdn-^e-, te-tln-i, quoted from 
Pacuvius and Accius (usually tta-ul). 

Liquids. &U-, »-feU-l; p51-, (Pr. peU-»), p«-pta-l; tol-, (Pr. toU-), 
tS-ttU-l (in prae- August, poets; tdll in some prae- Ciceronian inscrip- 
tions; usually ttOi-). 

curr-, cH-cuiT-l; p&rl-, pd-p6r-i. 

Fowels. dft-, d6-dl; stft- (Pr. BtSr), stfi-tt; stC- (Pr. si-st-), Btl-tt. 

ii. Perfect stem formed by lengthening the stem vowel. 668 

If the stem vowel be &, it is changed to 5 (except in BC&Mre). 

Labials, rftp-, (Pr. rump-), rflp-1; scftb-, BO&b-i; 6m-, 5m-L 
c&pl-, c§p-t 

Gutturals. Hqv-, (Pr. llnqv-); Hqv-l; vie- (Pr. vine-), vie-l; 
ftg-, Sg-1; frag-, (Pr. flrang-), frSg-i; 16g-, lSg-1 (but some com- 
pounds suffix B, §673); pftg-, (Pr. pang-), pSg-i. 

mcl-, fSc-i; J&cl-, J5c-i; filgl-, fOg-l. 

Dentals. 6d-, Sd-1; fad-, (Pr. ftand-), ffld-l; 6d-, (Pres. obsolete; 
comp. ddlum), Od-i. 

sede-, 8§d-i^ vld6-, vid-i; f6dl-, fQd-t 
Nasals, vfinl-, vSn-L 

Semivowels. Jilva-, Jdv-l; 1&V&-, (ULv- old), Iftv-l. 669 

> C&V6-, cftv-1; f&vd-, fav-I; f6v6-, f5v-l; m6v6-, mOv-1; pivg-. 
pav-1; v5v6-, v6v-l. 

The lengthening of the vowel in the verbs, which have v for 
their final consonant, is probably due to the absorption of a suffixed 
V (§ 681); e.g. cftvl for cav-vl or c&vnl. In a similar way vici, 
vidl, vSni may have arisen from an absorption of a reduplication, 
for vS^ini, &c. 

iii. Perfect stem formed by suffixing s. 

If the present stem ends in a vowel, the vowel is dropped before 671^ 
tiie suffixed a. None of the verbs whose present stem ends in a have 
their perfect formed by s suffixed. 

Cliap, XXIIL] 0/ the Perfect Stem. 211 

(This suffix is supposed to be (with the personal suffix) es-l, the 
ancient perfect of the stem 6b, and is apparently identical with the 
suffix of the first aorist in Greek.) 

Labials, P. B. carp-, carp-8-1* cl6p-, elep-s-1 (old); ntlb-, 
nup-8-i; r6p-, rep-s-i; scalp-, scalp-s-i; ecrlb-, scrip-s-i; scxUp-, 
sculp-8-i; serp-, serp-s-1. 

Jill)d-, Ju-88-1 (Jou-s-1 old form: probkbly Jtlbeo is for JCveo); 

S89PI-, 8SBp-S-i. 

M. A euphonic p is generally inserted before s; m is once 671 

c5m-, comp-8-i; so also dSm-, prOm-, 8tUa-; prSm-, pres-s-l 
(for pren-8-1) ; tern- (Pr. temn-), temp-s-i. 

Gutturals. Ic, re, Ig, rg throw away the guttural before 8. 672 

, C. QV. cOqv-, cox-1; die-, (Pr. die-), dlz-i; dtie-, (Pr.dtlc-),dux-l; 
pare-, par-8i (also pd-perc-1); so conqyinisco has conquez-l (for 
conqulnz-i? comp. mlz-tum from ml8ceo). 

ItloS-, liiz-i; mulee-, mul-s-i; torqvd-, tor-s-i. 

fard-, far-s-i; fulci-, fal-8-i; saiu^-, sanz-i; sard-, sar-s-i; 
vlncI-, vinz-i. 

• -lid-, -lex-1; -8plcl-, -spez-1. 

6. 6V. cing-, cinx-1; fig-, fiz-i; flxig-, (sup. fic-t-), flnz-l; -flig-, 673 
fliz-1; fltigv-, (Pr. flu-), fluz-i; jung-, lunz-i; -16g- (in compounds 
dI16g-, intelieg-, negldg-), lez-i (rarely lntel-18g-i, neg-16g-i) ; merg-, 
mer-8-1; mlng-, mlnz-i; Smuug-, Smunz-i; ningv-, nlnz-it; pang- (or 
P&g-), panz-i (usually p6gi or pdplgl); ping-, (supine pic-t-), pinz-1; 
plang-, planz-l; -pimg-, -punz-i; rtg-, rez-i; 8parg-, 8par-8-i; 
Btlngv-, 8tlnz-l; string-, (sup. stiiet-), strinz-i; stmgy-, (Pr. stru-), 
struz-l; 8tlg-, 8QZ-i; t6g-, tez-1; tingy-, tlnz-1; vlgy-, (Pr. yIv-), 
vlz-i; ungv-, unz-t 

alge-, al-s-i; aug6-, aoz-l; fiig6-, £rlz-i; Ailg6-, ftd-s-l; in- 
dulge-, lndiil-s-l; lilgd-, luz-i; mulgd-, mnl-s-i; conigve-, (Pn' 
cOnlve-), conlz-i; tergfi-, (terg- old), ter-s-i; turgfi-, tur-s-i; nrg6-, 

H. tr&h-, traz-1; veil-, vez-l. 

Dentals, The dental fells away or is assimilated before s, but 674 
the preceding vowel is lengthened (cf. § 191. a, 4). 

T. fleet-, flez-i; mitt-, ml-STi; neot-, nez-i; pact-, pez-1. 

' senti-, sen-8-1; qu&tl-, quas-s-i (e.g. concfltl-, concus-a-l). 

D. c5d-, 068-8-1; claud-y clau-s-1; divid-, divl-s-l; IsBd-, 1sb-s-1; 
lad-, ltL-8-i; plaud-, pIau-8-1; xftd-^ra-B-l; rOd-, rO-8-1; trUd-, trtl-s-i^ 
vftd-, Vft-B-1, 

14 — 2 

212 Inflexions. [Book IL 

ardd-, ar-8-i; ridd-, xl-s-l; BYftdfi-, svft-s-l. 

Nasals, m&nfi-, man-s-t 673 

Liquids, &c. v«ll-, vul-s-l (post- Augustan cf. § 683) ; gfia-, 
(Pr. gfir-), ge8-8-i; lis-, (Pr. ttr-), us-s-i. 

hsdse- (?), (Pr. lisere-), Ilsb-b-I; IxausI- (Pr. Ixaxiri-), hau-a-l. 
(Cf. p. 247 ^^^ Preface.) 

Semiv(KveI. rftvl-, -rau-s-l (rare). 

iv. {a) Perfect stem formed by suffixing u^ (vowel). 676 

Labials. P. B. strSp-, Btrep-u-L 

crSpS,-, cr6p-u-i (very rarely -crepftvl) ; cill)&-, (Pr. also ciunb-), 
cilli-u-'-i (rarely cub&vl). 

Elbe-, (Pr. also albese-), alb-tz-1; li&b6-, li&b-u-i; IHM-, lUb-u-it; 
rftbd-, (Pr. alsorabeso-), rttb-n-i; 86n€-, (Pr. senesc-), sfin-u-l; sorb^-, 
sorb-u-i; stUpS-, (Pr. also sttlpesc-), etHp-u-i; tftbft-, (Pr. also 
t&besc-), tftb-u-i; tdpd-, (Pr. also tdpesc-), tdp-u-i; torpd-, (Pr. also 
torpesc-), torp-u-L 

r&pl-, r&p-u-i; rSalpI-, (Pr. reslplsc-), rSsIp-tz-l (also rtelplvl). 

M. fr6m-, fi:6m-u-i; gSm-, g6m-u-i; trdm-, trdm-u-i; vOm-, 

ddm&-, ddm-u-1; tlxnd-, tXm-u-i. 

Gutturals, C. Weft-, Wc-u-1; mlcft-, mlc-u-l (but dimlcftvl); 677 
Snecfi., Sn6c-n-i, (also Cnfio-a-vi) ; -pllc9^, pUc-u-l, (also pUc-ft-vlJ; 
bSc&t, s6c-a-l. 

&cd-, (Pr. also acesc-), &c-u-l; a,rc6-, arc-u-1; d$c6-, ddc-u-i; 
d0c6-, d5c-a-i; flacc6-, (Pr. also flaccesc-), flacc-u-1; J&cS-, Jac-u-i; 
llc6-, Uc-u-it; llqvfi-, (Pr. also Uqvesc-), Uc-n-l; marcS-, (Pr. also 
marcesc-), -marc-u-l; n0c6-, nOc-u-i; plftcS-, pl&c-u-i; tftcd- (-tl- 
cesc-), t&c-u-i. 

6. dg6-, eg-u-i; lajigve-, (Pr. also langvesc-), -lang-u-i; plg6-, 
plg-u-it; rigfi-, (Pr. also rigesc-), rig-u-1; vIgS-, (Pr. also vlgesc-), 

Dentals, T. mfit-, mess-u-i^ (old and rare); Btert-, Btert-u-l; 678 
tte-, i-t6r-u-l (once in Tibull. ; usually trivl). 

^ The suffix -ul or -vl is supposed by most philologers to be for foi. 
Thus the Umbrian ambre-fust is said to correspond to ambiverlt. But, 
if "Vl and foi are from the same root, they are probably sister forms 


* MeBBUl is perhaps a secondary derivative, and stands, in the same 
relation to meto, mesBimi that Btatui does to Bto, statnm. 

Chap, XXII I,] Of the Perfect Stem. 2 1 3 

vetft-, vet-u-i (in Pers. once v6t-a-7l). 

IfttS-, (Pr. also Ifttesc-), lit-u-l; obmlltfi-, (Pr. obmHtesc-), ob- 
mat-u-l; nltfi-, (Pr. also idtesc-), nlt-u-l; innOtS-, (Pr. innOtesc-). 
ixmOt-u-i; 6portd-, dport-u-it; psanltd-, pssnlt-u-it; p&td-, (Pr. also 
pfttesc-), p&t-u-l; pate-, (Pr. also ptzteso-), ptlt-n-l. 

D. cand^, (Pr. also candesc-), cand-u-l; cradfi-, (Pr. crudesc-), 
crad-u-i; m&dd-, (Pr.also m&desc-),2n&d-a-i; p1id^,pad-u-it; 8ord6-, 
(Pr. also sordesc-), sord-u-l; obsurdd-, (Pr. obsurdesc-), obsurd-u-i. 

Nasals^ Liquidf, &c. N. -dn-, -cIn-u-1 (but cfin-, cfidiil); gto-, 679 
(Pr. gign-), gdn-u-i. 

BOn&-, s5n-a-i; tdn&-, t6n-tz-l. 

Smlne-, emln-u-l; m6nd-, mOn-tz-l; sSne- (Pr. usually sSnesc-), 
B6n-u-i; tdnS-, tdn-u-i; 6vaii6- (Pr. Svftiiesc-), $vftn-a-i. 

L. £L-, &l-a-i; cOl-, cdl-u-i; conBiU-, constU-u-i; mdl-, mOl-u-1; 
61-, (also 616-), 61-u-l; v51-, (Pr. inf. veUe), v61-u-L 

C&16-, (Pr. also cSIesc-), cdJ-n-i; calle-, (Pr. also calle80-),call-n-l; 
coal6-, (Pr. coalesc- intrans.; comp. &I0 trans.), co&l-u-l; dttlS-, ddl-n-i ; 
palie-, (Pr. also pallesc-), pall-u-i; slid-, (Pr. also sXleso-), sXl-iui; 
sttlde-, Bttld-u-1; vai6-, (Pr. also y&lesc-), y&l-u«i. 

Svne-, (Pr. Svnesc-), evn-u-L 
Bill-, sftl-u-l (rarely s&lil). 

B. 86r-, 8dr-u-i. 680 

8x6-, (Pr. also Sxesc-), ftr-tz-1; c&rd-, cftr'-u-i; <aar&-, (Pr. also 
ciaresc-), ciar-u-1; crSbre-, (Pr. crSbresc-), crebr-u-i; dftr^-, (Pr, 
dOresc-), dOr-u-l; flSrfi-, (Pr. also flOresc^), fl6r-u-l; liorrfi-, (Pr. also 
horresc-), liorr-a-i; mfttOre-, (Pr. m&tOresc-), m&tOr-a-i; m6rS-, 
m&r-n-l; nlgre-, (Pr. also nlgresc-), nlgr-u-i; pSrS-, pSx-u-l; terrfi-, 

&p6rl-, &p6r-u-l; Opdrl-, Op&r-u-l; sftrl-, sftr-u-l (also b&tIyI). 

S. deps-, deps-u-l; nex-, nex-u-1; p6s-, (Pr. p5n-), p6s-a-i; tex-, 

censg-, cens-u-i; tors-, (Pr. torrd-), torr-u-t 

Semivowels, ferv- (also ferv6- and ferve-sc-), ferb-u-1 (also 

iv. (b) Perfect stem formed by suffixing v (consonant), 6S» 

The consonantal v is suffixed to vowel stems only (except 
pasco?), and the preceding vowel is always long. 

214 Inflexions. \BookTL 

All regular verbs with fetems in a- or I- (unless otherwise men- 
tioned) have their perfect stem formed in this way. So also 

Labials, eilpi-, (Pr. clipl-, except once cnplret), cupI-v-1; sapi-, 
(Pr. sapl-), sapI-Y-i. 

Dentals, p6tl-, (Pr. p6t-), petI-v-1; rttdl-, (Pr. rttd-), rudl-v-l. 

Sibilant, axcessi-, (Pr. arcess-), arcessl-y-l ; c&pessi-, (Pr. capess-^, 
capeB8l-y-l; f&cessi-, (Pr. fieusess-), facessl-v-i; incessl-, (Pr. incess- k 
inces8l-Y-i; l&cessi-, (Pr. lacess-), lacessl-v-i; pOsi-, (Pr. pOn-), 
po8l-Y-i (always in Plaut., Ter., also in Cato, CatuU.: for posui 
see § 680) ; qTwesi-, (Pr. qusBr-), qxisesi-V-i. ' 

pia-, (Pr. pasc-, for pas-sc-), pft-v-l (cf. § 93. 2). 

Monosyllabic votwel verbs : (also deo, qulesco). 682 

A. sft-, (Pr. sfir-), sS-v-i; strfi^, (Pr. stem-), stra-v-1. 

0. no-, (Pr. nose-), n5-v-L 

TT. fa- (§ 719), ftl-v-1 (Plaut. but usually ful); comp. plu- 
(§648), pltlvl (also plul). 

E. ere-, (Pr. eer-n-), er§-v-l; erS-, (Pr. ere-sc-), cr6-v-l; fle-, 
fie-y-i; d616^, dele-v-i; nS-, nS-v-i; -die- (e.g. abole-sc-o, adole-se-o, 
cbsole-sc-o), -51S-y-l;-pl6-,-plS-v-l; 411I6-, (Pr. quiese-), qule-v-l; 
sprS-, (Pr. sper-n-), sprS-v-1; sve- (Pr. sve-sc-), sve-v-i. 

1. dt-, (Pr. elS-, also cl-), (S-v-i; I-, (Pr. ind. ist pers. eo), i-v-1; 
n-, (Pr. lln-), U-v-i and 15-v-i; qui-, (Pf. ind. 1st pers. queo), qui-v-i; 
scl-, (Pr. scl-sc-; besides the regular i verb, sclo), scl-v-l; si-, (Pr. 
sih-), si-v-; til-, (Pr. t&r-), tri-v-1 (cf. § 678). 

V. Perfect stem, same as present stem. 6S3 

This is frequent (1) in the compounds of verbs of which the 
simple has a reduplicated perfect (see Chap, xxx.); (2) by the 
dropping of v, in perfects, in -ivl, -Svi, -ftvl (see §§ 661, 662),* 
(3) . regularly in verbs with -u stems, which with other, chiefly 
consonantal, stems are here named : — 

Labials, Mb-, bibl; laxnh-. Iambi. 

Gutturals, Sc-, Sci. 

lanjrv-e, langvi (cf. § 669); eonigvg-, (Pr. cSnlye-), eonivi (also 

Dentals, T. vert-, vert-i. 

D. -eand-, -eand-i; etld-, ctld-i; -fend-, -fend-i; fid-, (Pr. find-), 
fid-i (probably for fSfld-i); mand-, mand-i; pand-, pandi; pre- 
hend-, prehend-i; seand-, scand-i; sold-, (Pr. seind-), scld-i (sci- 
eld-i old); sId-, sidi-; retnnd-, retundi. 

prand-e-, prand-i; stild-e-, strld-l. 

Chap, XkllLl Of, the Perfect Stem. 215 

Liquids and Sibilants, 

L. psall-, psall-i; v61-, (Pr. veil-), vell-1 (rarely vulsi). 

R. verr-, verr-t 

comp$r-l-, comper-i; rep6rl-, rSppdr-l (bot]:i probably compounds 
of a perfect p6p6rl). 

S. pins-, (also pis-), plns-i; vis-, vis-i. 

Focivels. ■ . 6S4 

U, vowel and consonant 

&C11-, acu-i; arga-, argu-l; b&tfl-, 1)atil-i; exll-, ezu-1; JEU-, fa-i 
(in Plautus sometimes fil-vi); grtl-, gra-i; imbU-, imbu-i; IndtL-, 
lndu-1; in-, lu-i; m6ttl-, m6ta-i; mlntl-, mXnu-i; pltl-, plu-i, also 
pltlvl; ntl-, nu-l; sptl-, spu-i; st&ttl-, st&tu-i; stemtl-, stemu-i; stl-, 
su-1; trlbtl-, tribu-L 

solv-, solv-l; volv-, volv-1. 

ferve-, ferv-1 (also ferbul). 

I. ftdi-, (Pr. ind. ist pers. sing, adeo), &dl-i; so usually the 
compounds of eo; Inqui-, (Pr. ind. Inqiiam), Inquil; s&U-, sal-i-i 
(rare, usually s&lui). 

Among those verbs which have no perfect active in use 685 
<the following non-derivative verbs may be mentioned. 

Labials, glfLb-. 

Gutturals, C. f9.tlsc-; gll-sc-; hl-sc-. 
&mlc-i (see however Chap. xxx.). 
6. ang-; clang-; frig-; ling-; verg-. 

Dentals, J>, fid-, (f Isus sum) ; firend-. 
aud-e, (ausus sum). 

Liquids, 18r-, (Pr. inf. ferre: perfect in use, ttOi); flir-; gavld-, 
(Pr. gSGd-e-, gavlsus sum). 

Vowels, E. vi-e-, 

L al-, (Pr. ind. ajo); 1I-, (Pr. ind. flo). 

2 1 6 Inflexions. [Book If. 


The supine stem has a common base with the stem of the past 68$ 
and the future participles, and that of some verbal substantives, to 
which class the supines themselves belong; e.g. supine, ama-t-u-; 
past part. ain&-t-o-; fiit. part. ain&-t-tLro-; subst. denoting agent , 
amft-t-Or-; denoting action ani&-t-iOn-. This common base, which 
will be here spoken of as the supine stem, is -t- suffixed to the stem 
of the verb. When the verb-stem ends in a vowel, the vowel is, if 
long, generally retained; if short, almost always changed, (except 
in monosyllables), to I (§ a4i), or omitted altogether. A few 
verbs which have a consonant stem, have -It- instead of -t in the 
supine, as if from a vowel stem. When the verb-stem ends in a 
consonant, or loses its final vowel, the -t is, when following certain 
consonants, changed to -s. A few other instances of this softening 
admit of special explanation. 

The verbs here will be classified according as they do or do not 
exhibit a vowel before the supine suffix, and, subordinately to that, 
according to the final vowel or consonant of the verb stem, 

N.B. The supine itself will be here named whenever either supine, 
past participle, or verbal substantive in -tu exists: otherwise such 
other form from the same base, as does exist. 

i. Verbs with a vowel preceding the supine suffix. 587 

A. I. Verbs having ft in supine stem; na- (for gfinft? Pr. 
inf. nascl), n&tiun; strft-, (Pr. stem-), strft-tum; tl&-, (Pr. toll-), 
la-tum; ftinft-, ftrnft-tum; and all other verbs with derivative ft 

fricft-, Mcft-tom (also fric-tom); mXcft-, -mXcft-tum; n6c&-, 
nScft-tiun (but cf. § 700); 86c&-, secftturas (once). 

a. Verbs having -ft in supine stem; dft-, dft-tum; rft-, (Pr. inf. 688 
rSri: for the vowel, cf. §668), rfttum; sft-, (Pr. s6r-), sft-tiun; stft-, 
(Pr. inf. Btftre; also sistfire), stft-tum (but in some compounds 

Chap, XXIV,\ Of the Supine Stem, 21 j 

3. Verbs having -I (for -ft) in supine stem; crdp&-, crepl-tnm; 
c1ib&-, (Pr. also cnml)-), cflbl-tum; d5mft-, dOmi-tum; -pUcft*, -plid- 
tiim (also plicft-tum) ; sOnd.-, 86nI-tUBi (Bonft-toros, once); t6n&-, 
tdnl-tum (intonft-tus, once); ydt&-, vetl-tum. 

In Jtivft-, Jtl-twn (rarely Juva^tumB) ; Iftvft- (also Iftv-), lau-tnm ; 
the 1 is absorbed by the v preceding. 

0. no-, (Pr. nose-), nO-tnin; p(J-, (whence p5tare frequentative) 689 
pO-tits; cogiL6- (cf. § 647), (so also agno-), cognl-ttun. 

U. I. Verbs having U in supine stem; &cil-, ftcCl-timi; argCl-, 690 
arga-tnin; diltl-, diltL-tiua; exa*, ezfl-ttun; gltl- (Pr. gltLt&-, fre- 
quentative) gltl>tTi8, adj.; imbU-, ImM-tum; indtl-, lndtl-tuxn;met1l-, 
mettl-tiun (Lucr. once); xnintl-, xninH-tam; -ntl-, ntl-tum (abnul- 
turos in Sail.); sptl-, spH-timi; st&ttl-, st&tu-tum; stl-, stL-tnm; 
tribtl-, tribil-tam; tH- (Pr. tue- usually), tCL-tum. 

lOqy-, loctL-tuxn; seqy-, 8$cfl-ti2in; boIy-, solU-tum; yoIy-, yoIu- 

fru- (for ftugv-) has rarely fimltl&ms (usually, fimc-tum). 

a. Verbs having -tl in supine stem; rfl-, rtl-tum, (but riltiunegx 
according to Varr. ; fiit. part, is rol-tflruB) ; pti-, (whence ptLt&re 
frequentative), pil-tus (adj.); dtl-, (almost always clue-), -dfttum 

E. I. Verbs having -B in supine stem; cr5-, (Pr, cem-, also 692 
Pr. cresc-), crStum; del8-, delB-tnin; fS-, (Pr. fStS.-, frequentative), 
f9-tas (adj.); 118-, fie-tum; n6-, nS-tnin (Ulp.); -0I8- (Pr. obs-, ez- 
olesc-), -dlS-tum; -pl8-, pl6-tiun; qulS-, qulS-tum; svS-, (Pr. svesc-), 
svStum; sprS-, (Pr. epem-), sprS-tum. Perhaps also fer-re, fre-tos. 

a. Verbs having -6 in supine stem; yfigd-, v6g6-tus (adj.); 693 
vl6-, yie-ttun (Hor., but vlS-tum Ter. Lucr.). 

3. Verbs having I (for -6) in supine stem; &b01e-, ftb61I-tum; 
C&1X-, c&U-tuTus; C&1I-, c&il-turaB; dOU-, dOU-turus; exercS-, ezerd- 
tum; Mbe- (and compounds dSbd-, prabd-), h&bl-tum; j&ce-, j&d- 
tiirus; lice-, lld-tum; lUbd-, lUbl-tnin; mer6-, mfirl-tum; mi86r6-, 
mlsdrl-tiun (rarely mlsertum); mOnS-, monl-tnin; ndc8-, nSd-ttun; 
P&r6-, parl-turus; pigd-, plgl-tum; pl&c8-, pl&d-tum; pUdS-, pildX- 
tum; S618-, soU-tum; t&c8-, t&d-tas (adj.); terrd-, terrl-tom; t416-, 
vall-tmnis; y&r6-, y6rl-tum. Sorbd- has subst. sorbl-tio. 

c&ve-, c&vl-tum (old: usually cau-tum); &v6-;fiaa-tum (forfavl- 694 
turn; cf. f&vltor Plant.). So also fOvd-, fQ-tum; mOvd-, m5-tam; 
V676-, v5tum. 

2i8 Inflexions. [Book IL 

I. (i) Verbs having -I in supine stem; audi-, audi-tum; and 695 
others which have -ItI in perfect, except those in § 655. 

blandl-, l)landX-tiiin; largi-, largi-tum ; menti-, menti-tTmi; ni51i-, 
mCU-tom; parti-, partl-tum; xm)^-, potl-tnm; BortI-, sortl-tum. 

saxK^-, sanci-tom (sanc-tum more frequently); pdri-, p6r-Itus, 
adj. (but in comp. -per-tum); oppexl-, opperlttun (also oppertum); 
obliYi-, oblltum (for obllvltum) probably has stem in L Perhaps 
also pins!- (usually pins-), plnsl-tom (see Chap. xxx.). 

eiipl-, ctLpI-ttun; p6tl-, (Pr.pftt-), petl-tum; qusssl-, (Pr. quaer-), 
QTueBl-tum; r&dl-, (Pr. r&d-), rftdl-tum; til-, (Pr. t«r-), tritum; 
arcesBi-, (Pr. arcess-),arcess!-tum; so also lacessl-tum, capessi-taxn, 

(2) Verbs having -I in supine stem; cl-, (Pr. de-), cl-tum 696 
(sometimes -cl-tum) ; I-, (Pr. ind. eo), I-ttun) ; 1I-, (Pr. Un-), li- 
tum; 411I-, (Pr. ind. queo), qul-ttuii; si-, (Pr. sin-), sl-tum. 

f&gl-, fiigl-tam; §II(^-, ellcl-tum (but illicl-, Ulec-tum, &c.), 
mOrl-, mdrl-toros; oii-, Orl-tfLrus (sup. or-ttun); p&rl-, p&rl-tiiruff 
(sup. par-torn) ; pdsl-, (Pr. pOn-), pOsI-tum. 

Consonant stems, ftl-, aii-tum (more usually al-tum); frdm-, 697 
fir6m-I-tum; gSm-, gem-I-ttim; gdn- (Pr. glgn-), gdnl-tum; mdl-, 
mdl-I-tum; str6p-, strSp-I-tum ; vdm-, vOm-I-tum). In Columella 
(no v^rhere else) pecto has pectltnm. 

[Of these supines in -Itum from consonantal stems, allttun is a 698 
post-Augustan form, used perhaps to distinguish the participle of 
al6re from its use as the adjective al-tus. A like cause may be 
given for the form moUttim, to distinguish from multus; firemltmn, 
gemltum, vomltom would, without the i, have to lose their charac- 
teristic m (fi:en-tum, gen-tiun, yon-tum), or assume the ugly forms 
ffemptum, gemptum, vompttun (cf. § 70). And gemitum, genitum, 
would in the former case become identical. Oenitom is probably 
from gfinft- (comp. gna-sc-or) ; and strepltum may have had a pre- 
sent stem strepa- once. Comp. the words in § 688. All have per- 
fects in -ui.] 

ii. Verbs with a consonant preceding the supine 699 

1. Verbs which retain -t-. 

Labials. P. carp-, carp-tmn; ddp-, dep-tnm; rSp-, rep-tum; 
rttp-, (Pr. r\imp-), rup-tum (rumptom. Plant.) ; scalp-, scalp-turn ; 
sculp-, sculp-tum; sarp-, saip-tum; sexp-, serp-tunu 

■1 * 

CAap. XXIV.] Of the Supine Stem, 219 

&pl-, (Pr. apl-sc-), ap-tum; c&pl-, cap-turn; r&pl-, rap-tum; 
S89PI-, ssBp-tum. 

B. gltlb-, glup-tom ; nUb (Pr. nfll)-), nup-tum ; sciib-, scrip-turn. 

M. 6xn-, em-p-tum; tern-, (Pr. temn-), tem-p-tum. 

Gutturals, After a preceding consonant (except n), the guttural 700 
usually falls away. 

0. Qv. Coqv-, coc-tum; die-, (Pr. die-), dic-tum; dtic-, (Pr. 
dtlc), duc-tum; bore- (? Pr. lierciscere), herc-tum; ic-, Ic-tum; 
llqv-, (Pr. linqv-), -llc-tum); vie-, (Pr. vixic-), vie-tum. 

frlc&-, fi:ic-tum (also Mc&-tuin); 6nec&-, 6xL6e-tum; B6e&-, sec- 
torn (also sdc&turus). 

ared-, arc-tom or ar-tnm; dOc$-, doc-tum; misee-, miz-tuxx]^ 
(for mlBC-tum? but cf. § 635: in MSS. often mlB-tum); tarqYe-/ 

&mlel-, amle-tum; farel-, far-turn; fold-, fol-tum; sancl-, sanc- 
tum (also sancl-tum); sarcl-, sar-tum; vliicl-, vliic-tuin. 

f&el-, fac-tum; j&cl-, jactum; nanci-, (Pr. nanci-sc-), nauc-tum 
or ziac-tum ; -spici-^ -spec-turn. 

O. av. (For stems ending in -Ig-, -rg, see § 706) ; fig-, ac- 70* 
turn; cing-, clnc-tum; fig-, (Pr. and Perf. flng-), flc-tum; -fllg-^ 
-flic-tum; flugv-, (Pr. flu-), fluc-tus subst., also fluzus adj.; fr&g-, 
(Pr. firang-), frae-tum; frig-, fric-tum; frugv-, (Pr. fni-), finic- 
tum; fung-, fanc-tum; jung-, June-turn; 16g-, lec-tum; Ung-, lic- 
tum; mlg-, (Pr. ming- and mej-), mie-tum and mine-turn; -mung-, 
-mimc-tum; pftg-, (Pr. pang-), pactum; pig-, (Pr. and Perf. ping-), 
pic-tum; plang-, plane-turn; pung-, pune-tum; rdg-, rec-tum; 
rig-, (Pr. ring-), ric-tus subst.; stingy-, stlnc-tum; strig-, (Pr. and 
Perf. string-), stric-tum; strugv-, (Pr. stru-), struc-tum; sflg-, sue- 
tum; t&g-, (Pr. tang-), tac-tum; tdg-j tec-turn; tingy-, tine-tum; 
ungv-, unc-tum; vigv-, (Pr. viv-), yie-tum. 

aug$-, auc-tum; 11ig6-, luc-tus subst 

-lidt-, -lec-tum (except ellcl-tum). 

H. tr&li-, trac-tum; ySli-, yec-tum. 

Dentals, See §§ 707, 708. 70a 

tend-, ten-tum (also tensum; probably the supines of tendp and 
tcneo are mixed) ; comfid-, comes-tum (rarely). 

Nasals^ Liquids, (b'c, ' 703 

N. CSn-i can-tus subst.; -m&n-, e.g. commln-isc-, ooxnmen-tiun, 
t6nd-, tentum; ydnl-, yen-tum. 

220 Inflexions. {Book IL 

L. ftl-, al-tuin; c61-, cul-tnin; caiunil-, consia-tum; ocdU-, 
occul-tum ; vol- (Pr. inf. y^e), vtiltiui, subst. expression, 

adAle (Pr. adolesc-), adul-tnm (see Chap. xxx.). 

BfiU-, sal-tnm; sSpSU-, sSpul-tum. 

B. cfir-, (Pr. cem-), cer-tns adj. (also crS-, cr^tns); sSr-, -ser- 
tnm (also eerta, n. pi. garlands'). 

Oil-, or-tum (cf. § 696); ftp&i-, aper-tuxn; p&xi-, par-tQin. 

8. deps-, depB-tum; ISs-, (Pr. f8rl-^7), fes-tum (e.g. infes-tus, 704 
maxilfes-tus) ; gfis-, (Pr. gdr-), ges-tum; p&8-, (Pr. pa^o-), pas-torn; 
pis-, pis-tum; 4u6s-,.(Pr.4u&r-),4ues-timi; tex-, tex-tum ; tls-, (Pr. 
to-), us-tnm; tors-, (Pr. toxxe-), tos-tuxn. 

bans!-, (Pr. luiTirL-), liaus-tam; pOsI-, (Pr. pOn-), pos-tom (some- 

2. Verbs with t suffixed: but softened to s by the 705 
influence usually either of a preceding dental, or of two consonants 
of which the first is a liquid. A vowel preceding -sum is always 
long. (Other cases are but few; and the sum may be partly due 
to the active perfect (if any) having -si, as it has in all these ex- 
ceptional cases, except censul, and there the s of the stem is perhaps 
a substitute for an earlier t.) 

Labials, l&b-, lap-sum; jill)d-, Jus-sum (for J0y6-, Jousum?). 
prem-, pres-sum (for pren-sum). 

Gutturals, The guttural usually drops out. 706 

C^ QU. pare-, par-sum. 

mulce-, mul-sum. 

O. flg-, flxum (but Actum in Varr. Lucr.); flugv-, (Pr. flu-), 
fiuxus adj. (fluc-tus subst.); merg-, mer-sum; sparg-, spar-sum. 

mulg6-, mill-sum; terg6-, ter-sum. 

Dentals, The dental either drops out, the preceding vowel 707 
being therefore lengthened, or is assimilated. N.B. All dental stems 
have -sum (see § 70a). 

^ F6rlre seems a suitable verb to which to refer infestus and manl- 
festus, confestlm ; (comp. also festinare) ; and festus itself is in meaning 
allied to fSrlso, which Festus (p. 85) derives a ferlendls victimis; comp. 
foedUB fSrIre, to strike a bargain. The differing quantities of e are how- 
ever, noticeable in this last et3rmology. Fendere, to which these forms 
are often referred, both ought to make, and does make, fensus, not 

Chap, XXI F,] Of the Supine Stem, 221 

T. fleet-, flexam; mdt-, meB-snm; mitt-, mis-ram; neet-, nexam; 
nict-, (Pr. Bit-), nlzam or nl-ram; pect-, pexnm (in Columella, pedtl- 
tnm); -plect-, -plemm; yert-, yer-ram; lit-, fl-snm. 

l&te-, fiLS-snm. 

senti-, sen-sum; menti-, (Pr. m§tl-), mensum; senti-, sen-sum. 

I&tl-, (Pr. flEitisc-), fes-sus adj.; p&tl-, pas-sum; qu&ti-, quas-sum. 708 

D. c&d-, eft-snm; c»d-, cse-snm; c6d-, ces-sum; daud-, clau- 
snm; cdd-, ctL-sum; divld-, divl-sum; dd-, S-snm (rarely comes-tum, 
from comdd-); -fend-, -fen-sum; fid-, fl-sum; fid-, fissum; frend-, 
fres-sum or ftS-som; fad-, (Pr. ftmd-), fd-sum; l»d-, Isesum; ItLd-, 
Ifl-sum ; mand-, man-sum ; dd-, -6sum (e.g. per-Osus, ezOsus) ; pand-r 
pan-sum or pas-sum; pend-, pen-sum; plaud-, plau-snm; prebend-, 
preben-snm; rftd-, r&-sum; rOd-, rO-sum; seand-, scan-sum; sdd-, 
(Pr. sdnd-), scls-sum; tend-, ten-sum (also ten-tum); trtld-, trtl- 
sum; tud- or tund-, tu-sum or tun-sum. 

arde-, ar-sOrus; aud-e-, au-sum; gavid-e-, (Pr. gaude-), g&vl- 
snm; morde-, mor-sum; pende-, pen-sum; prand-, pran-sum; ride-, 
zl-sum: sdde-, ses-sum; sponde-, spon-sum; suftde-, su&-8um; t»d>e-, 
t8B-sum; tonde-, ton-sum; vide-, vl-sum. 

ordi-, or-sum; f6dl-, fos-sum; gr&dl-, gres-sum (ad-gre-tus is 
said to have been used by Ennius). 

Nasals^ Liquids^ Sec, 709 

K. m&ne-, man-sum. 

L. -cell-, -cul-sum; fall-, fal-sum; p^U-, pnl'Sum; sail-, sal- 
sum; yell-, Yul-smn. 

B. curr-, cur-sum; yerr-, yer-sum. 

S. cense- (perhaps a denvative fiom census), cen-sum ; hssse- (?) 
(Pr. lisre-), liss-sum. 

liausi- (Pr. liaurl-), bau-sllrus (also liaus-tum, see p. 247). 

Many verbs have no supine or other words of this formation 
in use. 

The supines are respectively the accusative and ablative (or in 710 
some uses apparently the dative), of a verbal noun in -u. They are 
called respectively active supine, or supine in -um, and passive supine 
or supine in -u. 

222 Inflexions. [Book II, 

From this so-called supine stem are formed, as has been said, 

the future participle active by suffixing -firo-, sing. nom. -tlrus (m.^ ; 

-lira (f.), -flmm^n.); and the past participle passive, by suffixing tne 

* ordinary case endings of the second class; e.g. sing, nom, -us (m.), 

-& (f ), -Tim (n.). 

These participles, in the appropriate gender and number, are 
used in the nominative case with the finite tenses of the verb sum, 
and in the accusative as well as the nominative with the infinitive of 
the same verb to supply the place of cert^ tenses for which therC" 
is no special form. The future participle thus supplies additional 
future tenses in the active voice especially in the subjunctive : the 

§ast participle supplies the perfect tenses of the passive voice, whe- 
ier the passive voice have a strictly passive meaning, or, as in 
deponents an active or reflexive meaning. 

A few instances are found in which the real formation of these 711 
compound expressions appears to have been foi^gotten. Thus 
Gracchus is said to have used the expresaon ** Credo ego inimicos 
meos hoc dicturum" (for dicturos) ; Valerius Antias to have vmtten 
*f Aruspices dixer^nt onmia ex sententia processurum" (Gell« i. 
7. 10). 

For the future infinitive passive is sometimes usedacombinatior* 
of the supine in -um and the passive infin. of eo, viz. Irl. imper- 
sonally; but Plautus has (RuJ, 1242), "Mi iststc videtur praeda 
praedatum irier;" and Qumtil. ix. a. 88, ^Reus parricidii damna- 
tum iri videbatur.'' 

From Claudius Ouadrigarius is quoted "hostium copias iri 
occnpatas fiitiunm " (for occupatum iri). (Gell. i. 7. 9.) 

Chap, XXK] Classification of Verbs. 223 



As the ordinary classification of verbs is often referred to, it 7" 
may be convenient here to give a brief account of it. It is as old as 
Charisius at least, who wrote probably in the fourth century after 

Verbs are generally divided according to their form into four 
classes, called Conjugations, 

The four conjugations are distinguished by the vowel which 
immediately precedes re in the infinitive mood; which in the ist 
conjugation is &: in the second 6^: in the third S, not usually be- 
longing to the stem: in the fourth X. 

The distribution of the verbs among these conjugations is as 

I. First conjugation contains all vowel verbs, whose stem ends 
in &; as fim-o, I love^ infin. &xn&-re. 

II. Second conjugation contains all vowel verbs whose stem 
ends in §; as mone-o, I advise, infin. mdn8-re. 

III. Third conjugation contains all verbs whose stem ends in 
a consonant, or in u, or a variable 1 (called X above, § 656); as 

r6g>o, I rule, infin. rdg-6re. 
trlbu>o, I assign, infin. trllm-dre. 
c&pl-o, I take, perf. c8p-l, infin. c&p6-re. 

IV. Fourth conjugation contains all vowel verbs whose stem 
ends in X, as audl-o, I hear, infin. audl-re. 

1 1* 

i. e. 5 according to the ordinary doctrine ; but see §J 650 — 6^1* 

224 Inflexions. [Book IT, 

The following are the regular forms of the perfect and supine 7»3 
in the several conjugations according to the ordinary description. 

In the ist conjugation the regular perfect is formed by the 
addition of vi to tiie stem, the regular supine by the addition of 
turn, e.g. £ni&-Yl, amft-tum. 

The exceptions are few: two verbs do, sto have a reduplicated 
perfect dfidi, stfiti: two others, Jtlvo, l&vo, lengthen the stem vowel 
e.g. (Jtlvl, Iftvl): the others add ul to the stem, the final a being 
omitted; e.g. crdpa-, crfip-ul. None form the perfect in si or i 
simple. None form the supine in suxn. 

In the and conjugation the regular perfect is formed by the 
addition of ul to the stem, the regular supine by the addition of 
Itum, the final stem vowel e being omitted, as mone-, mon-uL The 
exceptions are numerous, and of all kinds: the larger number add- 
ing bL Many have the supine in sum. 

In the 3rd conjugation all the forms are much used, some 
having even the long characteristic vowel of the other three conju- 
gations, e.g. Btemo, str&vl; spemo, Bpr§vi; tero, trivl. These are 
clearly instances of a vowel stem in the perfect and supine super- 
seding a consonant stem. Many have the supine in sum. 

In the 4th conjugation, the regular perfect is formed by the 
addition of vl and the regular supine by the addition of turn to 
the stem; e.g. audl-vl, audl-tuxn. The exceptions are few: one 
lengthens the stem vowel (vSnl-o, vSni): one simply adds the per- 
sonal inflexions (compdri-o, compdr-1). Three have perfect in ul; 
viz. aperio, operio, and sallo, nine liave perfect in si. Two, viz. 
60 and do, have short I in supine. None form the perfect by re- 
duplication, except perhaps repdri-o, repp6r-l. Several have supine 
in sum. 

Chap, XXVL\ Complete Inflexions of Verbs, 225 




In this chapter are given specimens of the complete inflexions 
of verbs : first, of the tenses formed from the present stem ; second- 
ly, of the tenses formed from the perfect stem ; and lastly of the 
verbal nouns, which have the same base as the so-called supines, 
and assist in supplying defective tenses. 

For the present stem the different persons in each number are 
given in full, of one consonant verb (rtgo), and of one verb (&mo) 
belonging to the class of vowel verbs which is most numerous, apd 
has inflexions most different from consonant verbs, viz. a stems. 
Specimens, less fiiU, of four other classes of vowel stems, viz. in u, 
I, X and 6 are given on pp. aa8, 229. The omitted forms can be 
easily supplied by comparison with the forms of rego and amo. 

The tenses formed from the perfect stem and the verbal nouns 
classed under the supine stem have the same inflexions generally, 
whatever be the verbal stem, except so far as regards the formation 
of the perfect and supine stems themselves. And the differences in 
the formation of these do but very partially coincide, as has been 
seen (ch. xxiii. xxiv.), with the classification of verbal stems. 
The specimens given on pp. 230, 231 are therefore only an arbitrary 
selection of the most striking sorts. 




[Book II. 

Present Stem, 

Consonant Conjugation. 

Active Voice. 

Passive Voice. 






Sing. T. rfig-o 




2. reg-l8 




3. reg-lt 




Plur.i. reg-Im-tlB 




2. reg-It-l8 




3. res-nnt 





Sing. I. T6g-am 


2. reg-SB 


3. reg-«t 


Plur.i. reg-Sm-tlB 



2. reg-St-l8 


3. reg-ent 



Sing. I. rSg-Sb-am 




2. r!Bg-et)-as 




3. reg-el>-&t 




Plur.i. reg-eb-am-us reg-er-Sm-Hs 



2. reg-eb-9,t-Is 




3. reg-eb-ant 








Present. Sing. 2. 



Plur. 2. 



Future. ^^^S' V 



t - ■ ■"■ 


Plur. 2. 








Verbal Noun- Forms. 

Active. Passive. 

Infinitive (Present) r6g-dr-6 rgg-i 

Participle (Present), Nom. r6g-ens 

Nom ) Gerundive "j 

Gerund Ace C ^^S"®^*-'"^ nom.masc.}r6g-eiid-us 



J &c. 

Ckap.XXVI.'] Complete Inflexions of Verbs. 


Present Stem. Principal Fowel Conjugation, 


Active Voice, 

Passive Voice. 

Sing. I. fim-o 

2. am-fts 

3. am-&t 
Plur. I. am-ftm-tLs 

2. am-S.t-Is 

3. am-Ant 

Sing. T. fiin-9,b-o 

2. am-&b-l8 

3. am-&1)-It 
Plur. I. am-&b-Im-iis 

2. am-&b-It-Is 

3. am-ftb-imt 

Sing. I. &in-9,b-fiin 

2. axii-S.b-3A 

3. am-9,b-&t 
Plur. I. am-&b-9jii-11s 

2. am-ftb-ftt-Is 

3. am-ab-ant 

Subjunctive. Indicative, 















Sm-Sx-dm &m-8.b-&r 

azn-9x-Ss azn-ab-Ar-Is 

am-9x-St am-ab-Slt-iLr 

am-ar-em-tLs am-ab-ftm-iLr 

am-ar-St-Is am-ab-&mln-l 

am-ar-ent am-ab-ant-ur 















Sing. 2. 
Plur. 2. 
Sing. 2) 

Plur. 2. 

Imperative Mood. 






Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Active. Passive. 

Infinitive Present. fim-Ar-d &m-Ar-i 

Participle Present Nom. fim-ans 


Gerundive ) 
am-and-um nom. masc. ^ fim-and-ils 
&c. »ng. 


Ace. J 

) &c. 



[Book II. 

Present Stem. 

Other Votiuel Conjugations, 

Indicative Mood. 


Active Voice. 716 

Sing. z. 


c&p-i-o aud-i-o 




cap-Is aud-l8 




cap-It aud-It 




cap-Im-us aud-Im-fts 




cap-It-l8 aud-it-lB 




cap-l-unt aud-i-imt 


Sing. I. 


c&p-l-am aud-i-am 




cap-1-68 aud-1-68 



&c. &c. 


Sing. I. 


c&p-l-eb-am aud-l-6b-am 




cap-l-Sb-&8 aud-i-eb-as 



&c. &c. 


Subjunctive Mood. 

Sing. I. 


c&p-i-am aud-i-am 




cap-l-9A aud-l-fts 



&c. &c. 


Sing. I. 


c&p-dr-em aud-ir-em 




cap-dr-SB aud-Ir-§s 



&c. &c. 



Imperative Mood. 

Sing. 2. 


C&P-6 aud-I 


Plur. 2. 


cap-It-6 aud-!t-e 


Sing. 2 

Plur. 2. 



cap-It-o aud-It-o 



cap-It-0t-S aud-It-5t-e 




cap-l-unt-o aud-l-uxit«o 


Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Inf.Pr. trib-u-dr-e c&p-dr-e aud-Ir-e xnOn-Sr^ 

Part.Pr. trlb-u-ens c&p-i-ens aud-i-ene mdn-ens 

&c. &c. &c. &c. 

Gerund, trib-u-end-um c&p-l-end-um aud-i-end-nm mdn-end-um 
&c. &c. &c. &c. 

Chap, XX VI, '\ Complete Inflexions of Verbs, 


Present Stem. Other Vowel Conjugations, Passive Voice. 

Indicative Mood. 

Sing. I. trn)-u-6r 
a. trib-n-6r-ls 
3. trib-u-It-ttr 

Plur. I. trib-u-Im-tir 

2. trib-u-Imln-I 

3. trib-u-unt-iir 

Sing. I. trlb-u-dx 
2. trib-u-Sr-l8 

Sing. I. trIb-u-Sb-&r 
2. trib-u-€b-ax-l8 











cap-l-unt-Hr aud-i-unt-tir 


cap-l-&r aud-i-&r 

cap-1-Sr-Is aad-i-6r-l8 

&c. &c. 


c9.p-l-eb-&r aud-i-Sb-ftr 
cap-l-@b-ar-l8 aud-i-Sb-Sx-Is 
&c. &c. 









Sing. I. trlb-u-&r 
2. trib-u-Sx-Is 

Sing. I. trib-u-€r-6r 
2. trib-u-dr-er-l8 

Subjunctive Mood. 


c&p-i-&r aud-i-&r 

cap-i-Ar-is aud-l-Ar-Is 
&c. &c. 


c&p-dr-dr aud-Ir-fo 
cap-dr-8r-i8 aud-Ir-6r-is 
&c. &c. 



Imperative Mood. 

Sing. 2. trIb-u-Sr-€ 
Plur. 2. trib-u-imln-i 




Sing. 2; 

Plur. 3. trlb-u-unt-dr 

cap-It-5r aad-It-5r 
cap-i-imt-Or audrl-unt-fir 



Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Infin. Pres. trib-u-I c&p-i aud-Ir-X 

Gerundive. trlb-u-end-Hs c&p-l-end-lis aud-i-end-Hs 
&c. &c. &c. 





[Book II. 

Perfect 1 


Perfect Stem. 

Present 'Verb 
stem. stem. 

I. Reduplication, 

1. tang- t&g- tS-tlg- 

2. pend- (orpend-d-) p6-pend- 

3. mordrd- mord- md-mord- 

II. Lengthening of stem^vonveL 

4. ftg- 6g- 

5. Jtiv-a- Jtlv- Jtlv- 

6. vid-6- vid- vld- 

7. cd.p-1- c&p- cSp- 

III. Addition of -s-. 

8. carp- carp-8- 

9. c5m- coxn-p-s- 

10. r6g- * re-x- 

11. mulg-g- xuulg- miil-8- 

12. lS8d- ISB-S- 

13. qu3,t-I- quas-s- 

14. baur-I- liaus- liau-8- 

IV. (a) Addition of -u-. 

Active Voice. 7^7 

15. ddm-S,- 

16. in5n-d- 

17. tex- 



(J?) Addition of -V-. 

18. &111-&- SmSi-v- 

19. fle- flS-v- 
sue-sc- 8u6- suS-y- 
aud-i audl-y- 
p6t- pSti-v- 
sln- bI- Bl-y- 



V. -Without change of stem. 

24. trltou- 

25. BOlV- 

26. vert- 

27. find- 



Suffixes of tense, mood, person, 
appended to Perfect stem. 

Indicative, Subjunctive, 

Fut. Perfect. 

I Sing. 





-6r-o -6r-izn 


I Plur. 
















I Sing. 


I Plur. 


Infnitive Perfect, 

Chap, XXVI.] Complete Inflexions of Verbs, 


Supine Stem. 

Present Verb Supine 
stem. stem. stem. 

1. tang- t&g- tac-t- 

2. pend- (or pen-s- 


3. xnord-6- mord- mor-s- 

4. Sir- ac-t- 

5. juv-a- jtiv- jti-t- 

6. vid-6- vid- • vi-s- 

7. c&p-I- c&p- cap-t- 

8. caxp- caxp-t- 

9. cOm- com-p-t- 

10. rSg- rec-V 

11. xuulg-d- xunlg- xuiil-s- 

12. ISBd- ISB-S- 

13. qu&t-I- qu&t- quas-s- 

14. haur-l- liaus- hau-s- 

15. ddm-&- 

16. m5iL-d- 

17. tex- 

18. &m-&- 

19. flS- 

20. Bue-sc- 

21. aud-I- 

22. p6t- 

23. sln- 

24. trlbu- 

25. BOlV- 

26. vert- 

27. flnd- 

d6in- dom-It- 
mOn- mdn-It- 



sl- 0l-t- 




Hd- fis-s- 

Noun suffixes appended to Supine stem. 

Active Voice. 
Future participle, 
-tlr-il8(m.), -iir-fi.(f.), -11r-tim(n.).sing.nom. 
&c. &c. &c. 

Future infinitive. 


-nm, i.e. accusative case of verbal noun 
with u- stem. 

-fl, i.e. ablative, or sometimes dative, 
case of same. 

Passive Voice. 
Past participle, 
-Hb (m.), -ft (f.), -um (n.). sing. nom. 
&c. &c. &c. 

With this participle in the proper gender 
and number are used certain tenses of the 
verb sum, I am, in order to form the per- 
fect tenses of the passive verb, viz. 

Indicative, Subjunctive. 


Perf. Fut. Perf. 

-lis (-ft, -um) sum Sro sim 

68 Sris BiB 

est feit Bit 

-I (-8B, -ft) siLmuB drlmuB slmuB 

estlB drltls Bitis a 

sunt dmnt Bint 3 

I Sing. 



Indie, Subjunc, 

'XkA (-ft, -um) dram essem 

erftB 68868 

6r&t 688et 

-I (-88, -ft) erftmuB 688emuB 

ir&tiB 688eti8 

6Tant 688ent 

I Sing. 



*Perf, pass, infinitive, 

'fLS (-&, -um) 6886 

232 Inflexions. [Book IL 

8-Ixii s-i-em 


8-l8 s-i-6s 


S-It 8-1-dt 




8-lnt ' s-l-ent 



usual forms. 





The tenses, &c. of the verb of being are partly from the root 719 
68, whence es-uxn, Or. d\t.l (for eV/iO* ^°^ partly from the root fa- 
(whence flo), Gr. <^i5g>. 

N.B. The parts of tenses not here given are quite regular. 

Indicati've, usual form, old forms. 

Present Sing. i. 8-Tim, / am 

2. ds» Tbou art 

3. es-t, He is 
Plur. I. B-tUn-us, We are 

a. es-t-ls, Te are 

3. 8-imt, They are 
Future Sing. i. 6r-o, I shall be 

2, er-Is, Thou nvilt be 
Plur. 3. er-unt 
Imperf. Sing. i. er-am, / fwas 

Perfect Sing. i. ta-l,I<was or have been fu-6r-lm 

2. fa-is-tl fa-er-lB 

3. fu-It fa-€r-it 
Plur. I. fu-Im-UB fti-er-lxn-us 

2. fa-l8-ti-B fa-er-!t-is 

3. fa-Sr-imt fa-er-lnt 
Comp. Fut. 

Sing. I. ta-^T-o, Ishall have been 
Plur. 3. fa-er-lnt 
Pluperf. Sing. I. ta-eT'Bm,Ihad been fa-is-sem 

Present Sing. 2. 6s, be Future Sing. 2 and 3. es-t-o 

Plur. 2. es-t-6 Plur. 2. es-t-6t-5 

3. 8-unt-o 
Present. es-sS. Past, fa-ls-sfi. Future. fd-r6 orfaturu8es88, 

or ftdssd. 
Present, (s-ens or ens) only in Future, ftlt-llr-lls, -ft, -tun. 


Chap, XX'FII,] Inflexions of the Verb sum, &»€, 233 

Es in pres. ind. is always long in Plaut., Terence. 72c 

When est came after a vowel or m, the e was omitted both in 721 
speaking and writing (nata st, natum st, oratlo st). So e. g. in Cicero, 
and (according to L. MilUer) always both in scenic and dactylic 
verse. The same was not unfrequentiy the case with es after a 
vowel, and perhaps after m also; e.g. nacta'a, llgniun's. In the 
comic writers a short final syllable in s also coalesces with est; e. g. 
factust, opust, simlllst, for factus est, opus est, similiB est; occasion- 
ally with es ; e. g. nactu's, simlll's, for nactus es, simiUs es. (Ritschl.) 

An old form for the fut. indie, was escit, escunt ; (apparently an 712 
inchoative form). It is found once in Lucretius. 

The form for the pres. subj. slem, &c. (§590) is frequent in 
Plautus, Terence, and early inscriptions; Cicero speaks of it as used * 
in his time (flrat. 47, § 157). Fuam, &c. is also frequent in Plautus 
and other scenic poets, except Terence, who like Vergil uses it once 
only. The compounds occasionally have -sles, -siet, -sient. 

The perf. and tenses formed from it are in Plautus occasionally 723 
fdvlt, fdyerlt, &c. So also Ennius has faisset (ap. Gell. 12, 4. 3). 

Like sum are inflected its compounds, viz. absum (perf. abfoi or 724 
afol), adsum or assum (perf. adfoi or affiii), desum (de-est, de-eram, 
6cc. pronounced dSat, dSram, &c.), insum, Intersum, obsum, pra- 
sum (3rd pers. sing, prsast), prSsum (pr6d- before a vowel; e.g. 
prod-es, prod-ero), aubsum, supersum. Of these adsum and praB- 
sum alone have a present participle absens, prsesens. 

Possum, / can^ C9mpounded of p6te sum, usually retains the 725 
t before a vowel (e.g. p6t-es, p6t-eBt, pdtestls, pot-ero, p5teram), 
but assimilates it before s (e.g. posstLmus, possunt, &c.). The 
imperf. subj. is pos-sem, inf. posse (in Plaut. potessem, potesse), 
perf. ind. potui (probably for potlvi, the perfect of an active form 
of potior: comp. posivl, posui). It has no participle, potens being 
used merely as an adjective, pmverful. Fossiem, possies, &c. later 
possim, possis, &c. are frequent in Plautus and Terence. 

The full forms, potls sum, es, est, eram, ero, sim, &c. are found 
in prae- Augustan poets; especially potia est in Terence, Lucretius, 
and once in Vergil; pote fulsset once in Ter. Fotla and pote are 
also used as direct predicates without the verb. 

Fotestur, poasitur, poteratur, are quoted as used occasionally 
with passive infinitive in early writers (Pacuvius, Gael. Ant &c.). 
Fotestur also in Lucr. 9. loio. 



[Book II, 




Indicative Mood, 
Present Tense. 
Sing. I. do 

2. dfts 

3. dftt 
Plur. I. d&muB 

2, d&tl8 

3. dant 
Future Sing. i. d&bo 

2. d&bis 
Imperf. Sing. i. d&l)axn 

Perf. Sing. i. dMl 

Subjunctive Mood, 
Pres. Sing. i. dem 
Plur. I. d§mus 
Imperf. Sing. i. d&rem 


Pres. Sing. a. d& 

Plur. 2. d&te 
Future Sing. a. dftto 

Plur. a. d&t5te 

3. danto 

Present, dftre 
Future. d&tHrum esse 


Present, dans 
Gerund, dandum 
Gerundive, dandus 
Perfect, d&tus 


•be twilling, 






be unwilling. 
nOlo • 

non ▼ultis 
(not used) 











for mag-^olo), 

(not used) 








(not used) 

Of these verbs do alone has a pasave voice. The forms der and 727 
demur are not actually found anywhere. 

For the subjunctive forms dulm, &c. see § 589. 

In prae- Augustan language the 3rd pers. sing, and and pers. plural was 728 
▼olt, ▼oltis. In conversational language si ▼is, si ▼ultis became sis, sultis. 

For non ▼is, non ▼ult Plautus has frequently nS^ls, nfivult; on the 
other hand, for noUs, nolit, nollnt, nollem he has sometimes the ^11 forms 
non ▼elis, &c. (In Martial ix. 7 nonvis occurs.) 

Cliap. XXVIIL] Inflexions of some Lregular Verbs, 235 

Also in Plautus frequently m&vOlo (once also in Terence), m&ydlet, 
xnavSlim, mayellB, mayellt, mayellem. 


Eo (stem 1-), 

(used as pas- 
sive of facio), 



be borne. 








Mis or 68 





MIt or est 








MItis or estis 
























factus sum 



l&tus sum 



Sdam or ddlm 





dd&mus or 





dddrem or essem 

. ferrem 




6de or 6s 





ddlte or este 




MIto or esto 












6d6re or esse 



ItiLruR esse 

flEictum iri 

fisilnis esse 

Iftttlms esse 

l&tum iri 




G. dnntis 



fiimdiim -di 





-eiindus (in 




Ambio is the only compound of eo, which is inflected regularly like 730 
a verb of the fourth conjug. 

Futums Sim, fore, fatnros esse, frequently supply the place of parts of flo. 73X 

Fierem, fleri, in Plautus and Terence often have the stem 1 long. 

Of the compounds with prepositions the following forms occur: con- 
flt, confleret, conflerent, confleri; defit, defiunt (Gell.), deflet, deflat, defleri; 
ecfleri; inflt, interfiat, interfieri; superflt, superfiat, superfleri. 

236 Inflexions. [Book II, 

In the passive we find estur for editor (3 pres. ind.), and essg- 732 
tur (once in Varr.) for ddfirStur (3 pers. imperf. subj.). The con- 
tracted forms are also found from comedo, and some (ezest, exesse, 
ezesset) from ezddo. 

Qu6o, nSquSo, are declined like eo, but have no imperative, par- t-.-\ 
ticiple, or gerund. (Nequeuntis is quoted once from Sallust.) Only 
the present indie, and subj. are at all frequent. 

Quia and quit (pres. act.) are only used after non, as non quia 
(for nequis), nonquit (for nequit). With the passive infinitive 
there are a few instances in early writers of passive forms, qultus 
sxun, quitur, queatur; nequita est, nequitnr. Queatur also in Lucr. 
I. 1045. Cf. § 725. 



The following verbs are used as deponents. Sometimes they, 734 
especially the past participle, are used in a passive as well as an 
active sense. Instances of this are here mentioned. Sometimes the 
deponent use is exceptional, and the active form with corresponding 
passive usual. Such deponents have here the name of the authors, 
who use them, simply appended. A few rare words are omitted. 
Compounds also are usually omitted. 

Adjatari (Pac, Afran.; adJtLtare Plant., Ten); ftdOlarl (adulftre 
Lucr., Cic. poet.); sBmulSxl; altercftri (altercSxe Ter.); alucin&ri; 
ampuUfiri; ancill&ri (old); &pl8ci {pass, once. Plant.; so &deptus 
Sail., Ovid, &c.; Indipiscdre Plant.); &pzic&rl; &qtlari; arbitrftrl 
(j^ass,^ Plant, Cic. once; arbltrSxe Plant.); arcliltectaxl; argtLmen- 
t&rl; argtlt&ri; aspem&rl; assentirl (also/^jj., and assentire frequent 
in Cic, also Ov., Tac); assent&ri; auctidnftrl; auctlp&ri (aucupSre 
scenic poets); augilr&rl (augOrftre, Plant. &c., Verg.; auguratus 
pass,^ Cic., Liv.); auBpIcSxl (ausplcSxe early writers; auspic&tus 
pass,^ Ter., Cic, Liv.); aiudllftri; bacchari; baub&rl; bell&rl 
(Verg.); blandiri (eblandlttis /^jj. Cic); c&lumnl9xl; calvl; c&yil- 
l&ri; cauB&rl; circtU&rl; cdmlss&rl; cdmit&ri {passi've Lucr., Ov., 
V^.] pass, part, frequently Cic, Liv. &c.; comltare Ov.); com- 
ment&ri (tass, part. Cic.) ; commlniscl (pass, part, Ovid) ; commH- 
nlcari (Liv.); compdrlrl (Ter., Sail.); expfiriri (pass. part. Cic, 
Liv. frequently, Tac); contlGn&rl; conflictSxl (rarely zspass.\ con- 
flictSxeTer.); c5n&rl; conslll&ri; consplc&ri (/^jj.Sall.); conteclm&ri; 
contemplarl (contemplare Plant, often); convlciarl; conyiv&ri; cri- 
xnln&rl (pass. Cic; crlmlnare Plant.); cunct&rl (pass. part, impers. 

Chap.XXIX.] List of Deponent Verbs. 237 

Tac); deaploarl {past, part, Plaut., Ten); digladlftrl; dign&rl 
(dlgnare Att, Gic. poet.; pass, part, Cic, Verg.); ddmlnari; olu- 
cnbrftrl (rare) ; 6plU&ri ; ezdcr&ri {pass. part, Cic.) ; ezpergisci; f&lxrl- 
cftri (Plaut., Corn., Cic, Tac; pass, Quintil?; part, pass, Ov., Liv., 
Suet, Tac; fabricare Hon, Ov., Sen. &c); ffttoWarl; fftmiiiajl; 
f&t§ri {pass, Cic?) ; conf ItSri {part, pass, Cic, Sen., Quint., &c.) ; 
prdfitdri {part, pdss. Ov., Sen.); f&tisci (Lucr.); fSner&rl (part, 
pass. Plaut., Ten, Scaevol.; fenerare Ten, Sen., Plin., &c.); fSri&ri; 
fluctuari (Liv., Sen.; fluotuare Plaut., Corn., Cic, Verg.); fSri 
(effatu8/^jj. Cic, Liv.); firOment&ri; fininisci (old); firui; finutr&ri 
{pass. Sail., pass. part. Veil. ; ftustrftre once Plaut.,) ; fr&tlc&rl (Cic. 
fruticare Col., Plm.); fUngl (perfimctum ^^jj. Cic); fOrftrl; gestl 
dU&rl; glGriSxi; gr&dl; grsBcSri; grass&rl; gr&tificftrl; gr&tSxi 
gr&ttU&ri; gr&y&rl; hdxldl&ri; liilufirl; hortfirl^; hospit&ri; J&dU&n 
imfiginfiri; IsolMjci {pass, part, Cic poet., Ov., Quint.); infiti&rl 
iiiJIlriSli; insldi&ri; interprfitari {pass, part. Cic, Liv., &c) 
J6c&ri; Irascl; Jurg&ri (?Hor., Jurgare Ten, Cic); Jtiy6n&ri; l&bi; 
l89t&rl; lamentftrl; larglrl; latr6cln&rl; ISnGcInbl; libidln&ri; 11- 
cSri; Ucit&ri; lignftri; Idqvl; lilcr&rl; luctftri (luctare £nn., Plaut., 
Ten); ItldifXcarl (ludiflcare and pass, Plaut. often); Itlxttriaxl 
(usually luxuTlare) ; mftoMn&ri {part, pass. Sail.) ; xnandilc&ri (old) ; 
xn&tdri&ri; m6d6ri; rnddlcftri (medicare more common); m6dit&ri 
{pass. part. Plaut., Cic, Liv., Tac) ; mendlcftri (Plaut.; oftener 
mendicare); mentiri {pass. part. Ov., Quint., Plin.; ementitus /^jjj. 
Cic); mercftrl (/«jj. /«r/. Prop., Plin.); mSrSri, to deser've (fre- 
quent; rarely to earn; mdrSre just the reverse: of the compounds 
emerere, commerere are more frequent than the deponent forms); 
metftri {^art. pass. Hor., Liv.); mStirl {part, pass. Cat., Cic); 
xnlnlt&ri (minltare Plaut. rarely) ; mlnfirl (intermlnatus /^jj. Hon); 
mlrfiri; mlsdr&ri; xnls6r5rl (miserSre Lucn; cf. ch. xxx.); m6ddr&rl 
{pass, part, Cic, Sail.); m6dai&rl {pass, part, Ov., Suet., &c); 
mcech&rl; mSlIri; mdrl; mdrftri (morare Plaut. rarely); m5TUf6rafl; 
milnferarl (also munerftre); murmtlTari (rare; commurmurari Cic); 
miituari (pass. part. Plin.); nandsci {fut.^ nanciam Gracchus); 
nasci; nauciilftrl (Mart, once); nSgOtiftri; nictari (Plin., nictare 
Plaut.); nldiiiarl (Plin. once); nltl (enlsum est impers. Sail.); 
nixarl (Lucn); ndgari; nuiwUnarl; ntltricarl (also nutricare); 
nUtriri (Verg. once; usually nutrire); obUviflcl {pass. part. Verg., 
Prop.); obBldiftrl; 6d6rafl; Omlaftrl (abomlnatus/^^jj. Hon, Liv.); 
6p6rari; 6plnftri (oplnare Enn., Pacuv.; pass, part, Cic); OpItH- 
larl; oppdriri; opsGnftri (Plaut., opsonare usually); ordlrl (ezorsus 
pass, Plaut., Cic, Verg.); ftriri; oadtftrl (also osdtare); osciUfixi; 
otlftrl; p&biU&ri; p&dsci {pass, part, -Cic, Liv.); pftl&rl; palpftrl 
(Plaut., Hor., also palpare); pandldUftrl; p&r&slt&ri; partXrl (par- 

1 In form frequentative : the simple verb m the 3rd pers. (hteitnr) 
is quoted from Ennius. 

238 Inflexions. [Book IT. 

tire Plaut., Lucr., Sail., pass, part, Cic, Liv., Verg., &c.;^ dlsper- 
tlre, imp^rtire usually); i>ascL, of animals (sometimes pascdre; 
frequently pascens; depascl pass, Cic. once); p&tl; p&trOcIn&ri; 
pdcfU&rl; percontarl; pfedgrinfirl; pMcUtftrl (j^ass, part, Cic. 
once); pUlftsopMri (pliUosopliatTizii pass, impers, Plaut. once^; 
plgnfiraxi, take in pledge; plgrftrl (pigraxls a fut, perf, Lucr.;; 
piscftrl; -plectl (amplectSre, complectdre rdxt\ pass, part, rare); 
polUcSri (j>ass, part, Ov.); polUcIt&cI; p6p1U&ri (populare Verg., 
pass, Liv., pass, part, often) ; pOttrl (potire» to put in possession^ 
Plaut. once); prsed&ri; prsemifirl (rare); pras&girl (once Plaut; 
prsBsaglre is usual); prsBStOl&rl; pnBvSxIcftri; prScftri; prdc&ri 
(rare); proBlifirl; prdflcisci; prooBmlSrl; pflnlrl (Cic; usually pu- 
nlre); quadr&plftrl; quSrl; rftdlcftrl; r&tidclnftrl; rScord&rl; rfifra- 
g&rl; reUqu&rl; r6ri; rimftrl; rlngl; rlz&rl; ructfirl (Van*., Hon; 
usually ructare); rustic&ri; s&crlflc&rl (Varr.; sacrlflcare usually); 
Bdsclt&ri; scltaxl; scortSxl; scrilt&ri (part, pass. Sen.; perscrutare 
Plaut); Bcurrfirl; sectaxi (rarely pass.\ Insectare Plaut.); sequl 
(pass. Com. once; ohB^cVitiim pass, impers, Plaut.); sermGcInfirl; 
sGlftrl; BortM (sortire Enn., Plaut, pass, part, Cic, Prop.); spft- 
tl&ri; Bpectuaji; st&btuarl (stabulare Verg., Stat); stipm&rl; 
stdm&chaxl; ByS,yl&rl (or savlari); subsldi&rl; suffrSg&rl (suflfragare 
old); suppStlari; susplcfixi (jass, once Plaut.); testlficari (part, 
pass. Cic, Ov.); testSjl (testatus, and compounds often passive, 
Cic, Ov., Quint.); tilcari (once eztricari Plaut.; usually extricare, 
Intricare); tristSxl; triltlnarl; tuburclnftrl; tuSrl (pass, Varr.; tu- 
tus /«jj. almost always; tuSre rare and old); tatftrl (pass.] Plaut., 
Cic rarely); tiimultu9Jl (pass, impers, Ter., Caes., Liv.; tumul- 
tuare Plaut.); ulciscl (pass. Sail, once; pass. part. Liv.); Urinarl; 
fltl (the active utSre in Cat. &c.) ; v&d&ri (part. pass. Plaut. once) ; 
v&g&ri (vagare old); y&tlclnarl; veilficftrl (veliflcare Prop., Plin. 
once; part. pass. Juv.); vSlitarl (Plaut.); vSnarl; v6n6rftri (vene- 
rare Plaut; part. pass. Verg., Hon); vfirScundari; vfirSrl; vergl 
(Lucr., Lucan); vemiictuari; vermlnarl (also verminarfe) ; vers&zl; 
vescl; yUlcarl old (vilicare Cic. once); TittUarl. 

The following are used as past participles in the same sense as 735 
the active inflexions. 

&dultas; cSxL&tus; co&Utas (Tac) ; concrStus; consplr&tus (Caes., 
Suet) ; conflagra.tus (Com.) ; deflagratus (Cic) ; eventum (subst) ; 
fluzus; InvStdr&tus; JfLr&tus (conjuratus) ; nupta; occ&sus (post, 
ante, ad, occasum solem Plaut) ; 5sus (Sen., ezSsus, pei^sus often 
generally); plS^Itus; p5tus (also pass.); prsBteritus (of time and 
the like); pransus (Cic, Liv., Hor.); qvlStus (reqvletus Liv., Sen., 
&c) ; svStus (and comp.) ; t&cltus. 




The following list contains all verbs of the Latin language, with 736 
certain exceptio;is, which exceptions are — 

I. All verbs with a- or 1- stems, which have their pres. infini- 
tive in -are, -Ire (-ftrl, -Irl), perf. in -ftvl, -Ivl (-fttus, -Itus, sum), 
and supine in -fttum, -Itiiin. (Lists of both, tolerably complete as 
regards I- stems, will be found in Book III.) 

a. All verbs with e- stems, which have perfect in -ul, but no 
supine. (They are generally intransitive, and are named in 
Ch. XXII.) 

3. Most inchoatives, which either have no perfect or supine, or 
one of the same form as the simple verb. (They are all named 
either in Ch. xx. or Book III.) 

4. Verbs compounded with prepositions. But such are 
named as differ from the form of the simple verb in perfect or 
supine, or which agree with it in having a reduplication in the 

5. A few verbs, with e- or 1- stems, which have no perfect or 
supine, are given in an appended list at the end of the chapter. 

The supine is not much used, but is here mentioned wherever it 
or a perfect participle is known, as this is similarly formed. 

N. B. Where the English translation as given here, whether 737 
with or without a preposition, allows of the inmiediate addition of 
an object, the verb is transitive (though it may perhaps also be 
intransitive), e.g. arcesso, send for; Isedo, burt^ are transitive. Where 
it requires the addition of an English preposition^ the verV^ ^ 
intransitive, e. g. ndceo, be burtfuL 

240 Inflexions. [Book IL 

Present Perfect. Supine. Pres. Stem. 


accerso. See arceaso. 733 

ftcno, sharpen foal ftctLtnm &cu6re &dl- 

ftgo, do^ dri've Sgl actum figure ftg- 

&digo, &d8gl, S4actum, adXgSre. So the other compounds, 

Except: c5go (c6Sgl, cOactum, cOg^re), d6go, which has no perf. 
or supine, prGdIgo which has perf. only, and 

circuxxid.go, perd,go, which retain a in pres., &c. 

s&t&go is really two words: perf. egl satis. 

alo. say aj- 

The following fonns only are preserved, pres. aJo, ftis, &Xt (Ss, 

alt in Plaut.), aJunt. 

Imp. aJStiam* &c. complete. In Plaut. and Ter. idbam. Pres. 
subj. aJas, aJat. The part, alens is used only as adj. 

algeo, be cold aM algere alg-6- 

The participle in compar. neut. alslus occurs in Cicero^. 

&lo, nourish^ raise ftlul altnm ftldre &1- 

&Utum is found in post- Augustan writers. 

&mIclo, clothe ftmlctum ftmlcire Umlc-I- 

amlcul and amlxl are both said to have been used for perf. Fronto 
has inf. amiclsse. 

ango, throttle^ vex acgfire ang- 

&piBGOT,fajtentoone'- aptum &plscl &p-i- 

self, get 

More usual in compound ftdiplscor, &deptas sum, ftdlpisd. See 
also coepio. • 

axcto, inclose y Aeep off' arcul adj. artus arcSre arc-6- 

artus, only used as adj. confined, narrow: 
ezerceo, exercise^ ezercul, ezerdtum, ezercere. So also coerceo. 

arcesso, fetch, send arcesBivl arcessitum arcessdre f arcess- 
for larcess-i- 

Another form is accerso. In pass. inf. arcesslrl sometimes 

ardeo, be on fire arsl ardSre ard-e- 

Fut. part, arsdrus. 

arguo, charge Qwith argul argHtmn arguSre argCL- 

crime &c.) 

1 A positive alsls (not alsui) would suit also alsla (Lucr. v. 1015). 

Chap. XXX?[ List of Verbs. 241 

argHtus, rare, excq>t as adj. sharp, Fut. part, argoltums (once 
in Sail.). 

Present Perfect, Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

audeo, dare ansnm andSre aud-6- 

ausiu sum is used for perf., / bante dared, ausus abo (rarely) 
passive part. (Vei^g. Tac). 

&Te, imperat. bail (in Quintilian^s time h&Td) also &v6to, plur. &y§te : 

inf. &y6re. Martial has &v6. 

&Yeo, long no perf. or sup. ftvSre ftv-S- 

aiigeo,/»rr^^^(trans.)aiizi auctnm aiig6re aiig-6- 


b&tno, beaty fince bfttul t>&tafoe bfttfl- 

(with a weapon) 

bibo, drink bibl bibfoe bib- 

cSu±o,fall cdddi c&smn c&ddre c&d- 

ocddo, occldl, occftsnm, occXdfire. The other compounds, 
except rScIdo and (rarely) inddo, have no supine. 

csBdo,y^//, cut, slay cdddi csBSum cadfoe cad- 

ooddo, ooddl, oodsimi, ooddSre. So all the compounds. 

c&leo, he bot cSlul . (cfilXtttroB) cSlSre cSl-6- 

calvor, play tricks (also as passive) calvl calv- 

Only in early writers for later calmnnior. 

-cando, Ugbt^ only vB compoimds. cand- 

e. g. accendo, aooendl, acoeiiBiim, acc«nddre. 

c&no, sing^ play cddni (oantofl c&nfoe c&n- 

(on a harp &c.). subst.) 

condno, conclntd, conoentom, condnfire. So ocdno (also once 
occednl), Indno and pradno. No perf. found of other com- 

c&pesso. undertake .c&peUM c&pesaltiiiii cap68Bere|2^j_ 

c&plo, take c9pl captum c&pdre c&p-I- 

condpio, concSpl, conceptmn, condpSre. So the other com- 
pounds, except antecaplo, antecepl, anteceptom, antec&pdre. 

cftreo, be in want c&ml (oftxItl&mB) oftrSre c&r-d- 

cftro, card (wooh), very rare, oftrdre car- 

carpo, nibble, pluck carpal caxptnm caipdre caxp- 

decerpo, decexpsl, deoerptnm, decerpdre. So the other com- 

242 Inflexions, [Book If. 

Present Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

c&veo, be <warej be c&vl cautiim c&vSre c&v-d- 

<ivare of 

cayltnm is written twice in a seventh century (u.c.) inscription. 

tMio, ghfe <ivayy jield CQBSl ceBsnm cSdfire cSd- 


c6do, give, said to be old imperative and per. sing. The plural 
cette (for cddlte) only in early scenic poets. 

-cello, strike? only in compounds: celsus adj. high cell- 

percello {strike down), percfili, perculsns, percellSre. 

ezc^o (distinguish myself) has (in Gellius) a perf. ezcelliiL Of 

antecello and prsdceUo no perf. or sup. are found, excelsus, 

prsecelsuB, lojiy, are used as adj. 

censeo, count, recom^ censul censum censSre cens-S- 


cemo, sift, distin^ cr6vl (cr6tiim cemgre (cSr- 

guish, decide, see Icertus, adj. sure |cr6- 

The meaning see is confined to pres., imp., and fiit. tenses. 

decemo, decrSvl, decr@tum, decemfire. So the other compounds. 

The -1 stem is rare in the simple verb : the -e stem rare in the 
compounds, acdo makes (once) accitua; ezcio, ezcltus and 
ezcitiis; condo, condtus, and (once) condtus; perdo, perdtus. 

<axigo,gird dnzl dnctum dngSre dng- 

claogo (rare) clang dangSre dang- 

dai^o, shut dausi clausiuu daudSre daud- 

condtLdo, condttsi, condtlsum, condildere. So the other com- 

dSpo (old), steal depd deptum d6p6re d«p- 

daeo, be spoken of -diltum duere du-e- 

In Seneca (once) duo. -dutus only in compound Indutus. 

c61o, ////, pay atten^ c61ul cultum c61«re c61- 

tion to 

So the compounds ezcOlo, ezcdlul, ezcultnm, ezcOldre, but 
accOlo, incOlo have no supine. 

occMo, hide, occiUul, occultum, occiUere, is probably from a dif- 
ferent stem. 

cwplo, l^egin COdpi cQdptunL coepdre coep-I- 

Chap. XXX^^ List of Verbs, 243 

Pres. ind. aiid subj. only in Plaut. Fut. codplam in Cato. 
Imperf. subj. cceperem once in Ter. Otherwise only perfect 
stem in use with present meaning as well as perfect. But 
cceptuB and ccdptuziiB are also used. (Coeptus sum often with 
a pass, infin.; but also coepi.) The verb is apparently from 
C0-&PI0 (apiscor). 


Preseht Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

compesco. See pasco. 

conqulnlsco, j/00/ conqu6zi,old conquInlscSre cf. §§631, 


and rare 


CDnstllo, consult 





cdqvo, cook 





credo. See do. 

crgpo, rattle 





cresco, gro^ 





Though cresco is intransitive, it has a part. crStus, sprung from. 

cubo, //V, lie ill cfibUi ctLbltum ctibajre ciib-ll- 

cubftyi is occasionally found. 

cildo, hammer ciidl cfLsum cfLd^re cfld- 

-sumbo, lie, only in compounds, as strengthened form of ctlbo. 

accumbo, acctlbul, acciibltum, accumbSre. 

cdplo, desire ctipiYl cUpItum c1ip6re cUp-I- 

cuplret once in Lucr. 

curro, run cUcurrl cursum currdre curr- 

The compounds frequently retain the reduplication, e.g. acctl- 
currl, dScticurri, ezcHcurrl; more usually (in Cicero and Livy) 
drop it, e.g. accurrl. 

depsSre deps-* 
dicdre dic- 
dlscfire die- 

Compounds retain reduplication, e.g. Sdisco, learn by heart, 

dispesco. See pasco. 

divide, di'vide divisl dXylsum dlvlddre dl-vld- 

do, ginje (see d6di d&tiim d&re d&- 

The half-compounds drcumdo, surround, pessumdo, ruin, &&- 
tisdo, satisfy, yennmdo, expose to saU, follow do precisely. 

crSdo, entrust, believe, vendo, sell, reddo» gi've back, and the com- 
pounds with monosyllabic prepositions have consonant stems : 
e.g. credo, crSdldl, ci^tam, crSdSre. So a]lso«f»st^.^^^5»st%^$&Siiu 

The compound with pr» exists owXy \tv "^onra^^XMA^ enAaeA. 

d51eo. See lino. 

depso, knead 



dico, say 



disco, learn 


244 Inflexions. [Book IL 

The reduplication is retsdned in the compounds, except usually 
in al>Bconda 

For the pasaves of vendo, perdo (except past part, and 
gerundive) yeneo and (usually) pereo are used. 







dOceo, teach 





ddleo, be in pain 





ddmo, tame 


ddxnltuin ■ 



dUco, dra<w^ kady 






6do, eat 





Supme sometimes essmn. Comfido has also (rarely) camestum. 
dmo, buy (orig. take) tail exnptum fimdre dm- 

&dImo, &d6ml, ademptum. So other compounds, except 

(i) cOdmo (odSml, coemptum), pertoio, InterSmo, which re- 
tain e. 
(z) the earlier compounds cOmo, d6mo, prSmo, stLmo, which 
make compsl, comptum, &:c. 

«o,^o (see Ch. XXVIII.) Ivi Itum Ire I- 

Compounds always omit v (e.g. ftdll), in ist pers. perf., and 
usually in other persons of perfect and thence derived tenses. 

ySneo, be for jale, is a compound of eo. It has no supine. 

ezuo, strip off ezoi ezfLtom ezafire eza- 

(clothes, &c.) 

f9,ces8o, cause ^ make f&cesslvl f&cessltum f9,ceB8dre (feusess- 

off |facess-i- 

f&clo, make^ do fSd factum f&c6re f&c-I- 

For the passive, in tenses formed from present stem, flo is used 

prOffdo, make progress^ prSf^ci, prOfeotum, prSflcdre. So the 
other compouncfi with prepositions. But calefacio being only 
half compound (§ 300) retains a. 

proflciBCor, set out (on a journey)^ t ravel ^ prOfectum, pr6flci8ci. 

fallo, deceive, elude fSfelli falsum failure fall- 

refello, refute, refdlll, refell^re. 

fardo, stuff farsl fartum farcfre faxc-I- 

rdferdo, rfifersi, rSfertnm, rfiferclre. So also differtus. 

f&teor, acknowledge fassum fa,tSrl 2&t-6- 

conflteor, confessum, conf ItSrl So prdf Iteor. dlfflteor has \\o 
part perf. 

Chap. XXX?^ List of Verbs. 245 

Present Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

f9.ti8co ) J. J J, (fessns adj. jf&tlBcere xx4. v « 

fatlscorCold)}^'^''^'"'"!^ •weary) IffttUd **-^-' 

dSfetlscor, defesBum, defetlsd. 

f3.yeo, he favourable lavl flEiutiim f&Y6re f&v-6- 

-fendo, strike, only in compounds. fend* 

defendo, eivard off, guard, defend!, defensum, defendSre. So also 
offendo, strike against, 

fSrlo, strike (see Ico) fSrIre f6r-I- 

(percussl, percussum are often used as perfect and supine.) 

fSro (Ch. XXVIII.), (ttUl) (latum) ferre f8r- 


Perfect and supine are borrowed from tollo. 

aflSro, atttUl, all&tixxii, afferre; 

aufero, absttUl, abl&tmn, auferre; 

dijBSro, dlsttUl, dn&tum, dlfferre; 

offSro, obttUi obiatnm, oiferre; 

refdro, rettull, rei&tiim(or rfifezre; 

rarely reUatnm) 

rSfert, it is of importance (probably for rei fert) is used as 

8uff6ro, (sustlnui) snfferre. 

snsttUl as perf . of suffero is rare. 

ferbiil fervSre ferv-fi- 

A consonantal stem (e.g. fervlt, ferrSre) frequent in prae-Aug. 
and Aug. poets. 

fido, trust flsnm fidfoe fXd- 

flsuB sum is used for perf., / have trusted. 

ngo,fx flzi flzom flgdre flg- 

fictus as past participle in Varro, R. R. and Lucr, 

flo, become (see Ch. XXVIII.), fieri 11- 

The compound Inflt, Jbe begins, only in this one form (poetical). 

findo, cleave fldl 

fingo, ybrw, invent fliud 
fleo, weep flevl 

flecto, bend flezl 

-fllgo, strike, only in compounds. 

afBIgo, strike against, knock down, aflUbd, affllctmn, allBgere. 













246 Inflexions. [Book II. 

So the other compounds, except profligO) put to rout, prOfllgftvl, 
prOfllff&tum, prOfliffftre. 

Present Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

fitlo, ^ow flnzl floere fllUrv- 

(fluxus, adj. looje, fluctus, subst a mjave) 
fddio, dig f6dl fossnm fOddre f6d-I- 

Inf. fodXrl, eifodirl are found in the older language. 

t&tnr, be speaks fatum f&ri fia- 

The following only found: pres. ind. f&tur; fut. Waoit^ fabltnr; 
perf. fotuB est; pluperf. fotus eram, erat ; imper. fSxe, inf. 
fail; part. fiBiitem, &c. (no nominative, except in phrase 
fans atque infans, Flaut.), fatus, fandus, and fatu. 

In compoimds we have also -famur, -famlnl; -f9,bar, -f&rer, &c., 
and in comp. imperat. &c., prssflato, prssfamino. 

fOveo, keep twarm^ fOvl f9tiim f6vere f5v-$- 

firango, break in pieces frSgl firactum frangere firSg- 

Compounds as con£ringo, confrSgl, confractum, confrlnggre. 
firdmo, roar^ snort frdmui firdmltum frSmere fi:§m- 

^ frendfire frend- 

Mco, rub frIcM JM^ftton ^<^^^ Mc-ft- 

frigeo, he cold frlzl f^gSre £rXg-6- 

frigo,^r.^.^ (com, ^^^^ j^g^ ^. 

ftuor, enjoy fmctxun fml fnigv- 

frultum once (Ulpian), fut. part. finiittLrus once (Cic). An 
old form firuniscor, fninltum is quoted from early writers. 

Vb^o^ flee ^ fly from fOgl (filgltiirtts) fagfire fttg-I- 

fiilcio,/ro^ falsi fultum fulcire fulc-i- 

tvOigeo, flash falsi fulgere ftilg-6- 

A consonantal stem e.g. foiglt, ftilgfire is found in prae-Aug. 
poets; twice in Vergil. 

tvaido,pour, rout fddi fGLsum fand6re f&d- 

(an enemy) 
fangor, get quit, dis^ fanctum fungi fang- 

charge (an office, &c.) 
tOLQ^growf see sum, Ch. xxvii. 
fllrls, thou ragest f&r^re fiir- 

Only farls, farlt, forunt, forebas, furebat, furfire, furens are 

Chap. XXX,] List of Verbs. 247 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

gaudeo, be glad g&ylsam gaudSre gavId-S- 

gavlsuB sum, / rejoiced 

g6mo, sigh^ groan gemul gdmltiim gdmSrd gSm- 

gdro, carry ^ perform gessl gestum gSr^re g^s- 

glgno, beget, produce g6iiul gtaltnm glgndre gdn- 

In old language (Lucr. Van*.), sometimes gdno is found. 

glisco, Jivell, kindle gllscSre gll« 

elii\}0,peel glnptum gKlMre glilb- 

gr&dior, step gressiun gr&dl gr&d-I- 

Compounds, as aggr6dlor, attack, aggressum, aggr^dt Inf. ag- 
gredlrl, progredlrl, pres. aggredlxuur are found in Flaut. 

-gruo only in compounds. gru- 

congruOj agree, congrul, congrufire. So also Ingrao, impend. 

h&beo, bave Mbul Mbitnm 2i&b6re liab-6 

So the compounds dSbeo, o<we, debul, debltum, dSbSre; prssbeo, 
afford, prsBbul, prssbltum, prssbSre (in Flautus deUbeo, pr»- 
hlbeo) : pr5beo (Lucr.) for prohibeo. 

bsoreo, stick intr. luasi luasimi h»r6re li»8-e- 

(or har-d?) 
baurlo, drain, drativ hausl baustnm hamlre baus-I- 


In Varr. once haiirleTint. Fut part. lULustHrus (C. Fam. 6. 6. 
9) and haustlnis, Verg. A. IV. 383 ; Stat. Ach. i. 667 ; Sil. vii. 584, 
XVI. 11; and perhaps Sen. Ep. 51. 6, exhanBuras. 

hisco, gape, open the mouth, to speak MscSre bl- 

J&ceo, lie J&cul (Jftdtanu) J&cere J&o-S- 

j&cio, cast J8cl Jactom j&cdre j&c-i- 

ablclo, abjecl, abjectnm, ablcdre. So the other compounds (see 
§ 144). Bisslclo for dls-Jado. 

porricio, offer {sacrifices), &c, poxrectum, porrlcere (without perf.). 

Ico (or Iclo?), strike Id Ictam Icdre Ic- 

Of the present (rare), only Idt, Icitur, Idmur occurs: (f5rlo is 
generally used instead). The perfect is often in MSS. written 

imbuo, steep, imbue Imbul ImbUtam Imbndre Imbfl- 

IncesBO, attack incesslvl Inoessfoe |!?*^'*"» 

indTilgeo,^/V///, intr. InduM Indvlgere lndii]g-&« 

(Indult-um &c. appears not to be used before the 3rd century or 

248 Inflexions. [Book II. 

Present Perfect. Supine* Infinitive. Stem. 

Induo, put on indnl Indfltnm InduSre indil- 

(clothes), &c. / ^ ^ 

inquam, jtto//» inquU |orlnqvl- 

The following forms only occur. Pres. ind. Inquam, Inqnls, 
Inqult, InquXmus, Inqulunt. Fut. Inqnies, inqulet. Imperf. 
Inqulebat. Perf. Inqnli, Inqulstl, Inqult. Imperat. and sing. 
Inque, Inqulto, plur. Inqulte. 

Irascor, grow angry Irfttum Irasci Ir&- 

Xr&tas sum, lam angry: succensnl, I<tvas angry, 

Jttl}eo, bid JQssl JnBSUin jftbSre Jftb-d- 

iosigo^ voke^ join junzi junctum jimg6re Jnng- 

Jilvo, belp^ delight jtLvl JUtum JftTftre jftv-ft- 

fiit. part JftYfttttros. AdJttTo has adjUttlms. 
labor, sUp^ glide lapsum l&bl l&b* 

VSioeaBOf provoke Iftcesalvl l&cessltam l&cesBdre iio^-gr. 
-l&do, entice. Only in compounds. lad- 

allido, allexi, allectixm, alUctee. So llUcio, peUXdo. 

Sliclo, eUcul, SUdtiim, Slicfire. FrOUdo has no perfect or supine. 

lado, strike (rare), Isesl ISBsnm lsed6re ISBd- 


colUdo, dash together, coUlBl, coUIsixm, coIUd6re. 

lambo, lick Iambi (once) lamblKre lamb- 

iBJigyeo, be faint langvi langySre langy-d- 

livo, <wajh l&vl <lautam l&y&re l&v-i- 


A consonantal stem (e.g. Ulvlt, lftv6re, &c.) is frequent in prae- 
Augustan and Augustan poets. 

For compounds see luo. 

ISgo, pick up, choose, ISgl lectom 16g6re ISg- 


coUIgo, collect, collSgl, collectmii, coUIgdre. So compounds 

Except that (i) allSgo, choose besides, perl6go, read through, 
pr»16go, read to others, rdldgo, read again, subldgo, pick up, 
substitute, retain e. 

Chap. XXX^, List of Verbs. 249 

(2) dUego (or dUIgo), lovcy InteUSgo, understand^ negldgo, neg" 
lect^ retain e and have perf. in -3d, e.g. neglexL (RarcJy 
IntellSgl) negiegl.) 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem* 

Only used in 3rd pers. Rarely in plural. Also participle llbens. 
(The stem vowel was in early times u; e.g. l&bet.) 

Uceo, be on sale Ucul Udtuia llc6re lIc-6-> 

Uceor, bid for llcltus Bum UcSri Uc-d- 

Ucet, it is permitted g^ ^ HcBro Hc-S- 

Only used in 3rd pers. Rarely in plural. LicSto, Ucens, Udtus, 
also found. 

lingo, lick Unctnm llngdre llng- 

Uno, besmear 16vi Utnm Unfire U- 

Uvl is also found. 

In post- Augustan writers, we have llnlo, Unlvl, Unltnm, Unlre. 

dSleo, blot out^ delSvl, ddlStum, ddl6re, probably belong to this 

Unqvo, leave Uqvl llnqy6re Uqv- 

The compound, rdUnqvo, rSUqyl, rUlctnm, rdlinqvere, is more 

Uqveo, be clear, fluid Ucill Uqvfire Uqv-^ 

Ilqvor, melt, Intr. Uqvl llqv- 

15qyor, speak lOcdtam Idqvl Idqv- 

ItLceo, be light, beam luzi ItLcfire lilc-$- 

Itldo, sport Iflsl Itlsiun lild6re Itld- 

lUgeo, mourn, trans, luzi (luctus subs.) lUgfire 11ig-d« 

luo, pay, expiate lul luSre Ifl- 

Compounds retain the original meaning, <ivash (Iuo=1&yo), and 
have past part e.g. dlluo, dnu, dllfltiim, dllaSre. 

-mftnlacor or -mdniscor, only in compounds. } mSn- 

Only perfect stem (with present meaning) in use. Memlzd, / 

remember. Imperative memento, mementote. 
commlnlscor, devise^ commentum, commlnlscL So also rdmXnis- 

cor, call to mind, 

mando, chefiv mandi(once) manBnm mandere mand- 

m&nso, remain, ativaitmsJuA manmim m&nSre m&n-d- 

Smlneo, project, Smlnul, 6mln6re (no supine). 
Immlneo, impend, promlneo, no perf. or supine, 
perm&neo is like m&neo. 



[Book II. 


Present. Perfect Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

mSdeor, be a remedy m6dSrl m6d-S<* 

mdreo, earn mfirni mSrltum mfirSre iudr-9- 

mergo, sink^ trans, mersl mersum mergSre merg- 

Smergo, emerge^ is intrans., but has part. perf. exnersus, having 

xu§tior, measure 
lufito, mo<w 

mensuxn mSHzl mSt-I- 
messxil (rare)me8aiim m$t6re m6t- 

The perfect is found only in quotations from Cato and Cassius 

metadre xnfitCl- 
mlcare ndc-&- 



xnl8$rSrl mlser-d- 

m$tao,y^ar mdtul 

rndttLtoB, once in Lucret 

mlco, quiver^ flashy mlcul 

Smico, emlciii, fut. part. emlcd,tura8. 

dixnico, dlmlc&Yl (dlxnlcul twice in Ovid), (Umlcfttiim. 

mingo mlnzl xnlctum mingdre mlg- 

Another form of the present is mejo. 

xnlnuo, kisen xnlnul xnlnfltiim 

xnlBceo, mix mlscul mlztum 

The supine is sometimes written mlstum. 

Tdisfyswxt^ feel pity xnlsSrltum 

xnlsertum is rarely found. 

mlsfireo is very rare: mlseret and (in early writers) mlserStnr, 
xuiserescit are used impersonally. 

mltto, let go, send misl xnlssnm 

xndlo, grind xndlul mdUtnm 

mOneo, fivam xn6z»il m5nXtum 

mdmordl morsum 

moitilus Bum 
fut. part mOrltilnis 

Inf. moxM, emoi^rl several times in Plaut. once in Ter. once in 

mdveo, move, trans. mOvl mOtum m5Y6re mOv-S- 

mulceo, stroke mulsl mulsum mulcSre mulc-^- 

PexmulctuB is also found besides the more usual permulsus. 

mulgeo, milk mulsi mulgSre miilg-6- 

mulctu abl. in Varro. mulctrum, milking-paiL 

moxdeo, bite 
mOrlor) die 











Chap, XXX,] List of Verbs. 251 

Present * Perfect Supine. < Infinitive. Stem. 

-mungo only in compound mung- 

Smungo <wipe (nose), emunzl, emunctnin, SmimgSre. 

i^Mict^""* ^.^^.M (naao-l- 
nanciscor, ^«;» jnactum ^'^^^ jnac- 

C. Gracchus is said to have used a future n a nd a m . 

nascor, be bom nfttum nasd gna- 

Originally gnascor, whence agn&tos, cognfttos, progn&tus. But 
Snascor, Sn&tils. 

n&co, kili necSlyl nec&tuin nScftre nSc-ftp- 

necul once in Phaedrus and Ennius: 6n5co, stifle completely^ 
enSctii and SnSc&yl (both rare), Snectum, 6nSc&re. 

necto, link together nezi neximi nectSre nect- 

nezul is probably from nezo, nezfire which is quoted from early 

neo, spin nSyl nStiiza(Ulp.) n6re n8- 

neqveo. See qveo. 

^^^ its»onvs ntaUt nlngere jjg;_ 

nitor, lean, strive jnlamn ^^ gnict- 

fut. part. xiIsiLras: so also compounds. 

Originally gnltor, kneel, from genu, knee, Kiziur generally in 
sense of leaning, nlsus, striving. Conitor, adnitor, enltor 
have both forms frequently (in sense of bearing children always 
enixa). Innlsus, oliiiisiis, sulmlBiui are infrequent: and in 
poetry all the compounds of nlsus are rare. 

-niveo only in compound. nlgv- 

conlveo, shut eyes, (conXyl) (both ^^^ „,„:„^\ ««„»„*«« 

ndceo, be hurtful ndcul (nOcXturus) nocSre n5e-9- 

nosco, get to kno<w nOvl, nStum noscdre gn5- 

The perf. means got to know, and so know. 
nOtns only as adj. known: fiit. part, is not used. 

agnosco, cognosco, have supines agnltum (fut. part. agnStunui 
once. Sail.), coc^tnm: 

lgnosco,lgnGtum, fut. part. Ignoturus (quoted from Cato andCic; 
Ignosciturus from Piso) : dignosco, Intemosco, have no supine. 

2$2 Inflexions. [Book II. 

Present Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

nSL}x>,put on a ifeil nnpsi nnptam nflMre nflb- 

(as a bride), marry 

Part, nnpta, married, 

-nuo, nod^ only in compounds: but ntltns is used as subst. ntl-> 
annuo, annul, annufoe. 
abnuo has (once in quotation from Sail.) fiit. part, abnnltums. 

oUlIvl8Cor('z;^rq<;/Vi&^/Ari^), oWtiim oUUvlsci ob-lXv-X- 

occUlo, conceal. See cOlo. 
ddi, / hate 5d- 

Only perfect stem with present meaning in use. Fut. part 
OsOras. A perf. form odiyl, once (used by M. Antony) 
Ezosus, perosns, are used with an active meaning. 

•iileo, grofiv^ is only used in compounds, and is a different word 
from 51eo, smell (intrans.). 01-i« 

ftbOleo, destroy, &l)51§7l, &l)51Xtiim, ftbOlSre. 
&1)dlesco, decay, &1)dlS7l, no supine, &1)olescere. So also Indlesco. 
ftddlesco, grow tip, &d516yl, ftdolescSre, adultns, adj. grown ttp, 

ftdUeo (increase ?), offer (In sacrifice), bum j^°J^ '^^ 

obsdlesco, wear out, intr. obsdlSvl, obsolescdre, obsdlStos, adj. 
worn out. So also exdlesco. 

61eo, smell (intrans.) diui (U6re 51-d- 

A consonantal stem (olat, olant, subolat, praolat, oldre) is 
found rarely in the comic poets, 
dportet, it behoves Oportuit dportSre Oport-d- 

Only used in 3rd pers. sing. 

oppdrlor. See -pdrio. 

ordlor, commence, orsnm ordirl ord-I- 

Orior, rise oxtiixn 5rlrl 5r-I 

fiit.part. dzltliras: gerundive driundos used as adj. sprung from, 
Pres. jnd. drdris, dritiir, drlmur, imperf. subj. oilrer, ordrer. 
The compound adorlor has in pres. ind. addrlrls, addritur. 

6vo, triumph 6v-a- 

The only forms found are ovet, ov&ret, oyans, ovfttus, oyandt 

p&dscor. Seepango. 

Chap, JOX] List of Verbs. 253' 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

psBnXtet, it repents psdnXtolt pssnitSre psonXt-S- 

Rarely personal, psdnltendnin and (in quotations from Sail, and 
Ace.) panituram (for pssnltlturuin ?) are also found. FsBnl- 
tens as adj. penitent, 

pando, spread out, pandl passum pandfire ( pand- 

cpen \ p&d- 

Dispando has dlBpansuin, dispessiiin. Bzpando, ezpansom. The 
simple pansuxn once in Vitruvius. 

j>^o,/asten pSgl jp^^ PWere j^J^^ 

Fanxi is found twice (in Ennius and Columella). 

compingo, compdgl, compactum, complngere. So Impingo. 

oppango, oppSgl, oppactum, oppangfire. Depango, repango also 
retain a. 

p&c-isc-or, bargain, P^plgl* pactum p&dsci p&c- 

Comp&ciscor or compddscor has compaotnm or compectum. 

In the XII Tables paco (for pago), bargidn, is found. 

parco, spare pdperci parcdre paro- 

Fut. part parsnros. Plautus always, and Terence sometimes, 

comperco, compersi, compercdre. Imperco, reperco (or reparco) 
found in present only. 

^^if^^r*^"^ parol (pWturus) parCre pftr^^. 

l^kriOj getf bring/ortJb v6v6ri partnm par6re p&r-l- 

Fut. part p&rlturas. 
Fftrens, a parent, is an old participle of this verb. 

wmpfirior (rare)!' ^^^^*^^^^ comptol, compertiun, compfirlre, 
T^V^MOjjSndj reppfirl, rSpertnm, rSperlre. 
jfSLBCO, pasture, feed pftvl pastum pascdre pfts- 

The active is rarely used of the animals feeding except in pres. 

DSpasco follows pasca 

Compesco (lit. pasture together}), confine, compescnl, oompescCre 
(no supine). So dlspoBCO (rare), separate. 



[Book IL 


p&tior, stffer 

perpdtior, perpessus Bnm, perpdti. 






p&vSre p&y-d- 

p&yeo, quake <witb p&vl 

pecto, comb pezi (once) pexum pectfire pect- 

p6do pdp6dl pedSre pSd- 

T^^o^pusb^drive back vWi^ pulsum peUdre pell- 

appello (esp. of a ship, put in), apptUl, appulsum, appellSre. 
So the other compounds. B6pello always has reppiUl or 

pendSre pend-^ 
pendSre pend- 

pendeo, hang, intr. pdpendl pensum 
pendo, tweigb, pay, pdpendl pensum 

originally hang, trans. So suspendo, hang up, 

-pdrlo only in compounds, except pexltns, skilled, p6r-I- 

Comp. pexfouluxn, Trcipao). 

&pgrlo (ab perlo?), uncover, open, &pgr&l, ftpertuin, ftpSrlre. 

eiqDgrior, try, ezpertum, ezpdrlrl. 

Op&rlo (ob perlo?), cover, OpdrM, Opertuxn, dpSrire. 

opperior, twait for, oppertum and oppexitum, oppSrirl. 

pSto, seek, aim at 
piget, it vexes 




( pet-I- 

pigSre plg-e- 

(plgltum est 

Only used in 3rd pers. sing. The gerund and gerundive are also 

pingo, paint 





( pinaul 
\ pinsl 

FlnsSbant once in Ennius. 


(pinsltum (pinsSre pins- 
jpistum jpisere pis-. 

Hence pinsitns, often in Columella's 

prose, has perhaps X. Plnsul, pisi occur once each. 

pl&ceo, be pleasing pl&cui 
plango, beat (esp. the planzi 

breast in grief) 
plando, clap (the plans! 

hands, &c.) 

pl&cltnm pl&cgre pl&c-S- 
planctum plangSre plang- 

plansum plaudSre plaud- 

Chap, XXX:\ List of Verbs, 255 

explOdo {hiss off^ i.e. drive away by hissing)^ explOsi, ezplSsum, 
eiqDiScidre. So the other compounds, applaudo does not 
change the vowel. 

Present Perfect Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

plecto, strike^ punish (rare except in passive) plectSre plect- 
-plecto, tnvine plexum -plectSre plect- 

Only in perf. part, and compounds, which are always of depo- 
nent form, except in one or two instances of imperatives in 
prae-Ciceronian writers. 

amplector, twine oneself rounds embrace^ amplezum, amplecti. 
So complector. Of other compounds only participles, Implezus, 
entwined^ pexplezus, entangled^ are found. 

'V'^^o^fill^ only in compounds pl8- 

Compounds as compleo, complSvl, complStum, comidSre. 

iBDloo^fold pUc&tuin plicSxe plIc-&- 

(rare except in compounds) 

K&vVico, apply, put (appncftvi, appncatum, a^-^„^jg^ 
in (Jo share) |appllcul, applidtuxn, *'*'***^^ 

So the other compounds: the prae- Augustan writers used abnost 
always -&vl, -&tum. 

pluo,m/Vi iKt (frequent in Livy) P^'**" »1*^- 
poliaceo, offer in polluctum poUucSre poUflc-d- 


V^no, place pdsui pdsXtaim p5n6re pd-BX« 

Foslvl frequent in Plautus; also in Cato. Posit, poseit (3rd 
pers. sing.) are also found in prae-Augustan inscriptions. 
Fostum (simple and compound) is frequently foimd in poetry. 

posoo, demand pdposd poscfoe pose- 

Compounds retain reduplication, as d6p5posci, ezpOposcL 

possldeo. See sSdeo. 

pos^mm, be able p5tul (see Ch. xxviii.) p5tesse pOtdS- 

pdtior, be master pdtXtiim pdtlrl pdt-I- 

In pres. ind. almost always pdtltur, potlmnr; imp. subj. potdrer 
or potlrer. In Plaut int. once potl: also act. perf. potlvl* 

p5to, drink pOt&vi pOtuu pdt&ro pOt-ft- 

F5t&tum is rare ; fiit. part. pOt&tnms and pStums. 
pGtuB, that has drunk, 

prandeo, dine prandl pransum prandSre prand-S- 

pransuB, having dined. 

25 6 


[Book If. 

Present Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

prttiflndo, lay bold of prttieiidi prShenram prdhendSre prebend- 
Often contracted into prendo, &c. 

VX^UDO, press pressl pressum prfimfire prtm- 

comprlmo, compreasl, compressnin, compximSre. So the other 

prOfldscor. Seefado. 

psallo, play on avuJh psaliere psall- 

stringed instrument 

V(i(^, it shames j^i est ^^^ »^" 

paditnxiun and gerund and gerundive are also found. Fndens as 
adj. modest, 

vm^, prick vmii Pimotnm pai«er, \^_ 

Compounds have for perfect -pnnzL 

ay»ro, seek, inquire qvafilTi qTafiltiim qysBr6re jjf^f"- 

conqTlro, conqvIslYi, conqTlsItnin, con^vlr^re. So the other 

In the ist pers. sing, and plur. there is an old colloquial form, 
qy»so, fVf^^sdjnxiB, prythee, 

qy&tio, shake, trans. qYa^snin 

conditio, concussl, conenssnm, condlt&re. 

qv&tSre qv&t-I- 
So the other com- 













qveo, be able (Ch. 

qvfiror, complain 
qvlesco, rest 

rftlK), rave (rare) 
rftdo, scrape 

r&plo, snatch, hurry r&pui 
a<way, trans. , 

arrlplo, arrlpul, azreptum, arrlpfoe. So the other compounds. 

ravio, be hoarse, (ir-rauserlt Cic.) ; (rausnros Lucil.) r&v-l* 

once in Plant. 
r6fert. Seefdro 
rSgo, keep straight, rexl rectum rSgdre rSg- 


Compounds as arrlgo, raise, Birexl, airectnm, arrigSre. 







reptum rSpSre 
rlsuxn xldSre 
(rictus subs.) ring! 






l-.X. .1 r 

Chap. JOTX] List of Verbs. 257- 

Except pexgo, continue^ perrexi, perrectum, pergSre, 
whence ezperglscor (iegin to stretch myself out\ awake myself 
6]Q>erreetum (ezpergltum in Lucil. Lucr.). 

surgo (sul>-rego) rise^ surrezl, surrectum, razgSre. 

Present Perfect. 

reor, think 

reor has no present part. 
rSpo, creep repsl 

rideo, smile^ laugh rlsl 
ringor, shew the teeth, 

r5do, gnanu rdsl 

rtido, roar, bray rttdlYl(rare) -»««.• .^. _ 

Persius has rtldere. 

rumpo, break rtlpi mptum mmpSre r&p- 

In Plautus the III is sometimes retained, e.g. dlzTumptum, cor- 
rumptor (subs.). 

ruo, tumble, dash rui -rfttum ru6ze r&- 

Generally intrans. The past part, found only in phrase rtlta csBsa 
(has a long, according to Varro, but in compounds it is 
always short; e.g. dlrfttum). 

fiit. part. (post-Augustan) mitnrus. 

essplo, hedge in ssepsl sseptnin Bsoplre sesp-X- 

^° salt \ "?*™ saJiere [ »^"^- 

An inf. salire is not certain. Nor is the quantity of the first 
two syllables in salltum. Both forms of the verb are found 
in MSS. with 1 and a 

s&Uo, leap 8&11U (saltns s&Ure 8&1-1- 


Deslllo, desilui, desQIre. So the other compounds. 

The forms sallyl, salll are rare both in simple and compounds^ 

salve, hail! also siavSte inf. salvSre and fiit. salyebls. (The present 
salveo once in Plautus, perhaps in joke, salve being probably 
originally an adverb.) 

sancio, hallonv, ordain sanzi sanctum sandre sanc-I- 

sancitum (rarely). Sanderat is quoted from Pompon. Secundus. 




[Book II. 

Presemt. Perfect Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

B&plo, Jba'vt a savour iftplvl . sSpdre iftp-X- 

of,, he <wLse 

deiOpio, bejboiubj no perf. or sup., dMdptee. 
rtelplsco, recover jerues, rteXpfli and rSaXpIyl, rMXpiflefoe. 

Mxcio, patcif sanl sarfenm larolre sarc-I- 

sfizlo, i^ sami (once) sarltom saxire - sar-I- 

Also written sarrlo. Perf. also sarlYL f 
Bftrpo, /r^ eaxptum ftarpire lazp- 

BO&lx), scratch sc&bl (rare) 8o&b0re sc&b- 

scalpo, jrm^ Boalpsi scalptnm scalptoe scalp- 

Compounds follow Bculpo. 

Bcaado, climb scandl flcansiim soandfire scand- 

asoendo, asoendl, aaoftTiiinni, asoendfoe. So the other compounds. 

sdndo, tear^ cut ' soldi sdssum sdndtee sdtd- 

A perfect scMdl is quoted from Naevius, Attius, &c 
Exsdndo has no perfect. The other compounds follow sdndo. 

BdBco, enact sdvl BCltimi 

A strengthened form of sclo. 

sdscfoe scX« 

scjlbo, twrite scrlpsl 

sculpOjfArT;^ in stone, scnlpsl 

Another form of scalpo. 






8dd6re sfid-S- 

sdco, cut , sdcnl cectnm 

fut. part, sdc&tftnis (once in Colum.). 

sddeo, sit s6dl seBsum 

FoBsIdeo, occupy^ possSdl, possessum, possIdSre. So the other 
compounds, except sftpersedeo, refrain^ circumsfideo, which du 
not change the e. Dissideo, prasldeo have no supine. 

seaUo^feel, think sensl sensum sentXre sent-I- 

Assentior, assensos sum, is used as deponent (besides assentio). 


sCpSlio, bury 
B6<iYor, /oliow 
sdro, sofw, plant 
sdro, put in rows 

sStI s&tum 


Compounds as cons&ro, consertU, consertmn, consSr9r8i 

sdpfilire sSpdl-I- 

sdqvl 86qy- 

sfirere 8&- 

sdrSre sSr- 

Chap. XXX:\ List of Verbs. ^59 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

serpo, cra^tul serpsl Berptum serpdre serp- 

Another form of rSpo. Cf. Greek cpTro. 

sido, settle^ intr. sidl BidSre Bid- 


sSdi and sessum fi*om sSdeo are the usual perfect and supintr, 
and so the compounds. 

v^SLO^ put ^lewve^ suffer slvl sltum slnere bI- 

In subj. perf. sXrim, slrls, slrlt, sirint. 

Deslno, dSsil in post- Augustan writers (desisti, desUt, pluperf. 
desldram, perf. subj. desidrlm), dSsItom, dSsIndre. (Cicero 
and Caesar generally use destiti for perf.) 

DSsItois sum used before a passive infin. / ceased. 

sisto, set^ stay^ trans, stlti (rare) st&tum sistdre 8t&- 

desisto, destltl, destltum, deslstere. So the compounds, all in- 
transitive. The reduplication is retained. Slsto is rarely intrans. 
and then has perf. stdti (from sto). So also clrcumstdtl 

sdleo, be twont sdlituin sdlSre sOl-S- 

Perf. sdlltns sum, / tivas accustomed. 

80IYO, loose^ pay boIyI sdiatum solvere solv- 

Sometimes in Augustan poets sdlui. 

sduo, sound sdnui sdnXtum BdnSre sdn-&- 

fut. part. sdnatflruB (once in Hon). In prae-Augustan poets 
sometimes sonSre, Bonlt, sonunt. 

Borbeo, sup up^ sorbui (sorbltio, sorbSre sorb-g- 

suck in subst.) 

absorbeo, absorbui, absorbSre. So other compounds. Rarely a 
perfect (post- Augustan) in si; absorpsi, exsorpsi. 

spariro, scatter^ be- sparsl sparsimi spargSre Bparg- 


Compounds as conspergo, conspersl, conspersum, conspergSre. 
spdcio, look^ only in Plautus. (But Bplcio Plant. Mil^ Bpdc-I- . 
asplclo, aspexi, aspectum, asplcere. So the other compounds. 

spemo, reject^ despise BprSvl sprStuin BpemSre ] ®^®f ' 

17-- a 



[Book II. 

Present. Perfect. Supine. 

spondeo, pledge spdpondl 8i>02isiim 


Despopondl twice in Plautus. 

spuo, spit spul Bpfltiim 

Bt&tuo, set^up^ settle st&tul st&tiltum 

(<ujith oneself) 

stemo, throw on the str&vl stratum 

ground^ cover 

Infinitive. Stem. 

spondere spond-d- 




( stdx- 
) stra,- 

Btemu6re stemfl- 
stertSre stert- 
stizxgyere stizxgy- 

stemuo, snee%e stemul 

stezto, snore stertul 

stdngvo (rare), stamps 

Ezstingvo, exstdnzi, ezstinctiun, exstingvSre. So the other 

sto, stand 8tSti st&tiim stare 8t&- 

Fut. part. Bt&turus in J^ucan. 

Frsssto, he superior^ shonv^ <warrant, prostitti, prsestatum (also 
prastltum), prsestSxe. The other compounds have fiit. part 
-staturus (coxista.tarus Luc. Mart., perst&turus Stat.) but no 
supine: dlsto, has no perf. or supine: those with (^syllabic 
prepositions retain e in the perf. (e.g. circumstdti). 

strSpo, make a din strdpul strdpltum BtrgpSre strfip- 

stxideo, biss^ screech strldl strldSre strId-6- 

A consonantal form (e.g. strldunt, strlddre) is found in Augus- 
tan poets; also Plin. Epist. 

stringo, strips graze^ 

, strlnzl strlctum 



dra^iv tight 


stmo, heap up^ bmld 

stnud structum 



sySdeo, recommend 

svasl svasum 



svesco, accustom one' 




An old form of \ 

present indie, ist pers. 

plur. suSmufl 

i (as from 


sflgo, suck 

suzl suctuxn 



sum, be 

see Gh. xxvii. 



suo, sofiv^ ititch 

sul sUtiini 


sfL-, be silent 

t&ciil t&cltum 



tsedet, it (wearieth 

tsssum est 


For perf. pertsBsum est is more common. Tsedesdt, obtsa- 
descit, pertssdesolt, distsedet are also used impersonally. 










Chap. XXX:\ List of Verbs. 261 

Present. Perfect Supine. Infinitive. Stom. 

tango, touch tdtlgl tactum tangSre tftg- 

Attingo, attlgl, attactum, attlngfoe. So the other compounds. 
In Plautus rarely tago, attigo. 

tfigo, cover texl 

temno, despise temps! 

tendo, stretchy tend tdtendl 

In post-Augustan writers sometimes tSnaiun. Compounds have 
-tSnsum occasionally. 

teneo, hold tSnul tentum (rare)tdn§re ten-6- 

Perfect tetlnl is quoted from Pacuvius and Accius. 

Supine and cognate forms are little used, except in the com- 
pounds, detindo, obtXneo, and rStibieo. Contentns only as adj. 

dStlneo, d§tlnui, dStentnm, dStibifoe. So the other compounds. 

l&rreo, frighten temil terrltnm terr§re terr-d- 

tergeo, <wipe tersl tersnm tergSre terg-S- 

A consonantal stem (e.g. terglt, tergontur) is also found some- 

tero, rub trivl trttnm t«rtre j ^J 

attdrulsse in Tibull. (once). 

texo, tweave textd teztum tezSre tez- 

^. |^>,^^, tinxl tmotnn. [^^ Ungv- 

tollo, lift up^ remo've (sustnli) (suUatiim) tollSre toll- 

tilll (in prse- August, poets tdtiUl, in some old inscriptions toll) and 
latum (for tlatum) are the proper perf. and supine: but as 
these are taken by 15ro, tollo takes the perf. and supine of its 
compound sustoUo. 

The compounds have no perf. or supine. 

tondeo, shear tdtondl tonsum tondSre tond-6- 

tOno, thunder t5nui tdnXtnm tdnfire tdn-&- 

Intdno has part. IntOn&tos (once Hor.). The other compounds 
follow tdno. 

torqveo, fat>/j/,w/&ir/ torsi tortum torqvSre torqy-S- 

torreo, roast tozroi tostnm torrSre tors-S- 

262 Inflexions. [Book If, 

Present* Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

trftbo, drag trazi tractum tr&li6re tr&li- 

trdmo, tremble tremul trdmSre trSm- 

trlbuo, assign^ grant txlbni tilMLtiixii txibufire trlbfl- 

trtldo, thrust trtUi trtLrain trftddre trtld- 

ttAor, look at, protect j^^i ^^"^ tu-«- 

tfttos, adj. safe. 

Tflt&tns sum (from tutor) is generally used as perfect; tfttus or 
(post- Augustan) tnltos sum are rare. Contueor, Intueor 
have (post-Augustan) contJUtus, InttUtiu sum. A present 
with stem in -u (e.g. tulmur, contuor, &c.), is frequent in 
prae-August. poets and Seneca^s tragedies. 

UmAo, thump ttttttdl jtS^^ tuadtoe tlld- 

Contando, contftdl, oontOsum, contundSre. So pertnndo. Ob- 
tondo, retondo have both -tuxurum and -ttlsum. Perfect of 
retondo always retuxidi^ 

turgeo, swell torsi tnrgSre torflr-S- 

tursl is quoted from Ennius (once); obtursl from Lucilius 

v&do, go YftdSre ySd- 

Iny&do, Invftsl, Invftsum, Iny&dSre. So other compounds. 

Y&leo, be strong vSIui (vfiUttLnis) v&lSre V&1-6- 

ydgeo, stir up (old word) (ySgdtus vdgSre ydg-d- 


yftliOf carry vexl yectum yfiWre yfili- 

Pres. part, and gerund also used intransitively, riding. 

reJlo, pull, pluck yelll yulsum yelldre yell- 

Viilsl both in simple and compounds is sometimes found in 
post- Augustan writers. 

yendo, sell. See do. 

ySneo, be sold. See eo. 

yftnio, come ySnl yentiixn ySnIre vSn-I- 

yftreor, be awed at ydxitmn yfirerl y6r-e- 

vergo, incline yerggre yerg- 

yerro, brush yerrl (rare) yersmn yerrSre yerr- 

yerto, turn yerti yersuin yertSre yert- 

So the compounds generally, but 

Cl7ertor,put up (at an inn), dlyertl (perf.), diyersum, dlyerti (inf.). 

Chap. XXX:\ 

List of Verbs. 


rftyeztor, return^ perf. revertl, reYomnmi) xvTvrti (inf.), rerer-* 
BUS, having returned, 

prsBYertor, /7/^^»^/ fo first ^ is entirely deponent: vnaverto, be 
beforehand <ivitb^ is very rare. 






fweoT^feed oneself 
Yito, forbid 





Fergus has a perfect vet&vL 

video, see vfdl ylsum Tldfize vtd-9-> 

Tldeor, viram, Tld§ri, very common in sense of seem, 

Yleo,/AwV (twigs, &c.) vletam vlSre vl-6- 

part. 7l6tii8 (Ter. Lucr., but vldtos, Hor.), shrivelled. 

vlndo, bind Tlnzl 




vlnco, conquer vld 




viso, visit vM 



vivo, live vlxl 




nldscor, avenge one» 




self on ^ avenge 



vdlo, <vjill vttlni 



So its compounds nOlo, mUo; 

see Ch. XXVIII. 

volvo, roll volvl 




Sometimes volni in Augustan poets. 

v5mo, vomit Tdmnl 




v6veo, vo^ v6vl 




urgeo, push^ press nrsl 



uro, bum XJuX 




Combfbro, comlmssl, oomlmstiim, eombtlrfoe, is a compound of oom 
with an older form Iraro, seen in bustiim, tomb. 

Other compounds (exi&ro, &c.) follow the usual fbmu 

tltor, avail oneself 
make use 






[Book IL 

The following verbs also have no perfect or supine, 
(i) e- verbs: 

SBgreo, be sick 
albeo, be <ujhite 
Aveo, be greedy ■ 

calveo, be bald 
cftneo, be hoary 
fl&yeo, be yelltyw 
foeteo, stink 

firondeo, be in leaf polleo, be powerful 

hSbeo, be blunt renideo, shine 

l&ctWy be a suckl'ngy BC&teo^ bubble forth 
have milk 

llveo, be bluish pale splendeo, be bright 

ni&oeo, be lean Bquftleo, be rough 

msereo, grieve t&beo, waste a<ivay 

jttflceo. be mouldy tbneOi be wet 

(2) 1- verbs: 

C88CUtlo, be blind prOzio, itch for 

dementio, rave Blngultio, sob 

glodo, cluck 


Ineptio, be silly 


cenatttrlo, have an 


empttLrlo, ivish to buy 

partiLrlo, be in labour 






Words are formed either directly from roots or from other 74© 
words. The elements of formation are four: reduplication^ interrial 
change^ addition of suffixes^ combination of two or more <words into one. 
Two or more of these modes of formation may be called into use 
in forming a word; and especially, ahnost all words, whatever other 
change the root may have undergone, exhibit some suffix or other. 

i. Reduplication is the repetition of the root syllable, either to ^4, 
express repeated action or simply to give additional emphasis to the 
root. In Latin there appear but few instances of reduplication. 
The following are probably such: 

1. Reduplication of a closed syllable : 

Imr-lmr-us, foreign (from /3ap/3(mo£); oar-oer (n.), a prtson^ a 
barrier (for the vowel cf. § 204. 2); dn-dn-nus, a curl (comp. 
kUiwos) ; cur-otU-io, a tweevil (for the change of liquid cf. § 185. 2); 
fur-far (m.), hran; gur-gtU-lo, tJbe <windpipe (cf. § 852); marmor 
(n.), marble; mur-mur (n.), a murmur (comp. fMpfAvp€iv) ; quisquiB, 
<wbojoever ; tln-tin-nftre, to tinkle (cf. § 646) ; tor-tor (m. f.), a 
dove; tl-tl-tL, a screech-owl; tU-U-are, to bowly <wail (comp. oX-^X- 
vCcLv). Similarly per-per-am (adv.), badly (§ 526). 

2. Reduplication of an open syllable; or rather, of the initial 
consonant, with a vowel appended: 

bl-1)dre, to drink; cl-cftda, a grasshopper; cl-cfttrlx (f.), a scar; 
cl-cer (n.), chickpease; cl-cOnia, a stork; cX c&r, tame; cX-cUta, 
hemlock; cdcoB (qyoqyos), a cook; oft-dUoa, a cuckoo (comp. kokkv^) ; 
oft-ctlxnl8 (m.), a cucumber; oft-corblta, a gourd; JS-JOnos, fasting; 

^ In this book much use has been made of the lists in Leo Meyer's 
Vergleich, Gram, (1861— 1865) especially the second volume. Cor^ 
responding Greek words have been usually taken from Curtius (see 
above, p. i\ n.)« 

268 Word-Formation. [Book TIL 

mamma, a breast; md-mor, mindful; pft-pftver (n.), a poppy; pSr-pllla 
(diminutive of an assumed papa), a teat; pl-p!re, to chirp; pd-pUiu, 
a people; qyl-aqvUiSB, refuse (comp. KO'tTKvKr\wxia^ and for the 
omission of s § 193); ali-surrus, a whisper (comp. avpiC^ v); tt- 
tlUare, to tickle; tl-ttLbSxe, to stumble. 

For the use of reduplication to form the present stem of verbs 
see § 628; and to form the perfect stem, § 665 sqq. 

ii. Internal change is frequently found accompanying the addi- 74a 
tion of suffixes, or composition, but is then due mainly to the 
consequent shifting of the accent, or to the influence of neighbour- 
ing consonants. The usual changes have been set forth in Book I. 
There appear to be but few instances in Latin, in which there is 
clear evidence of internal change being employed as the main element 
in the formation of a word. Compare however, e.g. t6ga with 
tdg-6re; BSd-es with sM-6re; fides with fldOre; pr6c-u8 with prSc- 
ari (§§ 233. I, 234. 5, &c.); dHo-ere with dtLc- (dux); dicere with 
malddicns, &c.; yGc-, nom. yox, with y6caxe. For the change of 
vowel in fbrming the perfect tense see § 668. 

But if, as is probable, the primary form of roots admits of short 
vowels only, then all instances of (apparent) roots with long vowels 
fall under this head (unless the long vowel is a compensation for 
omitted consonants); e.g. luz, pax, &c., scrlbere, lUdere, &c. 

iii. Suffixes are of three kinds : (i) Suffixes of inflexion, (2) stem- 743 
suffixes (included uu'djst inflexions in Book II.), (3) derivative suffixes. 

(i) Suffixes of inflexion are those which are employed to form 
the several cases and numbers of nouns, and the persons, moods, 
tenses, voice, &c of verbs. 

(2) Stem'suffixes are those which form the distinguishing marks 
of die several declensions of nouns, and the several conjugations 
(or classes) of verbs. In nouns of the first class they are a, e, 0; 
in nouns of the second class n, 1 or e; in verbs a, u, e, 1. A large 
class of nouns, and the most primitive verbs, have no stem-suffix. 

The application of the stem-suffixes in Latin nouns coincides to 
a large extent with the distinction of gender: in verbs it coincides, at 
least as regards the a and e stems, to a noticeable degree with the 
distinction of transitive and intransitive action. The absence of 
a stem-suffix in many nouns is the result of the shifting of the 
accent, and consequent slurring of the end of the word, the conso- 
nant stem being thus reduced by one syllable from what was, or 
would otherwise have been, their full form (with a stem-suffix) ; 
e.g. prsBceps for prsoclplts, &c. In other nouns of the same class 
(consonant stems) there appears to be no clear ground for assuming 
the previous existence of a stem-suffix. (A similar loss or weaken- 

Chap, /.] Elements of Word-Formation, 269 

ing of the stem-suffix is held by Corssen^ to have occurred in the 
consonant verbs, regis, regit, regere, &c., being properly divided 
regl-s, regl-t, regd-re, &c. for earlier raga-sa, raga-ta, &c) 

Many noun-stems and many verb-stems are apparently formed 
directly from the root by the addition of these stem-suffixes. In 
some a reduplication or an internal change, especially of the vowel, 
occurs also. The formation of one word, compound or simple, 
from another is often effected by the substitution of the stem-suffix 
appropriate to one part of speech for that appropriate to another. 

Words of simple form whifch contain no known derivative suffix 
are presumably formed in this way directly from the root. Instances 
may be collected from the lists given in this book. 

The following are examples of the formation of nouns from 744 
roots or from other words by the addition or substitution of no 
other than a stem-suffix. The majority of verbs are so formed 
(see Chap. x.). 

A. advdna, a stranger (advenl-re) ; convlva, a guest (convlY-Sre) ; 
fanda, a sling (fiind-dre); mdla, a mill (mdl-Sre); scrlba, a clerk 
(scrlb-dre) ; tOga, a cloak (tdg-dre) ; trftha, a sledge (tr&b-dre). 

0. aJlienobarl>us, bronxe-beard (barba-); condiis, a store-keeper 
(cond-dre) ; cdqvus, a cook (c6<iv-6re) ; fldus, trusty (fld-dre, f Ide-s) ; 
JtLgum, a yoke (comp. Ju;zg6re); mergua, a diver (merg-6re) ; nesdus, 
ignorant (nesd-re); prdftLgus, deserting (prSfOgd-re) ; prOmus, a 
butler (pr0m-6r6) ; rdgus, a funeral pile (r6g-dre, comp. erigSre, to 
erect) -y sdnus, a sound (sdn-dre and sdnSxe). 

U. &CUS, a needle (ftc-, comp. &c-u-Sre); currus, a chariot 
(curr-6re) ; ddmus, a house (comp. fic/it-civ, to build, dOmaxe, to tame), 

I (or E). abnormis, abnormal (norma-) ; blUngvls, tcwo-tongued 
(lingva) ; nflbes, a cloud (ntlb-dre, to cover, comp. v€<f>-oi) ; rflpes, 
a rock (rump-fire, to break) ; sSdes, a seat (sM-Sre) ; vdhes, a cartload 

[Without stem-suffix, dux, a leader (dViQ- comp. dflc-fire); Incus, 
an anvil (incfLd-6re) ; obex, a bolt (oblcfi-re); v^SadDes, fatfooted 

(3) Derivative suffixes are those additions (not being recogni- 
sable roots) which are interposed between the root and the stem- 
suffix; or, when there is no stem-suffix, between the root and the 
suffix of inflexion. If they are themselves recognisable as roots, 
the formation of the word belongs to the sphere of 

(iv) Composition (which is treated of in Chapter xi.). 

Interjections, some of which are words, some mere natural 
sounds, will be enumerated in the last Chapter. 

^ Aussprache, II. 50, foil. ed. 2, 

ayo Word-Formation. [Book III, 



Derivative suffixes may originally have been words, but are 745 
now merely sounds or combinations of sounds which have no 
separate use or separate meaning, but modify the meaning of the 
word to which they are suffixed. The same suffix does not usually 
express precisely the same modifications, and different suffixes often 
seem to have the same effi^t: compare -tflddn, -tia, -tftt, &c. Fre- 
quently indeed the use of a suffix may have proceeded from a fan- 
cied or imperfectly apprehended analogy; and the ending of a word, 
which is partly composed of stem-consonants or stem-vowels, and 
partly of a suffix, has been apparently taken for an entire suffix, and 
as such applied to other stems. Compare montftnns, § 830, mon- 
tuosus, § 814. Sometimes the sense of the suffix has been obscured, 
and a further suffix is added to realize what the former suffix once 
expressed; e.g. puella is diminutfve of puera, but afterwards sup- 
planted puera as the ordinary term for a girl, and thus puellula was 
formed for a little or very young girl. 

A light vowel, d, tt, 6, more frequently I, b often found between 746 
the last consonant of the stem and the suffix. Its origin is not 
clear. Sometimes it appears to be part of the suffix; e.g. -8c (-Ic) 
in sdnez, ptlmex, &c. ; more frequently it appears to be the stem- 
suffix weakened; e.g. candldus from cande- (see the words given in 
§ 816), altitUdo from alto-; sometimes it appears to owe its birth 
to analogy with other words; sometimes to a desire to ease the pro- 
nunciation, or avoid the destructive effect of contiguous consonants; 
or even to render possible the use of the word in verse. It is 
indeed possible that it may be an expression of the slight sound 
occasioned by opening the organs, in order fully to articulate the 
final consonant (cf. § 9), 

It has most frequently been treated in the following lists as the 
weakened stem-suffix; but its occurrence in words formed from 
consonant stems is by no means unusual, and seems to conflict with 
this theory of its origin. If these consonant stems are the stunted 
remnants of forms which originally were vowel stems, this weak- 
ened vowel may be the relic of the fuller form, (So in French the 

Chap. //] Derivative Suffixes. 271 

final t of the Latin 3rd pers. sing, is preserved only before a vowel; 
e.g. art-U, and its meaning lost to the popular consciousness). If 
otherwise, one of the other explanations must be resorted to. 

The long vowel, found not uncommonly in the same part of 747 
a derivative, is sometimes part of the suffix; e.g. dum-Stnm for 
dum-eo-tiim; sometimes due to contraction of the stem-suffix with 
a short initial vowel of the suffix; e.g. the suffix -Ino appended to 
the stems Boma-, dlvo-, trltm-, marl-, 6ge- gives Bomftnus, dlylniis, 
trlbflnns, marXnns, egfinns: the suffix -Hi appended to ancOxa-, 
trltm-, fide-, dvl- gives anoorftlls, trlblUis, fldeus, dvIUs. Some- 
times it is due to following a false analogy; e.g. mont-finiia, anser-I- 
niu, &c., vixgln-SliB, rSg-fills, &c.^ 

In other respects the ordinary laws of consonant and vowel 
changes (given in Book I.) are observed. 

In the following lists many words, which so far as our know- 748 
ledge goes are primitive, are given along with the derivatives, partly 
because of the difficulty and consequently arbitrary nature of an 
attempt to separate them, partly because, as was said above, the 
ending of a primitive word appears sometimes to have been sup- 
posed to be a suffix, and consequently to have been applied as a 
suffix in the formation of other words. The word-endings there- 
fore, under which the Latin words are here arranged, are not 
necessarily, though they are usually (except as regards a long initial 
vowd, cf. § 747), suffixes. 

These suffixes are sometimes simple, i. e. consisting of a angle 
vowel, or a single consonant with a vowel; sometimes compound, 
i.e. consisting of two consonants with one or two vowels. Com- 
pound suffixes are usually the result of adding a suffix to a stem 
which is itself a derivative; but sometimes the suffix, though origi- 
nally compound, has come to be treated as if it were a simple suffix ; 
e.g. -unctQo: sometimes it may be really a word which has ceased 
to be used separately, and only appears now to be suffixal; e.g. 
-glnta, § 794, and perhaps -gno, -mOnio, -dnlo, &c. 

The primary arrangement of noun-endings is according to the 749 
consonant or vowel which inunediately precedes either the stem- 
suffix, or, in consonant nouns, the suffix of inflexions. Subordinately 
to this, first come all word-endings which have the stem-suffix of 
nouns of the first class (0 being used, for convenience sake, as 
inclusive of a) ; secondly, word-endings of the second class. The 
simplest endings, among which are those beginning with short 
vowels, are put first; then such compound endings as have a conso- 

1 Key, Lat Gr. §§ 227. 232. 

.272 Word-Formation. [Book III, 

nant before the same short vowd; then simple endings with long 
vowels; lastly, compound endings with the same long yowel. The 
order of the consonants and vowels is the same as in Books I. and II.: 
the order of the words is alphabetical. 

The lists are intended to be fairly complete, except in those 
classes of derivatives which contain too numerous instances to be 
conveniently or usefully given. Of these a full and typical selection 
is given. But the lists do not as a rule, though they do sometimes, 

(i) Words found only in writers later than Suetonius. 

(2) Words only quoted by Nonius or Festus, or other gram- 
marians, and some others of early or rare use. 

(3) Words (especially technical or scientific words), found 
only and seldqm in Cato, Varro, Vitnivius, Celsus, Pliny the elder^ 
Columella, Petronius. Many such are however given. 

(4) Compounds with prepositions, if the simple form is also 

(5) Words borrowed from the Greek. 


i. Stems ending in -po, -pi, -p. 

-po I. Adjectives: crlspus, curling; lippus, blear-eyed; obstipus, 750 

a. Substantives : 

{a) Masculine : capus, a capon; cippus, a post or upright block; 
mpus, a «wolf (comp. Xv/coy, § 66); napiu, a turnip; pUpus, a boy; 
rumpus (Van*.), a vine branch; sc&pus, a stem (comp. scOpsB, saplo, 
(TK^TT-Tpov) ; sclxpus, a rush; scrtLpiiB, a rough stone (scrHpiilus more 
common); stloppns, a slap; struppuB, a cord (from orpot^os?); 
verpus, a circumcised man, 

pdpa, a sacrificing priest (i.e. cOqya, cf. § 118); Agrlppa. 

(b) Feminine: al&pa, a slap; cOpa, a barmaid (comp. caupo, 
Ktmr{Kos)\ culpa, a fault; ctlpa, a tub; laj;>pa, a bur; mappa (a Punic 
word according to Quint.), a napkin; n6pa, a scorpion (African 

Chap.IIL\ Labial Noun-Stems: -po, 'Pi,-p; -bo. 273 

.word?); pulpa, fleshy substance; pflpa, a girl; rlpa, a stream bank; 
8C0P89 (pi.)) tfiuigs (see scapus) ; s&pa, must boiled down to a third 
(comp. oTTOff) ; Btuppa, toiv (comp. orvTHretov) ; talpa (rarely m.), 
a mole; vappa, flat ivine (comp. vftp-or, y&p-ldus) ; vespa, a <wasp 
(comp. a-(l}rj^y 

(c) Neuter: gaus&pum, a /rieze cloth (cf. § 410); palpnm, 
stroking (only found in ace. and abl.) ; rapum, a turnip, 

-pho Isrmplia, fiuater (comp. vvii(t>rj)» 

-pi ftplB (f.), a bee (comp. e/xTrty, a gnat)\ caepe (n.), an 

onion; c0pis, plentiful (com, dp-; comp. Inops); piippls 
(f.), a ship'^s stern; rtlpes (f.), a rock (rump-6re); ssBpes 
(f.), a hedge (comp. en;icoff, § 66) ; stirps (f.), a stock; 
tvurpiB, foul; Tolpes (f.), a fox (comp. ak<07r-rj^). 

-p &dep8 (m. f.), fat (comp. aKciclya, ointment, cf. § 174. 4); 

daps (f.), a banquet (comp. bcmrew to devour, bairavr), 

bflnvov)', ops (f.), help (comp. a(/)-«/os); 8tiPS» ^ small gift in coin. 

Compound stem-ending: only ptdo, § 860. 

ii. Siems ending in -bo, -W, -b. 

-bo I. Adjectives: &cer-bu8, unripe^ bitter (comp. ftc<?rl, ftdos, 751 
&c.); albus, cwhite; balbUB, lisping; glbbus, humped 
(comp. KoiTTfkv) ; orbus, bereft (comp. .6p(l>'ay6s) ] pr6- 
bus, honest; Bftper-bus, haughty (stLper). 

7. Substantives: 

(a) Masculine: barbns, a barbel; balbns, a bulb (fioXfios); 
clbus, food; cdlumbus (also columba, f.), a pigeon; gldbus, a ball; 
limbus, a border ox fringe; lumbuB, a loin; mor-bus, disease {m6r-i) ; 
nimbuB, a rain-cloud (comp. ve^-^osj nfLbes); xiibus, a bramble; 
ttkbus, a pipe, 

Oalba (see Suet. Galb, 3; some compare Germ, gelb, jr^Z/ow) ; 
Bcrlb-a, a clerk (scrlb-dre, § 744). 

(b) Feminine : barba, a beard; f&ba, a bean ; glSba or glSBba, a sod; 
herba, grass (comp. ferre, <J>opfiij, 6cp€tv, and § 134); Jttba, a mane; 
obba, a beaker; teba, a bill (old oaoine word); sorbus, a service" 
tree; tUba, a trumpet (comp. tftbuit); torba, a crowd (comp. 

(r) Neuter: Ubuxn, a cake; plumbum, lead (comp. /lioXu^do;); 
s6bum, fat; soxbum, a service-berry; tftbum, corrupt matter; ver- 
bum, a word (comp. ^^p-^ iptip, § 91). 

274 Word-Formation. [Book III, 

-W corbls (m. f.), a basket; WieB (f.), a spot (comp. XwjSj/, 75* 

outrage)', nai)68 (f.), a cloud (comp. ndbtUa, v€<fyo£); 
orblB (m.), a round; p&liunbes (m. f.), a dove (comp. cdliunbus 
and § 66) ; plebs (£), tJbe common people (comp. plS-nus, pd-pU-ns, 
7rXi;-^v9i &cO» P^i^s (f.), hair of commencing manhood; sc6b^ (f.\ 
sawdust (BC&l)-^re); scrObis (m. f.), a ditch; tftl)e8 (f. § 411), 
decaying matter (comp. -nj-iccii/); urbs (f.), a city (comp. ofbis). 

-t) C89lel)S (adj.), unmarried. 

Compound stem-endings: -bundo, § 818; -billo, -bill, -l^blll, 
§§ 861, 875, 876; -btoo, -bfirt, §§ 886, 901; -brio, § 941. 

iii. Stems ending in -mo, -mi, -m, 

-mo I. Adjectives: 753 

al-mus, nourishing, kind (Sl-dre); firmns, ^rw; Umub, 
sidefwaySt e.g. limls oeulis, out of the comers of the eyes (for lic-mus: 
comp. obUqvus); dpimus, y2z/, rich; slmua, ^at-nosed; vi^trtmaa, 
having father living (patr-); matrimiis, having mother living 

bimiis, /wo years old; trimus, quadrlmus are probably com- 
pounds of Mm-, which appears uncontracted in Mem-p-s. 

a. Substantives: 

{a) Masculine: ftnl-mus, soul (comp. avc/itoy); ar-mus, a 
shoulder joint (ap-, dpapl(rK€iv) ; c&l&-mu8, a reed (probably from 
Ka\aixos)j culmus, a stalk, haulm; dtUnus, a thicket (for dus-mus ; 
comp. dacr-vs); flmus, du/ig; fil*mu8, smoke (cf, § 99.. 6); grilmus, 
a heap (of dirt, &c.); bamiis, a hook; U-mus, slime (for lit-mns; 
comp. U-n-Sre); mimus, an imitator (from /Lil/Liof?); nummus, a 
coin (comp. v6\koi) ; rftcgmus, a hunch of berries (comp. pay-, pi^) ; 
rS.-mii8, a branch (for rad-mus? comp. r&d-lz, pablvoi)', rS-mus, 
an oar (comp. fpeTjxoif, § 193); R6mus; scalmus, a thole, is bor- 
rowed from crtcaX/ito9. 

(b) Feminine: dd-mus, a house (comp. befi^eiv, ddml-nuB); 
htUutiB, the ground (comp. xofcu) ; p5muB, a fruit-tree; ulmns, an 


ftnlma, breath (see animus) ; bra-ma, (winter solstice (for br6vl- 
ma, sc. dies); cOma, hair of head (borrowed from leo/ii;); damma, a 
hind; t&'m&,fame (fft-ri); flam-m&,Jame (for flag-ma; comp. flag- 
r&re); forma, shape; gem-ma, a bud (for gen^ma; comp. gdn-Ittis): 
gluma, a husk (gltlb-6re) ; gr5-ma, a surveyor's rod (from yvtofjuav) ; 
l&cri-ma, a tear (conip. Saicpv-); Ift-ma, a slough (for lac-ma; comp. 

Chap, I 11^ Labial Noun-Stems: -W; -mo, -ttmo. 275 

l&cus); U-ma, a file; mamma, a teat; nor- ma, a standard (perhaps 
from yvcopift?)); pal-ma, the palm of hand (comp. TroAa/iAi;); par-ma, 
a light shield; plOma, a feather j rima, a chink (comp. rlc-tus^ ; 
BO-ma, stream-city} (comp. ru-o, rlv-us, pcvfiai so Gors., Curt); 
rOma, a breast; Bp^-'iasitfoam (spu-ere); squftma, a scale of a fish, 
&c.; strCLma, a tumour; tama (Lucil.), a swelling in the leg 
(ttimere?); trauma, a web; tur-ma, a troop (comp. tur-ba); vlctl- 
ma, a victim (vlcto-). 

(c) Neuter: arma (pi.), arms (ap-j see above) ; pfimimi, an apple, 
fruit; vOlema or volsema (pl.)» ^ kind of pears, . 

-tUno or -Imo. On the vowel preceding m see § 2*4. It may often 754 
be that this vowel belongs to the stem, not to the suffix. 

{a) Superlatives: extr9-mus, outmost (for extra-Imus) ; I-mus, 
inmost t at the bottom (for In-Imus); inf-Imus, lowest (inf-6r, § 885); 
mIn-ImuB, least (comp. mln-Os-); pltlr-Imus (old ploirumus, §264), 
most (for plo-lOs-imus, pltlr-imus; with plo- comp. plS-rique, ttoX-uj, 
TrXe-to)!/); postre-mus, hindmost, last (for postera-Imus) ; post-iimus, 
esp. last born, usually, one born after his father'' s death (post; but 
the t may be part of the suffix; cf. § 535) ; prl-muB (for prls-mus, 
for pri-os-imus; comp. prior, prls-tlnus, and § 193. 2; or directly 
from prl-, a locative form seen in pri-dle; or for pro-lmus, comp. 
TrpoTfpoy, TTpcoroy); prox-ImuB, nearest (pr6que for pr6p6? comp. 
namque and nempe, § 517); sum-mus, upmost (for sub-mus; comp. 
sub, sup-er); supr3-mii8, highest (for supra-Imus). In Petron. § 75, 
ipslmus, Ipslma for master, mistress (Ipso-). So also the adv. de- 
mum (downmost), at length (de). 

(J?) Ordinal numbers: dficlmus, tenth (for decim-4mus) ; Septi- 
mus, seventh (for septlm-Imus) ; quOt-umus, how manyth (quot; 
formed by Plautus in imitation of septtmus); nO-nus is perhaps for 
ndvlmlmus, contracted nOmus, by assimilation of m to the initial n. 

-iss-timo or -Iss-Imo, for -IGs-umo; i.e. iimo, suffixed to the stem of 755. 

the comparative. For the omission or absorption of the 
see §§ ai4, 24a. For the formation of the comparative § 917. 
The double s is due partly to the desire to indicate the length of the 
syllable (which moreover is accented), partly perhaps to preserve 
the sound of s sharp, instead of s flat or eventually r (cf. §§187, 
191. 5. 6). For the ordinary explanation see the Preface. 

alt-lss-limus, highest (alto-, altlOs-) ; antlqy-iss-Imus, most ancient 
(antiqyo-, antiqvlOs-) ; audftc-iss-Imns, boldest (aud&d-, audAciSs-) ; 
bSnS-flcent-lss-Imiis, most benevolent (benefloo-, beneAcentlOs-, as if 
from a participial form) ; dlgn-lss-Imns, worthiest (dlgno-, dlgniOs-) ; 
dOr-iss-Imiis, hardest (dflro-, durids-) ; fSUc-lsslmiis, happiest (fSUcl-, 
feUdOs-); fertU-lss-Imus, most fertile (fertlll-, fertllKJs-); frugfiUsai- 
mus, thriftiest (frOgftliOs-, as if from frugills, for which tWlgi, § 1108, 
is used); ImbScUl-lss-imiui, weakest (imbSclllo- and ImbecUU-, im- 


MdUKto-) ; Ips-iSBumus (Plaut.), the very man (ipso-) ; max-ImuB, 
greatest (for mass-lmuB from magis for magiOs-); Sc-iss-lmus, 
swiftest (OclOs-, comp. (okvs) ; neqy-iss-Imus, absolutely good for 
nothing (neqyloB- from nSqvam) ; penlt-iss-Imus, most inward (pdnl- 
tiU) adv. but cf. PI. Asin, 42); sSvSr-iss-ImnB, strictest (s3v3rO-, 
seyerlGs-); yerMrftbn-issImas (Plaut.), most thrashable (verbera- 
blll-) ; and many others. See Appendix G. 

r-limo [ These suffixes are formed in the case of a few superla- 75^ 

^ tives, where the final consonant of the simple adjective 
is 1 or r. Probably they are the result of a strong contraction, 
( p.used by the desire to avoid 8 following 1 or r (cf. § 193. 5. f). 
The double 1 or r may be the result of assimilation (§ 176. 5), or 
evidence of the length of the syllable (see last section). Possibly 
the apparent analogy of altos, altissimiis, &:c. may have led to 
acer, acerrlmus, &:c. 

f&dll-Imus, easiest (f&clll-, fiacilJ0s-). So also difflcil-Umus; 
srr&cll-llmus, thinnest (gr&clli-); htimll-lIxnuB, lowliest (hilmlli-); 
slmil-lImuB, likest (slmUl-) and dlsslmilllxnus. 

&cer-ilmiis, sharpest (aorl-, acrlGs- for ftcdrios-); asper-rimus, 
roughest (aspfiro-, aspdrlGs-); cdler-ilmus, quickest (c616rl-, o61dri08-); 
crSber-rlmus, most crowded (crebro-, crebrlGs-for creberlGs-); d6ter- 
rimus, worst (deterlSs-, no positive) ; s&lflber-rimus, most healthful 
(salubrl-, salubrlOs-) ; yeter-rimus, oldest (yeterl0s- from ydtiis-). So 
also m&tunlmiiB (onener xnaturissimus), miser-rimus, pulcer-rimus, 
tSnerrimuB, tsaterrimus, y&ferrimus, and the adverb nflper-rlme, all 
from stems; pauperrlmus, tlberrinius, from consonant stems. 

-t^InuTl ^^ adl-tftmus (comp. ssdltuus, § 99a, and Varr. R, R. 757 
' I. a; Gell. iz. 10), a sacristan (sadi-); finl-timus, on the 
borders (fini-) ; ISg-I-timus, lawful (ISg-) ; m&ri-tlmus, by 
the sea (mSiXi-), 

(hi) Superlatives: 

cl-tlmus, nearest here (cl-s; comp. ob-s, ul-s); dez-tlmus, on the 
extreme right (comp. dex-ter, Sc^m, dc^irepo^) ; ex-timus, outmost 
(ex) ; In-tlmus, inmost (In) ; op-tlmus, best (lit. overmost^ upmost ? 
ob-s; comp. cVOj pes-simus, worst (lit. bottom^mostl p6d-; or 
from the stem of pessimi?); Binis-tlmiis, on the extreme left (only 
with auspicium; comp. sinls-ter); ul-tlmus, ^r/i&^j/, last (iil-s). 

BolllBtimmn, only found with trlpudlum, is by some translated 
perfect y and derived from soUns (Oscan for totus), i.e. sdlus. 

(c) Ordinal numbers from 20th to 90th inclusive. The initial 
t of the suffix forms with the final t of the stem of the cardinal ss, 
of which one s was omitted; and in post- Augustan times the pre- 

Chap, III\ Labial Noim Stems : -ttLmo; -Sslmo; -vo. 277 

ceding n was omitted (see § 168). Both the c and e of the ordinal 
are earlier sounds than the g and i of the cardinal. (Gf. §§ 104, 234). 

yXcens-ilmiis, Ylceslmus, vlgSsImus (all found), twentieth (for 
yicentl-ttbnus ; comp. yiglnti, ^des, and § 28. 2); tricens-iimus, 
&c. thirtieth (triglnta); quadr&gSs-ixnus, ybr//V/i& (quadrSglxLtft). So 
also qvinqv&gSsixnus, sezSgeslmus, septuagSalmuB, octdgSsImns, 
ndnfigesimus, and perhaps centes^ixnus, hundredth^ for centiun-tlmus, 
centiintimus, cententixnus (comp. e.g. regendiun for regundiun). 

-5s-timo Ordinal numbers from 200th upwards to 1 000th inclu- 758 

sive. The first part of this suffix is due tb the mistaken 
notion that in the lower numbers Ss was part of the suffix, instead of 
(as it really was) the representative of the last part of the cardinal. 
It is possible that centSsimus, which no doubt formed the immediate 
pattern for the higher numbers, may itself be a psoduct of this false 

ducent-€s-Imus, t^iuo hundredth (ducenti-); trecentSslxnus, three 
hundredth (trecenti) ; qyadhngent-ScdmiiB, four hundredth (quadrin- 
gentl). So also qvinqy&gSsimiiB, Bezcentesixnns, septingentecdmiis, 
octingentesimus, nongentSsixnus, miU-SsImus, thousandth (xnllle), 
and (in Lucr.) multSBlxnus, many-th (niulto-). 
-ml ffljnes, hunger (cf. § 99). Comp. also cftctUnis, cOxnis, 759 

ruinlB, yerxuls, &c. § 412. 
-xn lilexnps, <winter (cf. § 134, and for the p § 70). 

Compound stem-endings: -xxiento, -xxidt, §§ 792, 806; -xnlno, 
-men, §§ 825, 850; -xxmio, § 934; -mOnlo, § 935. 

iv. Stems ending in -vo, -uo, -vl. 

-vo is found after vowels, or 1 or r; -no after other consonants 760 
(P, b; c, g; t, d, xi; also tr). 

-vo I. Adjectives: 

arvna (rare), ploughed (see arvuxn, § 761 c) ; c&yns, hollow 761 
(comp. calum, KotXor); calvua, bald; cur-yuB, curved .(comp. cir- 
cus, Kup-Tof, Kv\-\6s); flftvuB, golden in colour; ftdyiui, ta<wny 
(comp. fulgere); fturus, hro<wn, dusky (comp. fiUHms, (ftpvprj); 
gilYus, dun (comp. lielTUs); gxiftvu8, knowing (comp. gofirus, giLo- 
8c6re) ; helvus, yellow (comp. xKo-rj, j^to-pos) ; l»vu8, on left-hand 
(comp. Xatos); xidvus, new (comp. i^eor); parvus, small (comp. 
par-cus, 7:avpoi)\ prftvus, wrong; prl-vus, single^ one's own (lit. 
standing forward; comp. pri-mus, § 754); VTttervuBf frolicsome; 
r&vus, gray, hoarse; ssBVUS, raging; salvus, safe (comp. ov\os, okos, 
sOlus) ; BC8BVUS, on the left hand (comp. o-kcuos) ; torms, grim (tor- 
qv5re?); vivus, living (cf. § 129 f). 

278 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

2. Substantives: 

(a) Masculine: ftcervas, a heap; alvus (m. f. § 336), the belly; 
ftVGB, a grandfather ; cexms {homed; hence), a stag (comp. Kcpaos) ; 
clftvuB, a nail, helm; stripe on dress (comp. cdavls, § 765); cUvos, a 
slope (comp. In-dH-xiare, icXiW); oorvus, a raven (comp. camiz, 
Kopa^)] dlvus (diva, also deus, dea, and (Lucr. 4. 211) siil> difl), 
a godt goddess; f&yuB, a honeycomb cell; milvus (§ 762. 2 a); Juavne, 
a mole on the body, a birthmark (gl-gen-o, comp. gnalvos) ; nervns, 
a sine<w, a cord (comp. vfvpov) ; rivus, a stream (comp. p€tv, fut. 
p€V(r€iv)\ serviLS (also adj. and serva, f.), a slave (Bhrhxb^join), 

Ndzva, a family name. 

(bi) Feminine: calva, a skull, or bald head; c&terva, a crowd; 
cl&va, a club; gingiva, ths gum of the teeth; larva (§ 762. %b)\ 
Minerva (old Menerva) ; malva, the mallow (comp. fjLoKaxrj, Hesiod) ; 
dUva (also dlea), olive (comp. tXmoy); Bllva, a wood (comp. v\rj); 
Btlva, a plough handle; valva, a folding^door ; ulva, sedge; volva, the 
womb; tlva, a grape. 

(c) Neuter: SBVum, an age (comp. al<ov, § 91); arvum, a field 
(comp. arvos, § 761, &r-&re, apoo), ploughy, ervum, bitter vetch 
(comp. opo/3os); 5vum, an egg (comp. ©01/, § 91); nrvum, a plough- 
tail (comp. curvuB and § 121. 3). 

-uo I. Adjectives: 76* 

(a) from verb stems: amblg-uus, on both sides ^ ambiguous 
(am'b-Ig-Sre) ; assId-uuB, constant (adsId-Sre) ; cssd-uus (of a wood), 
for cutting (c89d-6re); congru-us, suitable (congm-ere) ; contlg-uus, 
touching (conting-6re) ; contln-uus, continuous (contlnSre) ; dScId-uns, 
falling (decld-dre) ; divld-uus, parted (divld-6re) ; exlg-uns, small, 
ong. precise (exlg-6re); \iig6n-mi.B, free-bom (ingign-6re); inndc-uus, 
harm/ess (in, ndc-Sre) ; mtlt-uus, by way of change (mUtft-re) ; oc- 
cld.-was, failing : hence, from the sun, western (occld-6re) ; pasc-uus, 
(of land)/or^r^2;/«^ (paac-Cre); perp6t-uns, uninterrupted (perpgt- 
ere) ; prsdclp-uus, taken in front, i. e. chief (praclp-6re) ; procld-uns 
(post- Aug.), falling forward (pr5cld-6re') ; promisc-uus (also pro- 
iniscus), mixed (promiscSre) ; rellc-uus (also relicus, § 160. 7), left 
behind, remaining (relinqv-6re) ; rSsId-uus, sunk to the bottom like 
dregs, lefi unused (resId-Sre) ; ilg-uns, irrlg-uus, irrigated (rlgfir-re) ; 
sucdd-UTis (not prac- Aug.), sinking (succld-6re) ; vftc-uus (§ 94. 2), 
empty (vacft-re) ; and others. 

(b) from substantives, or of obscure origin : ann-uus, for a year 
(anno-) ; ard-nus, lofty (comp. 6pO^^) ; cem-nue, headlong (comp. 
Kpav-Lov); ffttuus, foolish; menstr-una, monthly (mens-tr-i- from 
mens-; cf. § 904); mort-uns, dead (mortl-); str6n-nns, active; buub, 
his own; tuns, your; vid-uus, ividowed (comp. di-vld-$re; Germ. 
<witttive, Engl. <ividow). 

Chap,ITL^ Labial Noun-Stems: -vo, -no, -ivo, -tlvo. 279 

a. Substantives: 

(a) Masculine: carduus, a thistle; lltuus, an augur* s crook; 
mlluiiB (§ 94. a), a kite; patar-uus, a father's brother (patjr-). 

(b) Feminine: liSlua, a beast; jaoi-ua, a gate (Jano-); ISjrua 
(§ 94* 2)f ^ ghost, a mask; noct-ua, an ofuul (noctl-); st&t-ua, a 
statue (st&tu-) ; traa, a spoon, 

(c) Neuter: teibTUS. (pi,), purgatives (telaii'), 

-I-vo (For some words where the 1 is Apparently radical 763 

see § 761). 

I. Adjectives: 

8B8t-lvu8, 0/ summer ^89stu-, heat) ; adopt-lYOfi, taken by choice 
(adoplA-re) ; c&d-ivus (Pkn.), falling (c&d-6re) ; Intemec-ivus, de- 
structive (Intemfic-fir-re); lasc-ivus, /Xij^// ndc-lvus (Phaedr., Plin., 
but ndcuTis, Ov.), hurtful (ndcSre) ; redd-lvus, restored (redd-dre) ; 
r6dlY!vu8, a builder's term for old material; sSment-lTUS, for soeiv- 
ing (sSmentl-); subsIc-lvuB, cut off, spare (subsdo-ftre) ; tempest- 
ivus, seasonable (tempos-; either the t is due to a false analogy with 
ssstlvus, or the word may be shortened for tempestfttlYUB); vOcriyus 
(or Tftc-ivTis), early form for y&cutis (v&ca-re). 

a. Substantives: Or&dlviui (once Or&diviui), a name of Mars; 
sftl-iva, spittle (sal, salt), 

-t-Ivo i.e. -Ivo, appended to the stem of the past participle. 764 
(Only passivns exhibits the s, and that is not earlier than 

I. Adjectives: 

(a) General: ac-t-lvuB, active, practical (figfire); adoptivus, 
adoptive (comp. adoptSxe, frequentative in form^ ; cap-t-lvus, cap- 
tured (cape-re) ; collec-tlyiui (post-Aug.), collected (colUg-dre) ; 
condl-tivus, stored (cond-dre); fes-tiyuB, gay, handsome (festo-); 
ftlgl-t-lvii8, run-away (fiigd-re); far-t-lvu8, stolen (comp. fOrft-rl); 
insl-t-lvus, grafted (insdrdre) ; i]i8taiiT&-t-lyiui (Cic), renewed (In- 
Btaurftre) ; lUcrft-t-lyns, counted as gairrQxLsA-ii) ; nft-t-iyus, born, 
self grown (na-80-i-); pr»r6gSrt-iyu8, first-asked (prsdrog-ftre) ; 
8&-t-iyus, for sowing (sfi-rSre); 8t&-t-ivu8, stationary (stare); 
sec-t-lvus (Col., Plin.), split (sScare); stibdl-t-ivus, supposititious 
(sub-dere) ; vO-t-lvus, vowed (vO-vere) ; and others littie used. 

{b) Technical terms in rhetoric, granmiar, &c. : def ^-tivus, 
explanatory (def Inire) ; demonstra-tiyuB, expository (demoxistriUre) ; 
hortft-tivus, hortatory (hortft-rl) ; laudft-tivus, laudatory (laudft-re) ; 
r&tiddxift-tivus, ofreasomng (r&tiOdn&-n) ; translft-tiyus, transferred 
(transl&to-) ; and others. Similarly in granmiar (in Quintilian), 

2 So Word-Formation. [Book II L 

aU&tiyuB, accnsfttiyuB, gdndtlvus, d&tiyuB, nGmln&tiyas, possessi- 
▼UB, rOfttivuB; and others in later writers. 

a. Substantives: dOnatlYum (post-Aug.), a largess (dOnft-re). 

-▼1 ftvls (f.), a bird; breyls, short (comp. Ppaxys, § 129); 7^5 

ciTlfl (m.), a citizen (comp. qvi-es, Kfi-ficu, Curt.); 
clftTis ({.)yakej (comp. dauddre, icKcis, Kkms) ; gi4vis, heavy (comp. 
iSopw, as glans with iSoXawy); Wvls, Hgot (comp. eXaxvy, § 129); 
nftvls ^f.), a ship (comp. pavs); nlv- (nom. nix., f.; cf. § 129. zf); 
show (comp. i/t<^-6roff); pelvis (f.), a basin; r&vls (f.), hoarseness 
(comp. rau-cus) ; svft-vlB, siveet (comp. sv&d-ns, iqb-vs) ; tdnvls, thin 
(comp. ten-ddre, Wn-er, ravaos). 

-ul gruB (f.), a crane (comp. yipavoi) ; lue3 (f.), pestilence 

(comp. Xot/ios) ; strues (f.), a heap (comp. stru-ere, ster- 
n6re); bus (m. f.), a pig (comp. vs). 

V. Stems ending in -fo. 
offa, a morsel; rCUUB, red; scrOfa, a sow; tOfus, tufa stone, 766 


i. Stems ending^ in -co, -qvo; -cu, -d, -qvl; -c, -qv. 

I. Stems ending in -CD, -qvo. 

-co I. Adjectives: 

saqyuB, level; avemmcnB, averting j csdCUB, blind; casciiB, 767 
old; cOroBCUS, flashing; flaccuB, flabby; fascus, dark coloured; lus- 
OUB, one-eyed; mancuB, maimed; parciiB, thrifty; paucuB,yki; (comp. 
Trav-poy); PlancuB (piano-?); priBCUB, ancient (prlus); raucuB (for 
r&vlcuB), hoarse (rftvl-) ; recU>rdCTi8, backwards and forwards (r6- 
co, pr5-co, derivatives of re and pro; Key, Essays, p. 74 sq.); bIccub, 

^ On suffixes with -c see Key, Philol. Soc, Trans, for 1855, 

Chap, IV!\ Gutiwal Noun- Stems : »cQ,^Y0,AfiO, 281 

dry (for sitl-cus from sltls, thirst\)\ spurcus, dirty; tmncua, lopped; 
▼esciis, small, 

2. Substantives: 

{a) Masculine: &1)&cub, a board (comp. a^a^ ; arcus (arqvus), 
a bow (see § 395); clrcuB, a ring (/cpi/co?); cOcua (coqvus), a cook; 
6cuB (eqvus), a horse (comp. Iwiros* § 118); fiscua, a basket; floccus. 
a flock of fivool; fScus, a hearth; fUcus (i), seaweed (comp. (1)vko^, 
Hom.); (2) a drone; bircus, a goat; JOcus, a joke; Junciis, a 
bulrush; JUven-cuB, a bullock (Jtlvfin-); 1&CU8, apool(c.t §§ 395, 776) ; 
Idcus, a place; IfLcus, a grove; xnaccus, a clotun (comp. ficucKoav, to 
moan)] Marcus, hammer? a Roman praenomen; xnfLcus, snot (comp. 
mungfire); picus, a woodpecker; porous, a pig; prOcus, a suitor 
(comp. pr6ca-ri); saocus, a bag (comp. craic/coy); boocub, a slipper; 
sflcuB, juice (comp. oTroy, § 107) ; BUlous, a furrow (comp. oKko^^ 
eX*c€«/); truncuB, a lopt stem (see above); vXous, a street (comp. 
oiKOi) ; voplscuB (see Plin. 7. 10, § 8). 

Roman family names: Murous; Casoa (comp. oascus, old)\ S6- 
ndca (s6ndo-, old) ; Tuooa. 

{b) Feminine: fious, afg-tree; ruBOUS (or rusoum, n. ?) butchers 

&qya, water; area, a chest (comp. aroere, ap jcclv); blca, a berry; 
1)racoa (pl.)i breeches; 1)ucca, a cheek; esoa, food (6d-, dddre, esse, 
to eat)\ furca, a fork; JUvenoa, a heifer (see above); labrusca, a 
wild 'vine; mdilsoa, a kind offg; mica, a grain; moUuBoa, a soft 
nut (molli-) ; muBoa, a fly (comp. ^ma for y.v<ria ?) ; orca, a whale, 
a tun; Pares (pi.)) Fates (from par-ti-, the apportionersi comp. 
fiolpai, fi€pos: or eulogistic from parc-dre, to spare!)', porca, (1) a 
furrow; (2) a farrow, i. e. a sow (cf. Key, Essays, p. 95) ; posca, 
an acid drink; rica, a twoman^s veil; Bica, a dagger; Bpica, an ear of 
corn; trIcsB (pi.), trifles; vacca, a cow, 

(c) Neuter: moUuBCum, a fungus (molli-); naucnm (?), a 
trifle (?); tesca (tesava, pL), waste places; vlBCum, mistletoe (comp. 
I-co i.e. (usually) -co, suffixed to vowel stems. 

I. Adjectives: Afrl-cns, of the Afri (Afro-); beUl-cus, 768 
offivar (bello-); civl-cuB, of a citizen (dvl-); daBBl-coB, of a class, 
csp. the fleet (clasBl-) ; CrSti-cuB, of Crete (Cr6ta-) ; dOmlnl-cus, of 
a master (dOmIno-); fnUOn-icus, of a fuller (ftillOn-); 0ermftnl-oii8» 
of Germans (Qerm&no-); lubrlcnB, slippery; mangOn-icus (Plin., 
Suet.), of a dealer (mangOn-); mddl-cuB, of healing (mSdd-, mM6ri); 
mOdl-cUB, moderate (mOdo-) ; puUU-cuB, public (pOptUo-, cf. § 69) ; 
sonti-cuB, dangerous (sonti-, guilty)', tttrl-cuB, rough (comp. 
tsBtro-?); vftrlcuB (Ov.), j/r/?//////«^ (vftro-); fLnl-cuB, single {^o-)-, 
urbl-cns, of the city (urW-). 

Common in Greek words; e.g. cOmicuB,gramm&ticuB, poSUcoB, &c. 

282 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

2. Substantives: 

{a) Masculine: yQl-cus (vllica), afarin stetward (villa-). 

(J)) Feminine: &llca (halica), spelt; brasslca, cabbage; fabrl-ca, 
a manufacture (faliro-); f&rlcsB (pi.), see Juv. 3. 38; ftUIca (fUllz), 
a coot; mftni-ca (pi.), gloves, handcuffs (m&nu-); pM-lca, a snare 
(pM<-,ybo/); Tldica, a *vineprop; slllqva, a pod; snblica, a pile for 
a bridge, &c.; tftnica, a shirt; y5xni-ca, a running abscess (vdmSre, 
cf. § 698). 

(f ) tozXcum, poison^ orig. for smearing arrows (to|oi/). 

-tl-co i. e. -co added to real or presumed adjectives in -to. 769 

r. Adjectives: ddmesticuB, of home (ddmo-; comp. 
mddestuB, § 789; agrestU, § 808); Llgns-ticiis, of the Ligurians 
(Ligas-) ; ras-Ucus, of the country (rlls-). 

2. Substantives: can-tlcnm, a song (can-to-, cftnSre); man- 
tXca, a bag; pertica, a pole; Bcfttica, a nvhip (comp. scfLtum, a leathern 
shield) ; trl-ticum {threshed) wheat, corn (tri-to-, t€rdre). 

-&tI-co I . A djectives : Iqufttlcns, living in or near water (ftqna-) ; 77© 

erraticus, wandering (errSre) ; fSJiatLcus, inspired (fSao-); 
l3rmpli&tlcu8, of the frenzied (Isrmpliato-, lympha-) ; silvatioiis, of a 
wood (silva-); v6natlcuB, ybr hunting (vSnftrl-); umbratlcus, of the 
shade (umbra-) ; vOlaticus, winged (v61ft-re, to fly), 

2. Substantives: y\SXic;\Jcai, journey-supplies (via-; comp. vl5,tor). 

". ' ^ \ I. Adjectives: fftmS-licns, starving (fibnS-); biu-lctui, 77^ 
' gaping (hi&-re; cf. § 204. 2^); pfitn-lcns, frolicsome 
(p6t-6re, cf. § 657, and comp. p6tftl-aii8). 

2. Substantives: btibul-cus, an ox^tend^r, i.e. a ploughman 
(bdv- whence bUbtUus, cf. § 76. 2); aub-ulcus, a swineherd (su- 
for s6v-? or perhaps the word is simply formed in imitation of 
bubnlcus) ; rSmulcum (only in abl. s.), a towrope (probably from 
Greek; comp. pvfiovkKflv, Polyb.). 

-rl-co ) 

-r-co ( vltrlcuB, a stepfather; nOverca, a stepmother (nOvo-; 
^ comp. vtosj veapos)- ' 

"iavcT^i Adjectives: ant-Iqvus, ancient (for antlnqvus? from 77a 
ante, but cf. § 774); long-lnqvus, distant (longo-); pr6p- 
inqvuB, near (prdpe). 

(In obllqvuB the 4 is radical; comp. Hc-inus, Xex'pcos). 

-aco mfir-acuB, pure (of wine without water; m6ro-); 6p- 773 

acuB, shady; do-aca, a sewer (duere old =pur£:are: ccmip. 

Chap,IVJ] Guttural Noun- Steins: -co, -qvo; -cu, -d, -c. 283 

-fico ar-uca, 'verdigris (as-) ; c&d-uciiB, falling (o&d-dre) ; cax- 

ruca, a carriage; eruca, a caterpillar^ colenvort; festuca, 
a stalk; fistaca, a pile-driver; lact-nca, a lettuce (lactl-) ; 
mand-ucus, a cbeeiver (maad-die^ ; mastmoa (Sardiman), 
a sheepskin; sabuciis (sambuciu), f., elder-tree; Termoa, 
a <wart. 

-ico The I seems to be at least in some cases the result of con- 774 

traction with a final vowel ; e. g. = oi, el, &a 

1. Adjectives: kmActj^ friendly (amft-re); ant-icu8, in front 
^ante); &pr-lcus, sunny; mend-lcus, of beggars; post-icus, behind 
(post, old poste) ; pUd-icus, shamefast (pUdSre). 

2. Substantives: formica, an ant; lect-ica, a sedan (lecto-); 
lOr-ica, a breast-plate (of leathern thongs; Itoo-); lumbricus, a 
civorm; Nas-ica (m.), (nftso-); rubr-ica, red painty red heading 
(rubro-) ; vSslca, a bladder; umbU-Icus, the navel (comp. 6fi(t>ciK6s) ; 
urtica, a nettle (comp. flr-dre). See also in § 767. a ^. 

1-ftoo JEgypt-I-ftcuB, of ^gypt (JEgsrpto-); CdrlntMacus, of Co- 775 

rinth (Cdrintlio-) ; NIl-I-icu8, of the Nile (NiU)-). 

2. Stems ending in -^m, -d, -c. 

-cu See § 395. &CU8 (m. £), a needle (comp. fte-Sr, aic-a>inj); 776 

arcuB (m.), a bo^w; tlsvA (f.), afgtree; l&cns (m.), a 
pool (comp. l&cilna, Ift-xna, Xcuc-of, \aKKos)\ Pdcu (n.), a head of 
cattle; portlcus (f.), a colonnade (comp. porta-) ; avercus (f.), an 
oak; Bpdcus (m.), a cave (comp. aTreos). 

-0 crux (f.), a cross; dux (m.), a leader; fax (f.), a link; 

frftces (m. pi.), oil-dregs; nex (f.), death ;mix(t,), a nut; 
plx (f.), pitch (comp. nicraa and § 839 ^^ ; prex (not found in nom. 
s.) (f.), a prayer; trux, cruel; vlc-em (m. f.), a change; vox (f.), 
a voice. 

-6c (-Ic) This is a diminutival suffix, and forms substantives. 777 

&pex (m.), the top point; c&rex (f.), sedge; caudex^ 
cSdex (m.), a tree-trunk^ <wooden tablets; clxnex (m.), a bug; cort- 
ex (m. f.), bark of a tree; ctilex (m.), a gnat; forfex {m, f.), 
scissors; friitex (m.), a shrub; Hex (f.), an ilex; imbr-ex fm.), a 
tile (imbri-); l&t«x (21.), watery mfbrex (m.), the purpte Juh, 

2 84 Word- Formation. [BooJ^ III. 

pm-ex, pti-6Z (f.), a concubine (a transcription of 9rdXXa|) ; p5dex 
(m. p8d-«re) ; iMClez (m.), a thumb; pfUex (m.), a flea (comp. 
^XXa); pfbnez (m.), a pumice stone; rftmez (m.), a (branching) 
bloodvessel (r&mo-) ; rftmez (m. f.), sorril; Bta-ez (m.), an old man 
(comp. €vos)\ Bilez (m. i.)^ flint; 8orez(m.), a shre^w mouse (comp. 
*^P^) 5 vort-ez, vert-ez (m.), a tvuhirl^ the top of a thing (vert-fire). 

(Ju-dez, artl-fez, au-spez, simplez, &c. are compounds ; o1)ices 
from o1)Icere; Ulez from illlcere. See § 395.) 

-Ic append-lz (f.), an appendage (append-§re) ; flllz (f.), a 773 

fern; fom-iz (m.), a vault (fomo-, an oven); lariz, 
a larch; B&liz, a ivillo^ (comp. iXiKrf)] var-iz, a dilated vein 
(varo-) ; and a few others (see § 440). 

-ftd I. Adjectives; almost all from verb stems: 770 

aud-az, daring (aad6re); c&p-az, capacious (c&pfi-re); 
conttUn-az, obstinate (tibmSre) ; dXc-az, <witty (die-, cotnp. maledlc-ns); 
dd-az, eating avjay (ed-$re); efflc-az, effectual (f&c$-re^; dmaz, 
fond of making purchases (dm-6re); fall-az, deceptive (iall-6re); 
f&r-2^ fruitful (16r-re); ilig-az, runaway (fligfi-re"); fOr-az, thievish 
(fiirft-ri) ; 16qv-az, talkative (I04YI) ; mend-az, lying (comp. men- 
U-rl); min-az, threatening (minft-ri); mord-az, biting (mor-dSre); 
nlig-az, trifling (nngft-rl) ; prOc-az, fornuard in manner (prOcft-re) ; 
pngn-az, quarrelsome (piignft-re) ; r&p-az, rapacious (rd,pd-re); 
s&g-az, sagacious (comp. prsB-sfigi-re) ; s&l-az, lustful (salire); 
B^qv-az, pursuing (seqvl) ; persplc-az, clear-sighted (Bp6c6-re) ; tftg- 
az, Ught-fingered (tag-, tangere) ; t€n-az, tenacious (t6n6re) ; vSr-az, 
truthful (v5ro-) ; pervic-az, stubborn (vl;zc-6re) ; viv-az, lifefull^ long- 
lived (vlv-6re) ; v6r-az, voracious (v6ra-re) ; and some others little 

2. Substantives: fom-az (f.), a kiln (fomo-); paz (f), peace. 
Also (withjsuffix -ftc): lim-az (f.), a slug (limo-). 

-Od Adjectives: atr-oz, cruel (atro-, black); fCr-oz, high- 780 

spirited (Kro-, twild); soloz, coarse (of wool, only in 
Festus); yS1-oz, scwift (v61ft-re?). 

Substantive: c$l-oz (f.), a yacht (comp. cSl-er, k€\tjs)- 

-5c aiez (f.),flsh brine; verv-ez (m.), a <Lvethen 

-Id I. Adjectives: fel-lz, happy; pemlz, active (ni-tl, cf. jSi 

§ 707). 

-Ic a. Substantives ; all feminine. 

cerviz, a neck-bone (?), the neck; cor-n-lz, a cronu (como. 
cor-vus, Kop-av-Tjf Kop-a^) ; cdtumlz, a quail; coz-end-iz 
(f.), the hip (coza-); JOn-lz, a heifer (Jftvfin-); lOdiz, a 

C/iap.IV.I Guttural Noun- Stems: -aci, &c., -tricl; -go. 285 

blanket; rftd-ix, a root (comp. pifa, and perhaps pabivos, taper, 
ra-mus) ; stani-ix (f.), a heap (strui-, stani-Sre) ; vibix, a ^lueaL 

matr-ix (f.), a breeder (mater); nfltr-lx (f.), nurse (nutrlre), 
are formed as if analogous to the words in the next section. 

/**''^T ^^l Semi-adjectival feminine substantives corresponding to 78a 
(-t-r-icl)) jjQm^g \^ .tor. The t is the suffix of supine, &c. When 
used as adjectives they have -1 stems (e. g. victrlcia, § 414)' 

accusa-triz (Plant, twice), accuser (accusa-); adjtl-trlz, helper 
(adjiiva-re) ; al-trix, nourisher (ai-6re); ama-trix (Plaut., Mart.), 
a mistress (ama-re); l)elia-trlz, a «warrior (1)elia-re); cicatrix, a 
scar; conserva-trix (Cic. once), j&r^j^rv^r (serva-re) ; contem-p-trix, 
despising (contenm-dre) ; crea-trix, a creator (crea-re) ; cnl-trix, a 
cultivator (cdl-6re) ; edtica-trlx, trainer (edtlca-re) ; expnl-trlx, ex- 
peller (pell-Sre, pnl-sum, § 152. 3); g6n6-trlx, a mother (g6n-, gig- 
ndre) ; gll1)enia-trlx, directress (gubema-re) ; Impera-trlx, commander 
(ixnpera-re) ; Indaga-trix, a tracker out (indaga-re) ; Inven-trlx, disco^ 
*verer (v6n-I-re); mSrd-trlx, a courtesan (mfirBre); mOU-trlx (Suet.), 
a contriver (mOH-ri); na-trlx, a fwater-snake (na-re); obstd-trlx, 
a mid<wife (stare, cf. § 645) ; oratrix, a suppliant (orare) ; receptrlx, 
a receiver (recipere); tex-trix (Mart.), (webster, i.e. female <weaver 
(tex-6re); tons-trix, 7? barber (tondSre, § 160. 3); vena-trlx, hunt^ 
ress (ygnari); vic-trix, conquering (vl«c6re); nl-trix, avenging 
(ulc-isci, cf. § no. 2); and some others. 

In Plautus also cistellatrix, a casket-nvoman (clstella-); prsBsti- 
giatrix, a conjurer (prsestigia). 

Compound stem-endings: -c5so, -IcH16so, § 814; -cundo, §820; 
-clno, -clOn, §§ 840, 853; -ciilo, -imcttlo, -iisciUo, §§ 862 — 864; 
■c6ro, -c6ri, §§ 887, 902; -aceo, -fLceo, §§ 920, 921; -cio, -ticio, 
-clnlo, §§ 930, 931, 936. 

ii. Stems ending in -go, -gvo ; -gl, -g, -gvl. 783 

In most of these words the g belongs to the stem, 

-g3 I. Adjectives: largus, bountiful; longus, long; sSgus 

(usually s5ga, i.)^ foretelling (comp. sftg-ax) ; vagus, (wan- 
dering; valgus, bo^'legged (comp. var-us). 

2. Substantives: 

alga, seaweed; bulga, a bag (Gallic word) ; caUga, a half boot 
(comp. calc-eus) ; lagus (f.), a beech-tree (comp. (prjyos, oak) ; frSga 
(pi.), strawberries; ffSLg-ti, Jiight (comp. (^vyi;^; fungus, a mushroom 
(comp. a<l>6yyos)\ Jtt«-m«^ a joke (comp. Cvyov, § 141); merg-nr, 

286 Word-Formation. [Book III, 

a di'ver-fonul (meig-dre); mei:g». (pi.), a tnuo-prong fork; ni&g» 
(pi.), trifles (comp. nauoo-) ; p&ffos, a village; plftga, (i) a region^ 

harness) \ strig-a, a scathe (comp. Btrl/2g>dre) ; tergmn, a back; 
tfig-a, a cloak (tSg-fire); vliga, a sfvuitch (comp. "vlr-6re7); yolgiis 
(n. § ii^),folk. 

-gvo llsgva, the tongtte (lingdre, to lick), 

-gi ambSges (f. pL), goings round about (amb, &g-Sre) ; com- 784 

pSges (f.), a fastening (compawg-fire) ; oontSges (f.), con- 
tagion (com, ta»g-6re); Jflgl8(adj.),^«/6; propftges (f.), 
offspring (comp. propSg&-re); Btr&-ge8 (f.), destruction 
(comp. Btexndre, Btr&-to-). 

-g conjimz, a consort (com, Jlig-) ; frOg-em (f. no nom. ang.), 

fruity corn; grex (m.), a flock; lex (f.), a lanu (16g-6re, to 
choose ?); rex (m.), a king (r6g-dre); Btrix (f.), a screech-oiwL 

-gvl angvlB (m. f.), a snake (comp. tx^i) ; nlwgvla (f. nix), sno^ 

(comp. j/i^-fTos); pingvis, ya/ (comp. iraxvi)', imgvls 
(m.), a nail (comp. ow^). 

Compound stem-endings: -gno, § 826; -g6n, -9g0n, -ILSgOn, 
-tlgto, -ig6n, § 845; -gneo, § 922. 

iii. Stems ending in -ho, -ht 
trfiha, a sledge; v61ieB, a cart load (y$li-6re). 785 



\. Stems ending in -to (or -80 luhen presumably arisen from 

a dental), 

-to Adjectives of quantity: 

qvan-tUB, hofiv great (quam) ; qvar-tus, fourth (for 786 
([vatvortiiB from qvattvor) ; qyin-tus (or qvliictus),7f/h& (qyinqve) ; 
quO-tU8, bofiv great (a part)^ i.e. civ hat number (qvo-, comp. qvot); 
Box-tus, sixth (sex) ; tan-tiis, so great (tarn) ; tO-tus, so many-th; 
tOtns, <whole, 

Gomp. iB-tOB (iBte), that; Ipsus (ipse), self 

Chap, v.] Dental Noun-Stems: -to (-bo). 287 

-to (-so) I. Adjectives: 787 

(a) Participles, expressing completed action^ done in the 
case of deponent verbs, and some others (|§ 7341 735) ; suffered in 
the case of verbs having also an active voice, and in many deponents 
(§ 734). See full list in §§ 689—709. Also §§ 734, 735- 

(J)) Participles, or words of similar formation, used as adjec- 
tives of quality. (For -ato, &c. see below, § 796.) 

al-BUB, cool (alg-Sre); al-tus, high (dJ-Sre, to nourish) \ ap-tus, 
fit (&pi-BC-l) ; artus, narrows (arc6re, to confine^ ; assus, roast (comp. 
afo)); blaesus, lisping (comp. /SXatorof, bandy-legged) \ brCLtus, brute; 
cassus, empty; castus, chaste (comp. Ka6ap6s)\ c&tiis, sharp; cel-BUS, 
high (cell-Sre, to strike})] cer-tUB, sure (cer«-Sre); crassus, thick; 
cimctus, all (coYlnc-Ire) ; curtus, docked (comp. K^ipco) ; d5crepltus 
(that has cracked off})^ worn out (crep&re); densus, thick (^comp. 
haa-vi)] dlerectUB (Plaut), crucified, usually dierecte; vocative? or 
adverb? (always trisyll. dls-erlgdre?); disor-tuB, ^/^;2/ (dissdrfiFe? 
to discuss) \ ellxus, boiled (comp. laxuB, prollzuB); fal-suB, false 
(faJlSre); fastus (ndfastUB), lawful (fas); fessus, iveary (f&ti-sc-i, 
to gape) ; fes-tus, fesffve (comp. f5r-l88) ; f§-tUB, pregnant (comp. 
fe-mina, fS-cundus, § 99. 6); frStus, relying (fer-re? cf. § 692); 
giatus, tenacious^ soft (§ 690); gT&tUB, pleasing; lilrtUB, shaggy; In- 
fes-tus, set on (cf. § 704. n.); InvItUB, unwilling (for In-vic-tus? 
comp. f efc-, €Ku>v) ; ir-rl-tu8, ineffectual (rSrl) ; Justus, just (JCls-) ; 
Isetus, cheerful; lassus, tired; l&tus, broad (for tl&tus, borne^ cf. 
§ 176. 3); laxus, loose; luzus, dislocated (comp. }ko^65)\ lau-tus, 
splendid (livare) ; lentus, pliant; xnac-tus, made great (comp. mag- 
bus); m»Btus, sad (msergre); m&nifestus, hand-struck^ Le. palpable 
(§ 704. n.); multus, much; mustus, new; mUtus, dumb (comp. 
muBsSUre; also /xuetv, to close the eyes); ObSsus {overeaten^ i.e.), fat 
(6d-6re); psetufi, blink-eyed; pdr-5sus, hating (cf. p. 25 a); plantus, 
flat; ptttus, cleared^ quite (comp. pd-tftre, § 964) ; russus, red (comp. 
€pvd-p6s) ; sal-Bus, salt (s&lire); sanctus, holy, good (sane-Ire); sen- 
tus, squalid (comp. sentlna); si-tus, placed (sI/2-6re); splssus, 
crowded; BtvUtVLB, foolish (comp. stdUdus); Bdbltus, sudden (subire); 
sublestiis (Plaut.), weak; t&citus, silent (t&cSre); ter-sus, neat (terg- 
ere, to wipe) ; vastus, waste, huge; ydgd-tus, active (§ 693). 

2. Substantives; 788 

(a) Masculine: accensus, an apparitor (orig. supernumerary, 
Mommsen, accens5re); cossus, a worm; also as proper name (from 
wrinkled skin) ; digitus, a finger (comp. doicruXoy, buKvv^iv, dlcfoe, 
dlc-9xe, prodlgluzn) ; fasus, a spindle; grossus, an unripe fig;^ guttus 
(gatus), a bottle; hortus, a garden (cf. § 134); Iftcertus, '(i) the 
muscle of the upper arm; (2) a lizard; lectus, a couch (comp. \exosy 
\€KTpov) ; llber-tus, a freedman (Ubdro-) ; nftsus (n&sum^ a nose 
(comp. nftris) ; ventus, wind; nrsus, a bear (comp. op/croy). 

288 WoRD-FoRMATiox. [Book II L 

liaista, a trainer of gladiators (cjmp. cUlilrlsta, /ci^apttr-rijy) ; 
lixa, a camp-follower, 

Bassus; Gotta (for cocta?); Natta; 'S^si&z.^ splay-footl (pand-Sra). 

(Jf) Feminine: buxus, box-tree; iasxA^yemj, 

&inlta, a father'' s sister; ansa, a handle; antlstl-ta, a priestess 
(ante,; dxista, the beard of corn; baJlista, a military engine 
(jSoXXfii/); bSta, beet; blatta, a moth; capsa, a box (c&p-dre?); c&- 
tasta, a platform; causa, a cause; cgrussa, nvhite lead (as if Krjpoea-' 
<ra?); chaxta., paper (x^P'^'yO) costa, a rib; coza, the hip (comp. 
Koxcivrj)] crSta, chalk; crista, a crest; crosta, rind^ shell, &c.; ctl- 
curblta, a gourd; culclta, a pillow; fossa, a ditch (fdd6-re); gutta, 
a drop; hasta, a spear; hosplta, a guest; Impen-sa (sc. pecxinia), 
expense (Impend-dre) ; instlta, a jounce or band; JUven-ta, youth 
(Jtivdn-); matta, a mat; mensa, a table; mSta, a cone; mnlta, a 
fine; nOta, a mark (cf. § 647); noxa, hurt (nOc-Sre); offen-sa, a 
striking against (offend-6re) ; orblta, a wheel track (orbl-) ; pausa, 
a pause (jravuv) ; planta, a sprout, the sole of the foot; porta, a gate; 
pr»tez-ta (sc. toga), a bordered robe (praBtex-fire) ; prdsa (sc. ora- 
tio), prose (pro-vert-ere, cf. § 191. a); rdpul-sa, a repulse (repe'J- 
6re); rixa, a quarrel (comp. eptd-)] rOsa, a rose (comp. p68ov); 
rOta, a wheel; rtlta, rue (comp. pvn]); s»ta, a bristle; 8l.gitta, 
an arrow; sec-ta, a party (sdcdxe or sfiqvl?); semlta, a path; 
secesplta, a knfe; Sospita (epithet of Juno), Preserver; sporta, 
a basket (comp. cnruptS-) ; tensa, a sacred chariot; testa, a potsherd 
(for tors-ta, from torr6-re?); ton-sa, an oar (tund-fire); Vesta, 
hearth-goddess (comp. tlr-ere, us-tum; *Eo-ria); vlndicta, (i) rod 
nsed in the ceremony of manumission; (2) revenge (vJidfic-); vita, 
Ife; Yltta, a fillet (comp. viSre) ; vdlfL-ta, a scroll in architecture 

(f) Neuter: arbtitum, wild strawberry; bus-tum, a tomb (comp. 
com-bflr-dre) ; compltum, a crossroad (com-p6t-6re ?) ; ctibl-tuxn, the 
elbow (ciibare) ; defttttum, must boiled down (defervere ?) ; dic-tnm, 
a saying (dlc-Sre); dorsum, a back; exta (pL), heart, liver, &c. (for 
ex-sec-ta?); fSUtum, destiny (fa-ri); frfituzn, a sea strait; frustum, 
a broken piece (comp. 6pav€iv, § 99. 6); furtum, a theft (far-); IStum, 
death; lii-tum, mud (comp. lav-are); lUtum, a yellow dye; mentum, 
the chin (comp. e-mlnSre, to project); Om&sum, bullock's tripe (a 
Gallic word) ; pas-sum, raisin wine (pand-Sre, to spread out to dry) ; 
pen-sum, a task (pend-6re, to weigh); pessum (only ace), ground 
(p6d-, foot); porten-tum, a portent (portend-6re) ; pratum, a 
meadow; prosecta (pi.), parts cut of, e.g. for sacrifice (prosficare); 
pulpltum, a scaffold; punc-tum, a point (pung-6re, to prick) ; sap- 
turn, a fence (sfflp-ire); saxum, a rock; scortum, a whore (orig. 
a hide ace. to Varro; comp. c6r-ium); scrilta (pi.), trcuh; sctltum, 
a leather-covered shield (comp. ctkvtos:) ; sugges-tum, a platform 
(suggdr-ere) ; tec-tum, a house (t£g-dre) ; tes-tum, a pot-lid (torr- 
ere); vervactum, a fallow-field; virgultum, a thicket (vlrg-ttl-a-) ; 
v5-tvuoa., a vjw (7d7-ere). 

^hap, v.] Dental Noun-Stems : -to (-so), -mento. 289 

-u8-to i. e. -to appended to a suffix in -ob, -us (-or, -ur). 789 

angus-tus, narrow (taigdr-, ang-^re; comp. ayxfiv^ to 
thrott/e)] aug-U8-tUB, consecrated (aug-«ur-); Haus-tus, propitious (f&- 
v6r-) ; 6n-u8-tuB, la Jen (6n1l8-) ; r01)-U8-tu8, strong (riJWr-) ; vSn-us- 
tuB, pretty (vfinfts-) ; yetus-tus, ancient (vettts-). 

-6B-to i.e. -to appended to a. suffix -os or -us. 

fttn-es-tus, iieadiy (fto-ils-); hOn-es-tus, honourable (liOn- 
0-b); intempes-tus, unseasonable (in tempOs-); mdd-es-tus, modest 
(modo-; comp.m6d-6r-a-rl); m6l-9B-txiB,troub/esome (exhausting, from 
mai-fire, to grindX) ; scdl-es-tus, <imcked (sottiis-). 

-c-to i.e. -to appended to the suffix -8c, -Ic. 790 

1. Adjectives: senectus (Plaut), old (son-ec-); hence 
senecta, sc. atas, old age; tUnectus, moist (comp. (Lm-Sre). 

2. Substantives: cfir-ec-tum, reed beds (cfir-dc-); dtbn- 
ec-tum (Fest.), old for duxndtum (§ 798. i); frutec-tum (also in 
Col. firutetum; comp. frutloetum, § 798. 2), shrubbery (friit6c-); 
s&l-ic-tum, a twUlO'W bed (sftUc-); vlr-ec-tum, greenery (vlr-5re). 

-en-to I. Adjectives: cm-ontus, bloody (comp. cru-or). 791 

a. Substantives: (^i) feminine: pOlenta, pearl barley 
(poUdn-; comp. nc^rj)] pl&oenta, a cake (probably from 
ace. of TrXajcoOf). 
(bi) Neuter: arg-entum, silifer (comp. apyoi, white) \ carpen- 

tnm, a covered two- wheeled carriage; flu-entum, a stream (flu-6re) ; 

pilentum, a covered four-wheeled carriage; t&lentum, a balance 

(roKavTov) ; ungven-tum, ointment (ungvdn-). 

So the names of towns: ikgrlgentum CAKpayavr-, nom. 'AKpoyar); 
Bux-entum, Boxgrove (buxo-; IIv^ocit-, nom. Ilv^ovs); OriUn-en- 
tum, Hill'tofivn^ (grtbno-); Laur-entum, Laurel grove} (lauro-);^ 
T&rentuxn (Topar); comp. Sipontum (SiTrovr). 

-m-en-to i.e. -to appended to the suffix -mfin (§ 850). 793 

Substantives, (a) neuter; usually derived from verbs. 
Many are used chiefly in the plural. 

ftU-mentnin, nourishment (ftl-Are); ftmentum, a javelin thongs 
(for &pl-mentum, a fitting} comp. ap-tos, airr^iv)', argd-mentfUn, a 
proof (argu-fire) ; armft-menta (pi.), tackle (arm&-re) ; ar-mentuin, 
a plough beast (&rft-re); atramontiiiii, ink (atro-); auctOrA-mentoin, 
hire (auctorft-ri) ; UandX-mentum, soothing (blandl-re); ca-mentun, 
quarried stone (caBd-dre) ; oaloeft-mentuin, a shoe (calceSre) ; c&plUft- 
mentum, hmr (capUlo-) ; ooag-mentnm, a joining (co&g-dre) ; cogaO- 
mentum, a surname (cogno-sc-dre) ; oompl6-mentum (rare), a filling 
up (complS-re) ; dehOnesta-mentum, a disgrace (dehSnestlUre); d6- 
trl-mentum, a loss by <ivear (ditftMSre; comp. detrl-tnH); dOoft-men- * 

2^0 Word-Formation. {Book IIL 

turn, a lesson (ddo3re); dld-menta {^\,)t Jirst principles (means of 
growth} comp. Olescere); ^mblfL-meatxaxL, gain {by grinding; exn6> 
l-3re); ezpdrl-mentum, a test (ezpdrl-ri); fer-mentum, yeast (ferv- 
ere) ; feirft-mentum, an iron implement (comp. ferr&-tas) ; f5-men- 
tum, poultice^ 6cc. (f6v3re); flrag-mentum, a fragment (fra«g-6re); 
fira-mentum, com (comp. fiilges) ; ftindft-mentum, a groundwork 
(fimdft-re) ; incItiUnentum, an incentive (tnoltfire) ; Incrd-mentiun, 
increase^ germ (incre-sc-ere) ; InstrtL-mentuxn, stock of implements^ a 
means (l2i8tra-6re) ; intertrl-mentum, waste by rubbing (cf. detri- 
mentuxn); Irritft-mentum, an incentive (irrlt&-re); JfL-mentum, a 
beast of draught (Jiwg-6re; comp. Jiig-mn); Ift-menta (pi.), lamen- 
tation (for ciamftmenta? cf. § no. 3); levft-mentoiii, a relief 
(l$y&-re) ; Id-mentum, a wash (l&Y-Sje) ; m&cbXzift-mentuxn, a ma- 
chine (machtnft-re) ; mO-mentum, motion^ impulse (mOvfire) ; m5n11- 
mmtxaay a memorial (monSre); nfltrl-meiituni, nourishment (n1itrl> 
re) ; Orxaentuxn, a fat membrane; Operi-mentum, a lid (0p8ri-re) ; 
omft-mentum, an ornament (omSr-re); p&lfLdamentiiitt, a military 
cloak; p&Tl-mentum, pavement (p&vl-re, to beat, ram) ; pSd&mentum, 
a prep for vines, &c. (pddft-re, to put feet to) ; plg-mentum, a paint 
(pl»g-ere); pul-mentum, pulpft-mentimi, meat (pulpa^); purgft- 
xnentum, refuse (purgft-re); rft-mentuxn, a scraping, chip (rSxl-dre); 
radl-mentum, a trial, beginning (foil-exercise 1 rtldis, a foil}); ssdpl- 
mentum, a hedge (ssspl-re); sar-mentum, a vine pruning, i.e. a 
branch requiring to oe pruned oiF (sarp-fire, to prune)', seg-mentum, 
a strip (sdc&re); BtemfL-mentiini, sneezing (stemu-Sre); str&-men- 
tum, straw (Btem-Bre, strfl-tiui) ; Btrlg-mentuxn, a scraping (stri»g- 
ere); suffl-mentttni, incense (suffl-re); tdg-u-mentum (integumen- 
tum), a covering (tfig-Sre); temp6r&-mentuiu, mixture, moderation 
(temp&riUre) ; testft-mentum, a will (testft-ri) ; tS-mentum, stuffing 
(clippings ? comp. tondSre) ; tor-mentuxn, a hurling engine (torqvere) ; 
vestl-inentiim, a dress (vesti-re) ; and others. 

(b) Feminine: tiilmQnt&, a prop ; lAmeiitSL, a shaving ; both old 
forms. See the neuters. 

ai-en-to Sometimes the older -Olento; sometimes the later -Ilento. 793 
From real or assumed derivatives in -to, -tt 
Adjectives: corpu-lentus, ^eshy (for corpOr-ulentus) ; 
escu-lentUB, eatable (esca-) ; fraudu-lentus, cheating (firaudl-) ; gr&ci- 
lentus, thin (comp. gr&cllls); IfLcu-lentas, bright (lllci-); perhaps 
also gainful for lucru-lentus (lucro-) ; lUtu-lentus, muddy (lUto-) ; 
mftd-lentus, wasted (m&cie-) ; dpH-lentus, wealthy (dpi-) ; potu-len- 
tus, drinkable (pOto-) ; pulvdr-MentUB, dusty (pulvls-) ; pOr-ulentus, 
festering (ptls-); saxigvIn-Olentus, blood-stained (sangvdn-) ; t€m- 
nientus, drunken (comp. tSm-etum) ; triicu-lentUB, ^^rr ^ (triici-); 
tnrt)u-lentuB, riotou: (turlia-); i^o-lentiis, drunken (vino-); tIo- 
lentua, violent (vl- for visl-). 

Sn« I Indeclinable adjectives of number, denoting multiples of 
-«iatt ) ^^ . ^^ ^^j. ^^ ^ decem-tl (or -ta). 


Chap, K] Dental Noun-Stems : -glnta, -ato. 291 

. - 

Yi-gtntl, tnventy (dvl-d6cem-tl, tnuo^ten-ty) ; tarl-ginta, /^/r/j' (tri-) ; 
quadra^iiitft (quatvor-, § 158); qvlnqvaginta^^/y (qvlnqve-); sexa- 
ginta, sixty (sex) ; septiOlginta, seventy (septem, see bdow) ; oct6- 
g:lnta, eighty (octo); nOnflginta, ninety (nOvem, see below). 

Compare centum, supposed to be for decem-decem-ta. 

The formation of the higher cardinal numbers is in some points 
very obscure. The final vowel — ^I in Ylglnti, a in the others — is 
found also in Greek, but is there short; e.g. ^iKoa-iy Dor. et/cart: 
rpiaKopTOy Sec, The a before the guttural in quadrfglnta, &c. is 
also found in Greek; e.g. Tara-apaKovraj but the origin of none ot 
these vowels is clear. The final 1 in vJginti may be a dual foi-m : 
the f nal a of triglnta, &c. is by some considered to be the same as 
the ordinary a of the neuter plural. 

Septuaglnta, reventy, is abnonnally formed instead of septen- 
ginta, probably to avoid confusion with septingenti, seven hundred. 
(For the u comp. septuenniB.) Ndnaglnta is probably for ndvin- 
aglnta, the m being assimilated to the initial 2l (Schleicher derives 
it directly from the ordinal nOno-«) 

-^^to I Declinable adjectives of number, denoting multiples of a 795 
"• ' hundred only used in plural: gento-= centum. 

dHoenti, ttivo hundred (duo-centum); trdcenti, three bundrea 
(tri-); quadringenti,yb«r hundred (qvatror, see below); qulngenti, 
Jive hundred (for qvlnqvlgenti) ; sezcenti, six hundred (sex) ; sep- 
tingenti, seven hundred (septem); octingenti, eight hundred (octo, 
see below) ; nongenti, nine hundred (nOn is for ndvem). 

The -in in quadringenti and octingenti has perhaps been sug- 
gested by septingenti (where it has its justification in septem; for 
the 1 cf. § 204. 2. f) and qvlngenti, where it is radical. It may have 
been adopted to increase the distinction of the hundreds ^om 
the tens. 

The difference of the vowel before nt in the hundreds compared 
with the tens, e.g. quadring^ti, quadraginta, is probably due partly 
to the desire for distinction, partly to the feet that the e of a suffix 
(dec^^T?) more easily passes into i (quadraginta) than the e in cmtum 
(quadrlng<Ati), which is apparently, though perhaps not really 
(cf. § 794), radical. 

-ato I. Participles from verbs with -a stems (§ 697); e.g. 796 

amatus, &c. loved (am&-re) ; &c. : or adjectives formed 
as such: 

actUe-atU8,yi/rm Ji&f^ <u}ith a sting or thorn (acu-leo-); adip-atns, 

fattened (addp-) ; ar-atus, of bronv^ (as-) ; alb-atus, dad in «white 

(allK)-); ans-atus, <with bandies (ansa-); arm-atus, armed (anna- 

292 Word-Formation. [Book II L 

re) ; aur-atiu, gilded (anxo-) ; barb-atos, bearded (barba-) ; br&eca- 
tu8, breeched (bracca-) ; c&pill-atiui, hairy (c&plllo-) ; c&plt-atua^ <z<//VA 
a head (c&pUt-) ; c&ten-atua, chained (ofttena^) ; oentftrl-atns* of the 
centuries (centftria-) ; c6tr-atU8| armed <with a short shield (oetra*); 
cindimatiLB, curled (dnoiimo-) ; ^IxamirdiXMRj furnished <with columns 
(cdlunna-) ; cord-atus, having good sense (cord-); cdtbum-atag, 
busAined, i.e. tragic (cdtliiimo-) ; crftpld-atus, sandalled (crdplda-); 
cr6t-at!Ui, chalked (crSta-) ; crlat-atus, crested (crista-) ; cflrl-atus, of 
the Curia (curia-) ; dSUc-atus, charming, dainty (jfiltered, dellqT&re?) ; 
dent-atUB, toothed (denti-); dlmldi-atus, halved (dimldio-); F&b-atiiSy 
beaned, chiefly as surname (^ba-) ; foBC-atuB, made from lees (ted-) ; 
falc-atOB, sickle-shaped (fald-); ferr-atiu, iron-covered (ferro-); gtolc&l- 
atiis, <with knees, i. e. jointed (gfinX-dUo-) ; gutt-atns, speckled (gutter) ; 
hast-atuSy armed <with spear (liasta-) ; littdr-atus, lettered, i.e. brand- 
ed or learned (littSra-) ; lUp-fttus, armed nvith jagged spikes like fivolfs 
teeth (lUpo-); mOr-atus, -mannered (mOs-); numm-atus, supplied 
twith money (numni-); dbser-atus, moneyed over, i.e. in debt (as-); 
6cell-atUB, ivith little eyes or spots (dcello-) ; 6clll-atU8, having eyes 
(dc&lo-) ; orblciU-atus, rounded (orUctUa-) ; palli-atus, dressed in a 
Greek cloak (pallio-) ; p&lfLd-atUB, miith the military cloak on (comp. 
paluda-mentum) ; paJm-Atus, eu)orked <with palm-branches (palma-); 
penn-atUB, <winged(peDiai,-) ; pU-atus, armed (with a pike (pllo-) ; pllle- 
atU8, bonneted (pllleo-) ; pinn-atus, feathered (pinna-) ; prsBtezt-atus, 
^wearing the bordered robe (prsetexta-, § 790) ; torqv-fttus, (wearing a 
collar (torqvl-) ; tr&be-atus, (wearing the state robe (tr&-bea-) ; tllnl- 
catus, in a shirt (ttinica-) ; Tlsc-atus, limed (visco-) ; vltt-atus, J^//^/^^ 
(vltta-) ; ungvent-atua, anointed (ungvento-) ; and many others. 

2. Substantives: arqv-atus, (i) the jaundice, (2) a jaundiced 
fyerson (9xqao-, the rainbotwl); TpSLlSAvan., the palate', vlctori-atus (sc. 
nununus), a victory-coin (victoria-). 

-ato »gr-5tus, sick (fflgro-). See also § 689. 797 

-Uto I. Participles from verbs with -u stems (§ 690); e.g. 

ftcii-tuB, sharpened (&cu-6re) ; &c.; or adjectives termed 
as such, chiefly from substantives with -u stems: 

ast-utus, crafty (astu-); dnct-utus, girdle-(wearing (dnctu-); 
com-utus, horned (comu-); dSUb-utus, smeared (comp. Xclfieiv)', 
hirs-fltUB, shaggy (comp. blrto-) ; n&s-utus, (with large, or, meta- 
phorically, sharp nose (nftso-) ; vers-utua, adroit (versu-, a turning^ ; 
Y^T'VLtus, javelin-armed (veru-). 

actHtum (adv.), instantly (actu-. See § 528). 

a. Substantives: &luta, leather; cicuta, hemlock; K&tuta, God- 
dess of dawn (comp. m&ne?); vfirutum, a javelin (veru-). See 
also § 788^, c, 

-6to I. Participles from verbs with stems in -e (§ 692); gg 

e.g. deflStus, lamented (defigre); &c.: also the adjective' 
f&c-6tU8, (witty, ' 

Cliap, K] Dental Noun-Stems : -flto, -Sto, -Ito ; -tu (-mi). 293 

a. Substantives: (a) masculine or feminine: Mletus (m.), a 
kind of mushroom (from /S^Xinys?); M6neta, a surname of Juno, 
in whose temple money was coined: hence mint; riWwta, a toad 
(said to be from rftbo-, bramble). See also § 788 A. 

{b) neuter: (i) ftcetum, 'vinegar (ace-sc-ere) ; dletnm (old 
word), dung (aifire?); tftpetum (cf. § 418), a carpet; tfimetum, /«- 
toxkating drink (comp. t6m-nlentua, al3s-tSm-iii8) ; taAp-etuxn (cf. 
§ 418), /7» olive mill. 

(a) Names expressing a place where a plant, &c. grows: (But 
few or these words are i^ed frequently) : 

nsdU-etum (Hon), an oak forest (sosctUo-); finmdln-etam, a 
reed bed (amnddn-) ; aspr-etum, rough place (aspdro-, § 347); bux- 
etum (Mart.), box plantation (bozo-) ; cast&n-etum (Col.), chestnut 
grove (castanea-); cfipress-ettun, a cypress grove (cupresso-); dlhn- 
ettun, a thicket (dtbno-); fXm-etum (Plin.), dunghill (flmo-) ; flrtltlc- 
etnrn, a shrubbery (friltftc-); myrt-etum, myrtle grove (m3n:to-); 
6IXv-etiim, an oUveyard (6]Iva-); pln-etum, pine grove (pIno-); 
qyerc-etom, oak grove (qyerco-) ; rta-etnm, rose bed (rSsa-) ; sax- 
Stum (once Cic), bed of rocks (sazo-); sentl-c-etum (Plant), thorn 
bed (sent!-: formed in analogy with firaticetum?); sfipulcr-etum 
(CatulL), a graveyard (sdpulcro-) ; vdtdr-etum (Golum.), old faU 
low land (vfittls-) ; vin-etum, a vineyard (Tine-) ; with others used 
very rarely. So Ari^etmn, marlbed (arglUa-), popularly misunder- 
stood by the Romans. 

-Ito I. Participles from verbs with -1 stems (§ 695); e.g. 799 

aud-itus, beard (aud-Ire); &c: and adjectives formed 
as such : 

ftv-ltus, o/fl grandfather (ftvo-); aur-itus, <ivith ears (aurl-); 
Cerr-itus (for Cereritus),yrtf»z«V</ by Ceres'* influence (Cfirts-); dln- 
itus, hairy (crini-); fortu-ItOB (Hon, Phsedr.), fortultus, (Manil., 
Petr., Juv.), by chance (fortl-, cf. § 405); grfttu-itus (Plaut.), gra- 
ta-itu8 (Stat.), eivithout pay (comp. grfttia-) ; mSx-itus, married^ of 
marriage (m&sl-); mell-itus, honeyed (mtUX')', patr-itos, of a father 
(patr-); pell-itus, skin-^lad (peUi-); pih:-ltas, skilled (cf. p. 254); 
8ci-tu8, clever^ knowing (scl-re); tuxr-itOB, iurreted (turrl-). 

2. Substantives.: pItu-Ua, phlegm (comp. nrv^iv^ spu-dre); 
scribUta, a cake. 

it Stems ending in -tu, -tl, -t (-8U, -bI, -b luhen presumably arisen 

from a dental). 

-tu (-su) Substantives derived mostly from verbs, and generally 800 
denoting an act. (The accusative and ablative cases are 
the so-called supines.) See §§ 397 — 399 and Book II. 
Chap. XXIV. 

294 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

adyen-tiu, an arri'vcd (advfin-Ire) ; ns-tus, beat (comp. oiBfiv, 
to set on fire) ; &mlo-tiui, a garment (&nilc-lre) ; anfiractus, a circuity 
<2 hend (am, fnMg-ere) ; anhSl-ltus, panting (anh81&-re); ap]»&r&-tiui^ 
equipment (app&rft-re) ; app6tl>tiui, appetite (appetl-, appet-6re)j ar« 
lDlitXr2Xxjiy judgment^ choice (orbitrft-ri) ; ar-tus, a joint (comp. ap€iv, 
to fit) \ aspec-tus, sight (aspIcS-re); as-tus, cunning (§396); audl- 
tUB, hearing (audl-re); 1)SI&-tuB, a bleating (bfilSU-re); csBS-tos, a 
gauntlet (csed-dre? hence a strip) ; caa-tus, a song (c&n-6re) ; cap-tns, 
grasps esp. mental (c&pS-re) ; cS^sus, an accident (c&d-dre) ; cen-sus, 
a reckoning (censere) ; coitus, a connexion (co-Ire) ; coatiis, an assem^ 
bly (same as last); cOmltft-tus, a train (comIt&-re) ; crfipl-tus, a 
rattling (cr$p&re); crftciSr>tus, torturing (cr&ci&-re); decur-sos, a 
descent, a course (deciirr-6re) ; delec-tus, a selection, levy (dSUg-dre) ; 
Sven-tus, an occurrence (evSn-Iro); exercl-tus, an army (exercere); 
exl-tu8, departure (exire) ; fastus, pride; f9-tU8, bearing, offspring 
(comp. f5-cundu8, fd-mlna); fl$-tus, eiueeping (fl8-re); fluc-tus, a 
fwave (flngy-, fiu-6re); fruc-tus, enjoyment, fruits (frixgv-, flru-i); 
ges-tus, gesture (s^r-6re) ; gustus, taste (comp. ycvciv) ; Mbl-tus, 
habit in various senses (h&bS-re) ; h&Utiis, breath (comp. hftlft-re) ; 
liiSrtus,^^^^^ (hift-re); lc-tus,/7 ^/o-iu (Ic-6i«); ijathia-ipi&finstigation 
(instiiigv-dre) ; Itus (Lucr., Cic), a going (Ire) ; lessus (old word ; 
only in ace. s.), (mailing; luc-tua, ^r/>/* (MgSre) ; luxus, luxury; 
merc&-tii8, trading (merc9.«ri) ; rxLhtxm, fear ; mO-tas, motion (md- 
v3re); mtligl-tuB, lociving (xntLgl-re) ; neoessus (cf. § 432; probably 
from ne, ced-ere) ; nenis. a bond (nect-6ra) ; or-tus, a rising (6r-I- 
rl) ; par-tUB, birth (p&r6-re) ; pas-sus, a step (pand-6re, to stretch) ; 
plau-BUS, a clapping (plaud-fire) ; portUB, a harbour; p5-tUB, a drink- 
ing (comp. po-ta-re) ; progres-Bus, an adnjance (progr6d-i) ; qusBS- 
tufl, gain (qu3er-6re) ; qvcB-tus, complaint (qv6r-i) ; ric^tus, mouths 
opening (rl«g-i); iI-bub, laughter (ridSre); rltUB, a rite; sal-tus, 
a It aping (sftll-re); a mountain glen (comp. aK'VosX)\ bcz-ub, sex 
(B6c-axe ?) ; sI-tUB, situation {jSin-^rb) ; spIr-ituB, a breath (sp£r&-re) ; 
Btr6p-I-tU8, a din (strdp-Sre) ; suzn-p-tus, expense (stLm-€re) ; tac-tiis» 
a touch (tang-^re); tlnnl-tUB, a tinkling (tinnl-re); transI-tUB. a pas- 
sage (trauBl-re) ; TeBtl-tOB, dress (vcBtl-re) ; vlc-tuB. living, food 
(vlgv-, viv-6r8); yI-bub, sight (vid-fire); vol-tUB, expression of counter 
nance, looks, ct Cic. Leg, I. 9 (velle, v61o) ; {L-sub. use (tit-1) ; &c. 

frdtUB (m.), a strait; UnpitUB (m.), an onset (in pdtSre) ; mdtus 
(m.),fear; in which t is apparently radical. 

-ul-tu Bing-nltuB, sobbing; ttim-ultUB, uproar (ttUn-Sre). 

-atu From substantives, but formed as if from verbs with -a 801 

stems (e.g. conBulSxe, to be consul), denote (i) the holding 
office, (2) the office itself, (3) the body of officers. 

C8BlIb-atus (Sen. Suet.), celibacy (cQlSb-) ; clb-atus (prae-Cic. and 
Plin.), food (dbo-) ; consill-atUB, a being consul, the consulship (con- 

Chap, v.] Dental Notm-Stems : "^tu; \X {-A), 295 

sill-) ; dtic-atus (post-Aug.), leadership (dUc-) ; dqvlt-atus, ca'valry 
(6qv6t-) ; jadlc-atus (Gic. once), judgeship (jad6c-) ; mftgistr-aUis, 
magistracy (magistro-) ; pfidlt-atuB, infantry (pSdfit-) ; pontif Ic-atUB, 
the pontificate (pontifSc-) ; pzIm-atUB (Van*., Plin.), primacy (primo-)^ 
princip-atUB, chieftainship (prlncfip-) ; d6cemvlr-atu8 (so trimnyirar 
tus, &c.), membership of a commission often (decem"v1ro-) ; qvadrim- 
atus (Plin., Col.), age oi four years old (qvadrimo-) ; re-atUB (see 
Quintil. 8. 3. 34), condition of an accused person (reo-); Bfin-atUB, a 
body of old men (s6n-, sfinex); summ-atUB (Lucr.), sovereignty 
(Buxnmo-) ; tribdn-atus, tribunate (tarlbtino-). 

-ti(-sl) I. Adjectives: diB, rich (contracted from dives); fortls^ 802 
bra've (fer-re; comp. (p^prepoSi &c.); mltlB, mild; pOtlB, 
able (comp. noais^ a husband) ; boxib, guilty; trlBtlB, sad, 

C&mer-s, a man of Camerinum; TTtivas, a man of Tibun 

a. Substantives: (a) masculine and feminine: amuBBlB (m.), B03 
a carpenter^ rtde; antes (m. pi.) ranks; ars (f.), art 
(comp. ar-tUB, a joint, ap-ap-laKciv)', assis, usually aB (m.), a 
penny; azlB or aBfilB (m.), an axle-tree, a board; casBlB (m. § 432), 
a mesh of a net; cautSs (f.), a rock; classlB (f,), a class, a fleet (for 
KXaais Dor. from KoK-du})', cdhorB or cors (f.), a yard, a company 
fcom, hor-; comp. Yop-roy); c6b (f.), a <u)hetstone (comp. cautes)i 
cr&tlB (f.), a hurdle of wicker; ctitlB (f.), skin (comp. BCfltum, 
aKVToi)',. denB (m.), a tooth (comp. obow, nom. ohovi)', enalB (m.); 
a scvuord; f&tlB (only in adfatim, to satiety), a yanvn (comp. f&tl- 
Bcfire, ffttlgare); fonB (m.), a spring of v^rater, &c.; foni (f.)^ 
chance; frons (f. § 419), the forehead; fustlB (m,), a cudgel; 
genB (f.), a race (g6n-, glgnfire); grfttSs (f. pi.), thanks (comp. 
grft-tuB, gr&tla); hoBtis (m. f.), a stranger, an enemy; lenB (f.), a 
lentil; Us (for BtllB, f.), a strife, a suit; menB (f.), a mind (comp. 
rd-mln-lBcl) ; menBis (m.), a month (comp. prfv, p.rivfi) *, mes-BlB (f.), 
karnjest (in6t-6re, to mow)', monB (m.), a mountain; mom (f.), death 
(in6r-i); n&tlB (f.) a buttock; neptis (f.), a granddaughter (comp. 
n6p-5t-); nox (f.), night (comp. pvkt-, nom. wj); para (f.), apart 
(comp. TTop-, cTTooov aor., p&rt-re); pestls (f.), destruction (comp. 
perd-€re, iripO-civ); pons (m.), a bridge (comp. pondus); poBtls 
(m.), a doorpost; pulB (f.), pulse; r&tis (f.), a raft (comp. rdxnuB, an 
car; ep-eTtjs, a rower) ; reBtiB (f.), a rope; 8€2nenti8 (f.), seedtime 
(Bemfin-); senteB (m. pi.), thorns; Bitis (f.), thirst; Boni (f.), a lot 
(B6r-6re, to put in rows) ; sponte (abl. s. f.), with a will; testis (m.) 
(comp. T«#c-, rlKTfLv) ; (m. f.), a witness (comp. T(K-p.ripu)v) ; tasBis 
(f.), ^ cough (for tUd-tia from tu»d6re?) ; yfttds (m.), a seer; veo-tiB 
(m.),a roller or lever (vfih-ere); ves-tiB (f.), a dress (comp. ivvvpoh 
€(r-6rjs) ; vl-tis (f.), a vine (vl-5re, to weave), 

(b) Neuters: lac (or laet), milk (comp. yoXa/cr-); rWe, a net, 804 
-ftt finas (f.), a duck (comp. vfjaaa). 


•dt ftUqudt, some; qudt. hanu many; tAt, so many: all inde- 

clinable adjectives. 

•At (^t) eairilt (n.), a head (comp. jcf^-oXif). 

-dtl hSbds, bltmt; tfete, roi^n^/ (tdr-ere, to nuear)* 

•#t &M5S (f.), a pine; &ri6s (m.), a ram; p&riSs (m.), a twall; 

sdgta (f.), standing corn; xigiB (f.), a mat (t6g*6re). 

-4t (-It) Sl-es, twinged (Ua-); ftm-es (m.?), a vineprop (comp. 805 

&p-i8Cl) ; antistes (m. f.), a priest ox priestess (ante, stSr) ; 
08^-68 (m.), a heaven-dweller (csBlo-); csBspes (m.)* *^fi c<x^-®8 
(m.), a blind man (for 8oo-oul-dt-; comp. o-jco-ror, Curt., Cors.); 
cdmes (m. f.), a companion (com) ; dlyes, rich (comp. diyo-) ; dqy-es 
(m.), a horseman (fiqvo-) ; gorgea (m.), a whirlpool; merges (f.?), 
a sheafs also a pitchfork (comp. merga, a two-prong) ; miles (m. f.), 
a soldier; p6d-es (m. f.), a man on foot (pM-) ; iK)ple8 (m.), the back 
of the knee; pr»st-es (m. i,)^ protecting (prsB, Bt&-); s&telles (m.f.), 
an attendant; sospes, savings ^^fi; stipes (m.), a stock (comp. 
8tlp-ula, a j/r^7(it;) ; siiperstes, surviving (super, 8t&-); tildes (Fest.), 
a hammer (tundere) ; vSles (m.), a skirmisher (comp. yfil-oz). 

rm-fit(-mlt) fS-mes (m.), tinder (f6v-5re); U-mes Tm.), a balk 806 

(ll-mo-, slanting) ; palmes (m.), a vine shoot (pal-ma, 
a branch) ; tar-mes (m.), a <u)oodworm (comp. tdr-ebra, rep-rfdcjv) ; 
termes (m.), a cutting; trftmes (m.), a path (tra-ns). 

-en-tl I. Participles present active of verbs : 807 

&ma-ns, loving (&mSL-) ; audl-ens, hearing (audi-) ; c&pi- 
ens, taking (cap6-re); gign-ens, begetting (gl-gn-fire); mdn-ens, 
advising (m6n-Sre) ; obllvlsc-ens, forgetting (oblivisci); rdg-ens, 
ruling (rfig-fire); tribu-ens, assigning (tribu-6re); and so from all 

a. Adjectives, originally present participles, or formed as such: 

absens, absent (abes-se); &bundans, abundant (abundft-re, to 
overflow) ; arrdgans, arrogant (arrdgft-re, to claim) ; Clemens, mer- 
ciful; congru-ens, suitable (congru-6re, to agree) \ contln-ens, con- 
tiguous (contXnere) ; dlUg-ens, accurate (dlllg-6re, to love) ; Slogans, 
neat; gldqv-ens, eloquent (Sloqvl-); ivld-ens, evident (ex vid-Sre); 
ftSqvens, crowded; imptld-ens, shameless (in p(id-Sre); inndc-ens, 
harmless (In ndc-6re) ; ins&l-ens, excessive^ haughty (In sdl-ere, to be 
wont) \ Insons, guiltless (in sons) ; Ub-ens, willing (Ub-ere) ; llc-ens, 
presumptuous (llc-5re); p6t-enB,/K?«a;<fr/«/(p0t-e8Be); pr8Bgnan8,/rr^^- 
nant (lit before bearing} prae, gto-); prsssens, present (pra esse); 
prssstans, excellent (pr«-stare); pnid-ens, prudent (pro vidSre, to 
foresee) \ rdcens, fresh; rfipens, sudden; s&p-lens, wise (sftpfi-re, to 

-Chap, V,] Dental Noun-Stems : -6t, -entl, -atl, -tat. 297 

ba'oe taste) \ splend-ezis, glittering (splendSre) ; Btellans, starry 
(Stella-) ; y&lens, powerful (y&lSre). 

3. Substanlives, originally participles, &c.: 

ftdfilesc-ens (m.), a young man (a4iile8C-dre, to grow); ftnlmans, 
an animal (ftnlma-, breatF)\ cll-ens (m. also cllenta f.), a client 
(du-ere, to bear); consentls (m. pL), epithet of the twelve chief 
deities, the Colleagues (com esse) ; dext-ans (m.), five-sixths (lit. a 
sixth off^ de-sexto-); dodrans (m.), three-fourths , lit. a fourth (ff(fi»- 
qyadro-) ; Infans, an infant (in, fft-rl) ; occld-ens (sc. sol), the <west 
(occld-ere, to fall); drlens, the east (drirl, to rise); pfirens (m. f.), a 
parent (p&rfi-re); rildens (m.), a cable; serpens (m. f.), a snake (serp- 
dre, to cratwl) ; sextans, a sixth (sexto-) ; toxrens, a boiling rushing 
stream (torr8-re, to bum); tri-ens (m.), a trithing^ i.e. a third (tri-). 

1-en-tl pestl-l-ens, pestilential (pesti-); pdt-tU-ans, saucy (comp. 
petul-cus from pdt-ere). 

-8-ti agre-stls, of the fields (agro-); csBle-stls, heavenly (csbIo-). 808 

Comp. also ddm-esti-cus, § 769, sUy-est-xis, § 904, 6g- 
est-fts, p6t-est-as, § 811. 

-atl Adjectives expressing origin, 809 

cflj-as, of twhat country (cujo-) ; Infemas, of the lower 
country (Infemo-) ; Inflm-atls, one of the lowest rank (infimo-); nostr- 
as, a countryman of ours (nostro-); optlm-as (§ 418), one of the best 
party (optimo-) ; pdn-ates (m. pi.), household gods (ptoo-, store) ; 
summ-ates (m. pi.), men of the highest ranks (summo-); stLpemas, of 
the upper country (supemo-). 

Similarly from Italian towns: Antias, a man of Antium (Antl- 
um) ; Ardeas (Ardea) ; Arplnas (Arplnum) ; Atlnas (Atlna) ; capSnas 
(CapSna); caslnas (caslnum); Fdrentinas (Ferentlnum) ; FidSnas 
(ndSn» but FIdSna, Verg.); Frilslnas (Frftslno); Larlnas (Lari- 
num); Ravennas (Ravenna); SarsXnas (Sarslna); UrMnas (Urbl- 

-at danmafl (cf. § 445), condemned (damna-re) ; sati-as, a glut 


-t-at So usually, not tatl-; cf. § 445. For the preceding short 810 

vowel, e.g. Itas, see § 21^, 6; Idtas, § 113. s.c and 4a'; 
for its omission § 245. Abstract substantives, derived chiefly from 
adjectives (from 500 to 600 in number, according to L. Meyer): 
all feminine. 

acerbl-tas, tartness (acerlH)-); adill-tas, adileship (sBdIll-); 
8Bqvaii-tas, equality (sBqyali-); nqvi-tas, fairness (sBqvo-); ns-tas, 
summer (for »sti-tas, sBStu-) ; a-tas, age (asyo-, § 94) ; »temi-tas, 
eternity (sBtemo-); afflni-tas, relationship by marriage (afflnl-); 


^98 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

HgDlriaM, agiUty (ftgDl-) ; taaosDl-taB, pleojantnesj (ftmoeno-) ; antlqvl- 
tas, antiquity (an^vo-); ajude-tas, anxiety (anzio-); Appie-tas 
(formed by Cic. Fam, 3. 7), Appius-ness (Appio-); aspfirl-tas, roughs 
ness (aspdro-) ; assldni-tas, constant attention^ frequency (assldoo-) ; 
atrOd-tas, cruelty (atrOd-) ; auctdr-l-tas, ad<vice^ authority (auctOr-) ; 
^Mi^AZA^ greediness (&7ldo-) ; Mnlgni-tas, kindliness ^ bounty (Isdxiigno-); 
csBd-tas, blindness (caco-); cAlftmitaB (dU&mo-, a stalk} comp. 
Kokofios and culmus), blight, disaster; cSii-^tas, deamess (cSro-); 
cfilebrl-tas, celebrity (celebri-); dvi-tafl, citizenship (dvi-); dignl- 
tas, (worthiness fdlgno-) ; d^VcDi-tas, aptness for being taught (dddll-); 
Sbrid-tas, drunkenness (Sbrlo-); f&cUi-tas, easiness; f&oul-tas, do^ 
ableness, power (f&dli-) ; fftmlUftrl-tas, intimacy (f9jnlli&rl-) ; hSrSd- 
itas, inheritance (li6r@d-); hdnes-tas, honourableness (hdnOs-); hll- 
xiajai-4i8LB^ fifllo(W'feeling, politeness (htUnfino-) ; Immflnl-'tas, freedom 
rom public charges (Immttnl-) ; JUven-tas, youth (Jfiyto-) ; UTi-tas, 
lightness (Idvi-); liber-tas, freedom (lIb6ro-); mSJes-tas, dignity 
(majOs-); mOrfisl-tas, ^^ //'Wn^jj (mfirOso-); ndcessi-tas, necessity 
(necesBo) ; paud-tas, fewness (pauco-) ; pauper-tas, poverty (pau- 
pdr-) ; pie-tas, dutifulness (plo-) ; postdrl-tas, posterity (postfiro-) ; 
prdprle-tas, proper quality, ownership (proprlo-); qyftli-tas, quality 
(qv&li-); s&Ue-tas, satiety (comp. s&tis, s&ti&t-) ; s§c{Lrl-ta8, security 
(sSctlro-); slmpUd-tas, simplicity (slmplid-, nom. simplex); 86de- 
tas, partnership (s6do-) ; tempes-tas, a season, weather (tempds-) ; 
yftrie-tas, lariety (v&rlo-); tlber-tas, ^r//7iV^ (iiber-); Tdnus-tas, 
b.auty (vSniiB-); yemHi-tas, slavishness, coarse jesting (▼emlll-); 
yfituB-tas, old age (vettiB-) ; Onl-tas, unity (tlno-) ; iUiIverBi-tas, a 
whole, either of persons (i. e. a corporation) or of things (unlyerso-) ; 
ydlun-tas, will (for yOlentl-taB, § 28); ydlup-tas, pleasure (ydlftp, 
§ 516); fttHi-taa, usefulness (fltlli-); and many others. 

-eB-t-at dg-oB-taB, want (eg-§Te); pot-estas, power (p5tl-); pro- sn 
bably formed as if from substantives in 6b- or 6b- (as 
honeBtas, tempoB-tas). 

-6il d6B (f.), a dowry (dS,-). 

-6t nep6B (m.), a grandson (comp. d-v€'^-i,6s, i.e. common 

grandson)] B&cerdos (m. f.), a priest (Bftc^ro-, da-), 

-at BftltlB (f.), safety (for salvo-t-). 

-tat Substantives feminine: 

Jftyen-tus, youth (Jftyen-) ; Bdnec-tUB, old age (B6n-ec-) ; 
Beryl-tUB) slavery (seryo-) ; ylr-tuB, manliness (yiro-). 

-6ti IdcftplOB, rich (perhaps compound of 16co- and pl6-to; cf. zi% 

Cic. Rep, a. 16). For t&p6te (n.), tr&p6tes (m. pi.) sec 
§ 418 and -6to, § 798, i b. 

Chap, K] Dental Noun-Stems : -tl, -t; -5so. 295 

-lU Quiris, a Roman eltiaen; 8amzils» a Samnitf (Sanmio-). 

For dis, xnltis, &c. see under -tl (§ 80a). 

Compound stem-endings: -ttUno, § 757; -*Ivo, §764; -ttco, 
-*ri3l, §§ 769, 782; -Ut, -estat, -tat, §§ 810, 811 ; -tad5ii, § 847 ; -ttao, 
-ier-no, -tino, -trlno, §§ 827, 829, 840, 842 ; -tlfln (-siOn), § 854 ; -tibUl 
(-BibUi), § 877 ; -tUl (-sm), § 878 ; -tero, -asttoo, -taro (-sOro), §§ 888, 
889, 89.^; -tm, -tSri, -estSri, -tto, -ttJr (-Bflr), §§ 903—905, 908; 
-iXcio, -Itio, -ntio, -tOrlo (-sflrio), §§ 931 — 933, 943* 

iii. Stems ending in -so, -si (for -to, -ti). 
-80 See under -to, §§ 787, 788. 813 

-6so For -onso (§191. a), and this again perhaps for -ontl-o; 

comp. yepova-ia for yepovricu The -1 probably caused 
or assisted the assibilation (§ 143). 

Adjectives (said to be 500 in number) expressing ^/«^jj: 

SLGtvL'OBVLa, full of motion (actu-); sBstu-osus, burning hot (astn-): 
amblti-osus, ambitious (ambltu-); ftnlm-osus, spirited (ftnlmo-); 
ann-osuB, full of years ^ aged (anno-) ; &qy-06U8, (watery (ftqva-) ; 
c3,l&mIt-osus, disastrous (for c&i&mlt&t-osos) ; call-osus, bard-skinned 
(caUo-) ; captl-osus, ensnaring^ captious (captu- or caption-) ; c&il- 
osus, decayed (c&rle-) ; d&mosus, screaming (for ol&mOs-osus) ; c5pi- 
03US, rich (cOpia-); crimln-osas, reproachful (crImSn-); ddl-osus, 
crafty (dOlo-); Sbrl-osus, a drunkard (dbrlo-); f&m-osus, notorious 
for good or ill (f3ma-) ; form-osus, shapely (forma) ; fr&s-osus, broken 
(for fr&gds-osus) ; flructu-08us,^«//^/ (flructu-); frfttlc-osus, full of 
shrubs (firatfic-); gdnfir-osus, shewing breed, qvell-born (gdntls-); 
gr&tl-osus, influential (gr&tia-) ; herb-OBUS (poet.), grassy (herba-) ; 
ing6ni-osu8,r/^^^r (ingdnio-) ; invldi-osoB, exposed to odium (Invldla-) ; 
Jdc-OBUB, sportive (Jdco-); luxilrl^oeuB, luxurious (lux&ria-); mend- 
osus, faulty (men-da-); morb-osxiB, diseased (morbo-); mOr-osus, 
nuayqjjard^ cross (m6s-, a <whim); nlT-OBUB, snowy (nivi-); nOd-osus, 
knotty (n5do-); ddl-osus, troublesome (6dlo-); offld-osnB, dutiful^ 
obliging (officio-) ; dndr-osus, burdensome (6n11s-) ; fitl-osuB, at leisure 
(Otlo-); pdcflnl-osus, moneyed (pdcflnla-); p6rIciil-osuB, dangerous, 
(pdrlctUo-); pemld-osns, destructive (pernlde-); plso-osus (rare, 
Ov., V erg.), full offish (pisd-); qusBstu-osuB, ^^w«/«/ (qvastu-^; 
reUgi-osns, scrupulous (for relXglfin-osus) ; sily-fisus, wooded (silya-) ; 
sqy&m-osus, scaly (sqy&ma-) ; strIg-68UB, thin (? strlga-, a swathe) ; 
stddl-osus, ^zealous (sttldlo-) ; suspld-osus, suspicious (for suspicion- 
osus); sumptu-osus, costly (sumptu-); yent-otfus, windy (yento-); 
yentrl-osus, potbellied (yentrl-) : • yerb-osus, wordy (yerbo-) ; yermln- 
osus(Plin.), full of worms (yermOn-) ; yin-osus, wine loving (vino-) ; 
yitl-osus. faulty (yltlo-) ; and many others. 

300 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

-0-teo beUX-cosns, war^hnnng (Mllo-, comp. MDlciu, adj.) ; 814 
XXgoStfA-cosQE (Cic, slLso tenelxnMnis, Veig., Ov.), ^ri 
(ttafilxra-, but Cic. in poetic translation has tenebriciu). 

•l-0flo fonnldd-Utaiui, fearful (ftmnidAn-, the a being either 
dropped or changed into 1). 

' -Ic-nl-itao fetir-Ic&losns (CdXxi\[,),fpverub (felirl-, f etirtciila-) ; mAt- 
IdUosas (Plaut.), in fear (m£ta-); sLt-IcnlOBUS (Hor.), 
parched (sitl-) ; Bomn-Iciilosiu, dropsy (somno-). 

-U-O80 Probably formed on a false analogy with q^Asta-osns, &c. : 

monstr-uoBiiB, prodigious (momstro-); monta-osas, moun- 
tainous (montl-, but cf. § 405) ; yOluptn-osos (Plin. Ep,\ 
pleasurable (▼(dupt&t-). 

-i-080 Probably formed on a false analogy with odlosns, &c. : 

cflr-losos, careful (cfixa-) ; l&bQr-lociu, laborious (l&b(hi-); 
lOBc-It-i-osuB (or luio-iosiu), purblind (Iubco-). 

-en-Bt Adjectives (some used as substantives) formed fhim names 815 
of places: 

1. From appellatives: amami-ensls (m. Suet twice), a secretary 
(a manu) ; atrl-ensis (m. sc. seryas), bouse steward (atrlo-) ; caotr- 
ensis, of tbe camp (castro-); clrc-ensls, of tbe circus (drco-); Idr- 
ensls, of the forum (fftro-) ; IMtense (sc. mare), the straits of Sicily 
(flpftto-); Lfttfir-ensis, properly of tbe bodyguard (Iftttls-); Portu-ensU 
(God. Theod.), of the Port, viz. Ostia (portu-) ; prftt-enais, of tbe 
meadows (pr&to-). 

2. Frpm proper names (which are given in brackets in the 
nom. case): 

Alll-enBls (Allla); Amliracl-enBls (Ambrada) ; Aitmlmenses (Ail- 
xnlnum) ; Bononi-ensis (BonOnia) ; Cann-ensls (CannsB) ; Clrcei-enslB 
(Circeil); Corflni-ensis (Corflnium); Cur-ensis (Cures); Herculan- 
ensls (Herculaneum) ; Hlspal-ensis (Hlsp&lis or Hlspal); Hiap&ni- 
ensis (Hlspftzda) ; Narbon-ensls (Karbo) ; Osc-ensis (Osca in Spain) ; 
Osti-ensis (Ostia); Sicili-enBlB (Sidlia); Veli-ensls (VeUa, (i) part of 
Palatine; (i) town in Lucania); Volsiiii-ensis (Volsinii); Utic-ensis 
(Utica) ; and others. 

-1-en-Bt Probably from false analogy (with words in preceding 
section). They are rarely used. 
AthSn-iensls (Athenss); CarthSi^In-iensls (Carthftgo) ; Corinth- 
lenses (Coxlnthus); CrotGn-lensis (Croto); Latin-iensls (Latinus?); 
Khdd-iensls (Rhodus). 

Compound stem-ending : §s-Imo, § 758. See also § 918. 


Chap, V^ Dental Noun-Stems : -ensi; -dx 301 

iv. Stems ending in -do. 

-do 1. Adjectives: ai6 

{a) From verbs with -e stems, the final e being changed 
to 1. (The verb has been added in the following list only when not 
simple in form or evident in meaning.) 

&cl-dus, iour; albl-dus, <ivbite; algl-dua, cold (rare, except as 
name of mountain near Rome); ftrl-das, dry; &yl-dus, greedy; cftll- 
dUB or caldus (cf. Quint l. 6. 19), bot; calli-dus, crafty; oandl-dus, 
<white; SySnl-dus, vanishing (Sy&ne-so-dre) ; fervl-dus, glowing; 
flacci-dus, flaccid; flOri-dus, flowery; fOBtil-dus, stinking; Mgl-dus, 
cold; tVLlgi-^Viaf glistening; grivl-diis, heavy with child (gr&ye-BC-Sre) ; 
horrl-dus, bristling^ fearful; langyl-dus, languid; liqyl-dus (§ 243), 
clear; Uyl-dus, blue, envious; lUci-dUB, bright; xn&dl-dus, wet; 
marci-dus, fading; mUci-das, mouldy; nItl-duB, shining; dli-dus, 
stinking; palll-dus, pale; p&yl-dus, frightened; pl&ci-duB, pleased, 
calm (pl&cSre, to be pleasing); ptltl-dns, rotten; putil-dus, rotten; 
rand-dus, rancid (no verb, but present psuticiple in Lucr.) ; rigl-dus, 
stiff; rilbi-dus (rdbidiis, Plaut. twice), red; aor^-dMa, fllthy ; sqiyaii- 
dus, squalid; 9ti.pi-CiVLS, amazed ; t&bi-dus, decaying; tdpl-dus, warm; 
timl-dUB, timid; torpi-dus, benumbed; torrl-dus, burning; tilmi-dus, 
swelling; turgl-dns, inflated; y&ll-dus, strong; tLxni-dus, damp; tlyi- 
dus or tldus, wet (tlye-sc-ere). 

(b) From verbs with -1 or consonant stems: 

ctLpi-duB, desirous (cftpd-re); flnldus (fl&yl-dus, Lucr.), liquid 
(flu-dre); r&blduB, mad (r&b6re, comp. r&blOB); r&pi-dus, hurried 
(rftpfi-re) ; yividus, lively (yly-tee). 

(c) From substantives or of obscure derivation: 

abBur-dUB, tuneless (ab, but-, comp. BUHrar-nu, trvp'i^ew : and 
for the meaning Cicero's expression * vox absona et absurda,' Or. 
3. II); bardUB, stupid (comp. fipaBvs): dUmdiu, lame; ortl-dUB, raw 
(croB-, hard ? comp. cnu-ta, Kpvtr-rcOsXof* Kpv-ot) ; fldUB, faithful 
(comp. fid-es, perfld-UB); foduB, foul (comp. foetSre, foBtl-dus); 
forduB (cf. § 1 $4), pregnant; fUmi-duB, smoky (fOmo-); gfiU-dUB, icy 
(geiu-); herloi'dxiB, grassy (herba-); liiq;»ldaB, shaggy (comp. hir-tiui, 
MrBtltuB); IdplduB, charming (from presumed lApSre; comp. IdpOs-); 
Umpl-duB (Catull., Col.), clear (lyinplia? comp. \atiir€iv) ; It&rlduB, 
ghastly yellow (comp. lOror, Lucr.); morbi-dOB, diseased (morbo-); 
ntlduB, naked; Bdli-dUB,/nn (b^Ho-, ground); stAU-diu, stockisb, stu^ 
pid (comp. Bt610n-, A useless sucker); wiySuCLva, persuasive (svMSre) ; 
BTXci-CLvLa, Juicy (Btlco-); sflduB, dry(wb, ado-?); Ar-dUB, deaf; tarduB, 
slow (comp. tr&b-dre, to dragiy, trtpldOB, scarred, flurried (comp. 
trdmfire) ; turbi-dUB, disturbed (turba-) ; y&pl-dus, flat, spoiled 
(y&pOB-, from a presumed y&p6re). 

2. Substantives: 

(a) Masculine: o&duB, a cask; gnrdus, a dolt (Spanish word 

302 Word-Formation. [£ook IIL 

ace. to Quint. I. 5. 5 7) ; hSBdiu, a goat; lUdus, a game; xnddiu, a 
measure; nidus, a nest; n6dU8, a knot; turdus, a fieldfare; yteSdUB 
(Mart.), a hunter (horse). 

(h) Feminine: ftlauda, a lark (Keltic); apiada, chaff; bas- 
cauda, a basket; casslda (usually cassis), a helmet; cauda, a tail; 
cicada, a grasshopper; cr6:)Ida, a sandal (from #cpj;7riS-); merda, 
dun^; prsada^ booty; rada, a f our ^^lu heeled carriage (Keltic; cf. 
Quint I. 5. 57); t»da, a torch, 

(f) Neuter: essddum, a gig (Keltic) } l&rldum (lardnm), bacon; 
oppldum, a totwn Tcomp. eViTrfdoi/?); pSdum, a shepherd'' s crook; 
▼&dum, a skoal ^ ford, 

-un- do or -en-do i. Verbal adjectives: 

{a) As gerundive: for use see Book IV. Chip. xiv. and 817 
Appendix to Syntax. On their formation see §§ 617, 618. 

ftma^ndus, to loite or to be loved (Smftre) ; audi-endus (audire) ; 
capl-endus (c&pfire) ; glgn-endus (gl-gn-ere) ; m6n-endus (monSre) ; 
nasc-endus (nasd); rdg-endus (rdgdre); trlbu-endus (tribu-dre); 
and 80 from all transitive verbs (§ 11 86). 

(Jf) As present participle (without an object accusative) or 
ordinary adjective: 

blandus, soothing (comp. flSxe) ; Infandus, ndfandus, unspeakable 
(tSjA) ; mundus, clean; dri-undus, arising (dri-ri) ; pandus, crooked; 
r6t-undas, round (comp. r6t-Sxe); sficundus, following, hence 
second (s6<x^) ; yoly-^nduS) rolling (yolydre). 

(a) Substantives: 

(a) Masculine: fimdus, a landed estate^ the bottom; also an au-^ 
thoriser; mundus, ornaments^ also the universe (as transl. of Koo-fto; ). 

(b) Feminine: fimda, a sling (fiind-dre ?) ; K&lendsB (pi.), the 
first of the month {summoning day ? comp. cftl&re, koK^Iv) \ menda, 
(Ov.), m^ndum (Cic), a fault; mdrenda (dinner) ; sponda, a bed- 
stead; turunda, apcute^ball; suggrunda, the eaves; unda, <iuater, 

-Ib-^do °^ I Adjectives, originally gerundives: 818 

fi:6m-fibundu8, muttering (friia-^re) ; fftr-Xbundus, raging 
(ftir-Sre); lasoIy-ibunduB (Plaut. Stich. 288), playful (lasclvi-re) ; 
IHd-ibunduS) sporting (Ifld^fire) ; mdr-Ibundus, dying (mdri, mdriri) ; 
plidl-bundus, bashful (pildSre); qyfir-Ibundus, plaintive (qtudri); 
ridl-bundUB, laughing (zldire)} trdm-dbundus, trembling (trdm-dre). 

-ftb-undo From verbs with -a stems. Many of these forms are 819 
found only in Livy and post-Augustan historians. 

comlS8&-bundus, revelling; contlGnfirbundus, haranguing; cunct&- 
bundus, hesitating; dSUbdra-bundus, deliberating; dSprdcft-bundus, 
deprecatingly ; err&rbundus, ^wandering about; grftttilft-bundus, 

Chap, V^ Dental Noun- Stems : 'yxrA(i\ -dl, -d. 303 

making congratulations; hsesltft-bundus (Plin. Ep. once), hesitating; 
indignA-bundUB, indignant; Ucrlm&-l)iindus, fiveeping; lurcMM-bun- 
dUB (only in Cato; cf. Quint. I. 6. 42), 'voracious; xn6dlta-biindu8 
(Just.), in meditation; mlnlt&-bimdus, threatening; mlrft-bunduB, in 
fivonder; noctua-bunduB (Cic. once), by night (noctu-; noctuSxe not 
found); OBCtUA-bundos (Suet.), kissing; pdrfigrlzi&-bimdu8 (Liv. 
once), travelling about; plOrft-bundUB, bewailing; pdptU&-bundns, 
^wasting; pradft-bundus, pillaging; Bpfiofliarbtmdus, on the <ivatch; 
tentft-bundus, making a trial; tuburcblnft-bundUB (Cato, see above), 
gobbling; yenerft-bundiui, shewing reverence; ▼ersft-bimdus, whirl- 
ing; '^ta-bunduB, avoiding; ▼OltLtft-bimdaB (Cic. fragm.), wal- 

-c-undo Adjectives, probably gerundives from inchoative stems: 8ao 
all have the preceding syllable long (except rublcundus). 

fl-cundUB, eloquent (fi-ri) ; f9-cimdus, fruitful (comp. fe-mina, 
fe-tua); irft-c-undUB, angry (irasc-l); JH-oundua, ^/<?aj^»/ (Jtlv-ftre); 
r&bl-cundus, ruddy (rftbSra) ; ydrS-cundus, bashful (ydrSri). 

V. Stems in "dUj^di, *d. 
-du See § 397. 

-di SBdes (f.^ , a hearth ? a chamber §331 (comp. 8BS-tu-, aWeiv) ; 821 

cssdes (f.), slaughter; cl&des (f.), disaster; fldis (f.), a harp- 
string; ftans (f.), cheating; froiiB (f.) a leaf; glaziB (f.), 
an acorn (comp. fiakavos and § 765); grandis, large; 
juglauB (f.), a walnut; lendes (f. pi.), nits; pddls (m.f.), 
a louse; r&diB, (l) rude; (2) f. a spoon, a foil; sSdes (f.), 
a seat (sM6re); sordeB (f. pi.), dirt; Biidls (f. § 4^1), a 
stake; trftdoB (f. pi), pikes (comp. trildere?); ^Irl-dis, 
green (vlrSre). 

otld pScuB (f.), a head of cattle (comp. p9cu-, pdo5r-). 822 

>$d (id) C&pls (f.), a sacrificial bowl (c&pdre?); caBsis (f.), a hel- 
met; cnspls (f.), a spear-point; l&pis (m.), a pebble; pro- 
mulBlB (f.), a whet for the appetite (lit. preliminary 
draught)) (pro-, mulso-). 

-M cvaXoB (xi,), a guardian. 

>tld pains (f.), a marsh. 

-5d cuppoB (only m nom. sing.)) a glutton; liCrei (m.), an 

heir; metcea (f.), wages (comp. merd-). 
-d cor (n.), a heart (comp. Kapb-ia)\ laua {t), praise; pet 

(m.), afoot (comp. Trod-, nom. Trovf); PTIBB (m.), a bail; 

▼fts (m. f.), a bail. 

Compound stem-endings: -dta, -lldAn, -tfldOn, -6d5n, -XdOn^ 
§§ 846—848 ; -Wiilo, § 865 ; -ndlo, § 933. 

304 Word-Formation. [Book ITT. 


DENTAL NOUN-STEMS {continued). 
vi. Stems ending in -no. 

-noor-Ino (For all words (except numerals) with long voWel pre- 823 
ceding -no see §§ 830 — 84a.) 

I, Adjectives: 

[a) bdnus, good; condnnus, neat; dlgniu, <wortby; bomos, of 
this year (ho-ver-, this spring)'^ mag-nu8, great (comp. rnkg-AA); 
nfinuB, ninth (for ndvl-niu? but see § 754); Pia-nuB, le*vel (ccMnp. 
irXa^); p6rendl-mi8, of a day hence (comp. irepav, die-); yer-nus, 
0/ spring (v8r-) ; llnus, one, 

(p) Distributive numerals (rarely used in singular) : liSf-nuB, /wo- 
fold, tfwo each (bl-); ter-nns or trl-niu (ter, tri-); qv&ter-niiB 
(qvftter) and (Varr., Plin.) qya4xInuB (qvatvor); qyl-nus (for 
qvlnqvl-nus, qvlnc-nuB, qvinqve); s8-nu8 (sez); 8ept8-nu8 (for 
septem-nus, septen-nua); octfl-nus (octo); n6y3-nu8 (for n6vem- 
nus); dSnus (for (Uclminus? dec-nus); 7lce-nu8, tnventy each (for 
vloent-nus, vlginti) ; tiicS-niu, thirty each (triginta), &c.; centS-nos, 
a hundred each (tor centum-nus, the vowel being assimilated to 
what is found in others) ; dilcS-nus, teivo hundred each (for docent- 
nus); trdcSniu, three hundred each (trdcent-); qvadilngS-nus, four 
hundred each (qyadrlngent-), &c. See Appendix. 

(c) From names of trees and other materials: &cer-nu8, of maple 
(&cer-); &d&niantl-nus, hard as diamond (a8afiavTlin>s)*^ &niftr&cl- 
nus, of marjoram (&m&r&co-) ; c6r&sl-nu8 (Petron.), cherry-coloured 
(c6r&80-) ; cocdL-niu, scarlet (cocco-) ; cdlur-nus, of hazel (for c6- 
rtm-nuB, cdrtQo-); 6bur-mxs, of ivory (6bdr-); ferriU^-us (Lucr. 
once), bluish^green (ftorOgdn-; ferrogineus is more usual); qver- 
nuG, oaken (ror qyerji-nus, qyercu-). See also salig-nus, &c., 

a. Substantives: 824 

(^7) Masculine: ftclnns, a berry; agnns, a lamb; annus, a year; 
ftnus, a ring; &8lnu8, an ass; c&cblnnus, a laugh (comp. Kaxa(€iv) ; 
clrcl-nu8, a pair of compasses (circo-) ; ddmlnns, a lord (dOmAre) ; 
fomiis, an oven; glnnns or liinnus, a mule^ the mother being an ass 

Chap, V/.] Dental Noun-Stenis: -no, -ndno. 3^5 

(comp. yiwosy Lvvos) ; mamms, a coach horse (Keltic ?) ; pamplnus, 
a 'vines hoot; pannus, a piece of cloth (comp. inivos)', pftnus, (i) 
thread on the bobbin, (2) a spelling (from tt^i/os?); pugnus, a Jist 
(comp. TTuJ, TTuyfii;); rlclnus, a sheep tick; som-nus, sleep (comp. 
sdp-or); sdnus, a sound; stumus, a starling; tabanus, a gadjiy; 
toTXLUB, a lathe (torqvSre, comp. ropvos)* 
yema, a house slave, 

(b) Proper names (some are Etruscan): Cinna; Perpenna or 
Perpema; Porsenna (Verg.), Porsfina (Hon, Mart., Sil.); Sasema; 
bisenna; Spurixma; TlialLA; Vlvenua. Cf. § 838 r, 

(f) Feminine: alnus, an alder; comiis, a cornel tree; fraidnus, 
an ash tree; omus, a mountain ash; yannua, a avinnowing Jan. 

acna, a plot 120 feet square; angina (L. Mtill.), quinsy (comp. 
ayxovTf, angdre) ; antemna, a saifyard; fiscX-na, a rush basket (fisco-) ; 
fuscina, a three-pronged spear (comp. furca) ; gSna, a cheek (comp. 
y€Vvff, a Jaw) ; nundl-nsB (pl.)» market-day (n5no-, die-) ; p&gina, 
a leaf of a book, &c. (comp. pangdre); p&tl-na, a dish (pftt§re? 
comp. Traravjy, Sicil. ^aravri) ; penna, a wing (in old Latin pesna or 
petna; comp. TreVfor^at); pema, a ham; pinna, a feather; pugna, a 
battle (comp. pugnus); runclna (generally given as runcina), a 
planing instrument (comp. runcfire, pvxai/i;); sanna, a grimace 
(comp. a'avvas)\ sarclna, a bundle (sarcire, to close) '^ sqvatlna, a 
skate-fish (comp. sqv&lus, a fish) \ transenna, a net; ulna, an ann 
(comp. ^\ivi])\ uma, a pitcher (comp. tlrdre, to burn), 

(d) Neuter: comum (more frequently comu), a horn (comp. 
K€pas)i fasclnum, a charm (comp. /Satr/cai/of) ; lignum, firewood 
(llg-fire?); pastlnum, a two-pronged fork; pdnum (§ 398), a store 
of provisions, &c. ; reg-num, a kingdom (rfg-fire) ; scanmum, a 
bench (comp. scab-ilium) ; signum, a seal; stagnum, a pool^ pent up 
water? (comp. (rreyai^o-); stannum, an alloy of silver and lead; 
tigniun, a beam. 

-nmo [ '^^^^ suffix in Greek forms participles middle and passive; 825 
' e.g. TxmT'6iJ.€i/os, Tvilf-diuvos, Tervix-fiiuos^ &c. 

»r-umna, sorrow (atpoficvrj, excited mind) ; al-unmus, a nursling 
(&l-6re) ; autumnus, Autumn (the increasing year, auctu-) ; Clitum- 
nus, a river in Umbria; cdlunma, a column (comp. cul-men, cel-sus) ; 
da-nmum, a loss (properly a gift, d&-re; or akin to dairavri); W- 
mina, a woman (comp. fe-tus, &c § 800); gdmlnus, twin; l&mmlna 
(lamna), a plate of metal; termlniu, a bound (comp. repfia) ; Vert- 
umnus, the god of change (vert-toe). 

The same suffix is seen in the 2nd pers. plur. of indicative and 
subjunctive passive of tenses formed fi'om present stem: e.g. amft- 


3o6 Word-Formation. [Book III, 

mini, i^tnaWmtTii axaaMmini, amfimlnl, amarfiTnlTil, § 572: and in 
an old sing, imperative form; e.g. prsef amino, § 587. 

Compare also -mfin, § 85 c. 

-£^no| Some are probably compounds with stems* of gen-, 826 
"*^** ' gi-gn-6re; others have a c turned into g by the influence 
of the nasal; others are formed on their analogy. 

ftble-gnus, ofjir (ftblfit-) ; &pra-gnus (Plaut, Plin.), of «ivild 
boar (&pro-) ; l>eni-gnus, kindly^ liberal Qwell^bom ? I>dn6-g&i-) ; falia- 
glnuB (Gato), 0/ beans (fftba^); Dlg-nus, of holm oak (Ufic-); Meft- 
glnus, oftJbe olive (dlea-); m&ll-gnus, Jtin^ (xn&le-g6n->) ; privi-gnuB 
(subst.), born from one parent only^ i.e. a stepson (prlvo-gen-) ; 
s&Ug-nus, of <willow (s&Uc-). 

For tenlgena, &c. see § 995 ; for magnus, dignus, § 823. 

-tino Adjectives: anno-tinus, a year old) (anno-); cras-tinus, 837 

of to-morrofiv (eras); ditl-tinuB, long continued (dlu); 
homo-tlnus, of this year (homo-) ; prls-tlnus, of former times 
(prius; comp. magls for maglus); sSro-tlnus (Plin., Col.), late 

-ur-no diur-nus, by day (dins-, dies-, § 341 n., comp. nUdlus; or 828 

for dioy-drlnus?); diut^umus (in Ovid always ditltar- 
nus), for long (comp. diflt-lus); laburnum, broad-leaved trefoil; 
noctu-mu8, by night (noctu-); Sftt^umus (Saetumus), god of pro- 
duce] (s&to-, 86-rdre); t&citumus, silent (t&clto-); vibunium, the 
^juayfaring tree, 

-er-no c&yema, a cave ((Avo-); dstema, a reservoir (data-); 
fustema, the knotty part of a fir-tree (fasti-, a club) ; 
g&bema (pi.), rudders (comp. Kv^^pvav)\ Mb-emus, in <ivinter 
(liigm-, cf. § 86. 5); hddlemus, of to-day (ho-, dius, or die-); Infer- 
nus, belotw (infSro-); l&cema, a cloak; L&vema, goddess of gain; 
Iticema, a lamp (comp. Itlci-, Ulcere); stiper-nus, above (stipSro-); 
t§.b-ema, a booth (from t&b-lUa, a plank 1), See also § 823 c. 

-ter-no i. e. -no suffixed to stems in -tfiro or -trl, or to adverbs 829 
in -ter. In some the t perhaps is radical. 

ss-temua, for ever (sevo-, comp. SB-tat-); al-ter-nus, alternate, 
every other (al-tero-);ex-temus, outside (ex-tero-); ftatemus, 0/* « 
brother (fWLter-, comp. (f>paT€p-)\ hes-temus, of yesterday (comp. 
hfiri, x^^^)* lii-t«r-nus, inside (in-ter); lantema (latema), ^ /^z«- 
tern ; m&ter-nus, of a mother (mater-) ; nassitema, a catering pof 
(said to be from naso-, temo-, fiuith three noses) ; p&temus, of a 
father (pftter-); sempltemus, everlasting (comp. semp-er, §54^); 
▼fiter^nus, lethargy (vfittls-).' 

CJiap, V/.] Dental Noun-Stems: -gino, -mo, -too. 307 

-Sno I. Adjectives: 830 

{a) with ft as stem vowel: ctous, hoary; sft-nus, sound 
(comp. fTCLo^ ; va-nuB, empty (comp. y&c-uus). 

(J)) from appellatives : 

&pi-anuB, of bees; name of Muscatel grape (ftpl-); arc-anus, 
secret (comp. area-, arcSre) ; Camp-anxis, of the plain, a Campa- 
nlan (Campo-) ; castell-anus, of a fortress (castello-) ; dectiinanuB, 
of the tenth (e.g. a tithe farmer; a soldier of the tenth legion, &c.: 
ddctlma-) ; font-anus, of the spring (font!-) ; germanus, of the full 
blood; hUm-anuB, of man (hdmOn-) ; InstU-anus (Cic. once), of an 
island (insiUa-) ; L&tdr-anus, a family name (l&tSr-?); mdrldl-anus, 
of midday, southern (meridle-) ; mont-anus, of the mountains (mon- 
ti-); mund-anus, of the universe (mundo-); ndn-anus (Tac), of 
the ninth legion (n5na-) ; oppld-anus, of the to^iun (oppldo-) ; pag- 
anus, of a village (pSgo-) ; pridl-anus, of the day before (prldio-) ; 
prim-anus, of the first legion (prima-) ; public-anus, of the public 
revenue (publico-); pttte-anus (Plin., Gol.), of a ^ell (piiteo-); 
qvdtidl-anus, daily (quotldle-); rustic-anus, of the country (rustico-); . 
urb-&nus, cf the city (urfcl-) ; vdtdr-anuS) old, veteran (v6ttls-) ; 
"^c-anas, of a hamlet ("^co-). 

from proper names ; (c) of places : Afrlc-anus, of the province 
among the Afri (Afri-ca); Alb-anus (Alba); Allif-anus (A21if99); 
Atell-ftnus (Atella) ; Coriol-anus (C6ridll) ; CtUn-anus (Cum») ; Fre- 
gell-anus (Fregellse); Fund-anus (Fundi); Oallic-anus, /9/* />6f ^ro-o 
vince among the Gauls (Qallica-); L&blc-anus (Labicum); Past- 
anus (Psestum) ; Piltedl-anus (Puteoll) ; R5m-anus (Roma) ; Saranus, 
Sarranus, of Tyre (Sarra); also a surname of the Atilian Clan; i.q. 
Serranus (Momm. C. /. R, No. 549); Sllanus, surname of Julian 
clan (sna? but cf. Lucr. 6. 1265); Syracus-anus (Sjhr&cfLsse) ; Th^b- 
anus (ThebsB) ; Tusciil-anus (Tusculum) ; and others. 

{d) of persons: Clnn-cmus (Cinna); Siill-anus (SuUa). 

(<?) Compounds formed immediately from a preposition and its 

antSlUc-anus, before daylight (ante lucem) ; antemeridi-anus, in 
the forenoon (ante meridiem); antesign-anus, in front of the standards 
(ante signa) ; circumpad-anus, round the Po (circum Padum) ; cis- 
rliSn-anus, on this side of the Rhine (cis Rhenum) ; p5mdridi-anus, 
in the afternoon (post meridiem) ; subslgn-anus, of the reserve (sub 
signis); suburb-anus, near the city (sub urbem); transmont-anus, 
beyond the mountains (trans montes); transp&d-anus ; transrii6n- 

2, Substantives: (a) ftnus (see § 824); Diana, the goddess of 5 si 
the day (die-); Janus (for Dianus), the god of the day, fSnum, a 

3o8 Word-Formation. [BffoJ^ III. 

shrine (ffi^rl); gTanum, a grain; l&na, luool (comp. Xo^^vi^); 
membr-ftna, skin (membro-) ; pAnus (see § 824) ; qvart&jia, sc. febrls, 
a quartan ague (qvarta-); rft-na, a frog (comp. r&-yii8^ hoary) ; SilT- 
Saus, the twoodgod (sUva-); Volcanus, thejire god, 

-i-fi2L0 A4]ectives in -ajms, derived from stems, chiefly of proper 83a 
names, with suffix -Iq: 

Acd-anuB, of Accius (Accio-); JEmIli««nu«, belonging to the ^mi- 
Han clan (£mllla-) ; Asl-anus, of Asia (Asia^) ; CsBs&ri-anuji, belong- 
ing to Casar^s (CsBsarens, qfCasar; e.g. CaBaris or Csdsarea celezltas, 
Citsar^s quicknfjj; C»8arlana celeritas, quickness, like Cdtsar^s); Clce- 
ron-lanus, of Cicero (CicftrOn-) ; Claudi-aniiB, of a Claudius (daudlo-) 
F&bl-anus, of a Fabian, or qf the Fabian clan (Faliio-, Fabia-) 
Marl-anus, ofMarius (Uftrio-); MUOn-ianns, ofMilo(\.c\. Milonius) 
QrdnloanuB (Mart.), of a dead man (Orcinus, a d<weller <with deato, 
orco-) ; Pompei-anus, of Pompeius (Fompelo-) ; prsstOri-^mus, of the 
prator's camp (pxsBtorlo-) ; Sejaniu (Seio-) ; SummomlaiiuB, of a 
dweller in Underwall (summonlo-) ; TIbdrl-anus, ofTtberius; Teren-r 
tl-anus, of Terentitu (Terentlo-) ; Trajanus ; and others. 

-It-fino Probably from the Greek suffix -m/y, or in analogy 833 
therewith. (Properly it denotes of the people of:) 

AntipolitanuB, qf Antipolis (Antlpoll-) ; GSxUtanns, of G fides, \. e, 
Cadiz (Gadi-) ; MassIUtanus, of Marseilles (SlasBilia-) ; Panonuita- 
nus, of Panormus (Panormo-); Taurdm^nXtanus, of Tauromenium 
(Tauromenio-) ; Tdmitanus, of Tomi (T6mo-). 

-Ono J. Adjectives: vt^i^-vlb, headlong, fwith face forward (pro-), 834 

2. Substantives: (a) JVIasc. and neut.: c61-omis, a farmer 
(c61-ere); donum, a gift (di-re); patr-onus, a patron (pata:-). 

{b) Feminine; annona, tU year's supply of com (anno-); 
Bellona, the ivar goddess (bello-); caupona, a ta-vem (cdpa-, 
paup-Gn-); cdrona, a croivn; li&tona, a goddess (comp. ATJra)); ma- 
trona, a married fwoman (matr-); persona, a mask (persOnare ?) ; 
pOmona, Fruit goddess (pOmo^). 

For OQtonus, nonus (whence n6n», pi the ninth day) see § 823 «. 

••cenp ^6i;mxBWix&, pleasant ; poena, a penalty (comp. pUnire). 

-tliio I. Adjectives: Importunns, K«j^fljo«flA/<?(<«;i/>6ott/ tf /or/? S35 

In, portu-); JSjnnus, fasting; opportnnus, in front of the 
port, ready at hand (ob portum). 

2. Substantives: cilnsB (pl.)i ^ cradle (for ctlblnse? ciib-are); 
foTtan&, fortune (forti-; comp. nocti-, noctu-) ; l&cuna (or Iticima), 
a hole (Iftcu-); Neptunns, the sea god (perhaps vvftTo\k€vos, § 825); 

Chap, y/.] Dcfital Noun-Stems: -Ono, -too, -eno, -Ino. 309 

' — - — II ' I 

P3rtimtut, god of harbours (portu-) ; prima, a live coal; pruniim, a 
plum; trlbunus, a tribe's chief (trlbu-); Vftcuna, a Sabine goddess 
(eomp, y&c&re, y&cuus)^ 

-seno) I. Adjectives: aenus (or fthenus), of bronxe (for as- s.^e 
-uno { nus, from 88sl-: the Umbrian has ahesnes); filienus, of 
another^ alien (&lio-); figSnus, needy (fi^Sre); obscSnus, illboding; 
plenua.full (comp. plSre); sSremxs, calm; tarrSnus, eartbfy (terra). 

Ab^denus, of Abydos (Ab^do) ; Cyrfcenus, of Cyzicos (Cyzico). 

For yicSiiu3 and other numerals see § 823 A. 

2. Substantives: (a) feminine: &yentk, oats; camena (casmena 
ace. to Varro), a Muse (comp. car-men); c&tena, a chain; c§na 
(cesna, Fest.), supper; crtoiena, a purse; g&lena, lead ore; h&bena, 
a rein (b&bere); Mr^ia, sand; Issna, a cloak (comp. y\a1vcL, §110. 
3) ; laniena, a batther'^s stall (ISnio-) ; lena, a bawd; stre&a, an omm^ 
a new year'^s gift; vena, a vein; yerbense (pi.), boughs of myrtle, 
&c. used in religious acts. 

(If) r)euter: cssnum, mud; f3num (foenum), hay; ftSnum, a rein; 
\hneirsxm^ poison; i^enum (only in accus. § 369)% 

-1-Sno i.e. -eno suffixed to stems in -io. 837 

Proper names : Aufidlenns, ATldleniis, O&tlenus, Labienus, 
Nftsldienus, VetUenns, and others. 

41-eno cantilena, a tune (canta-). 

-too (In some of the following words the length of the 1 is 838 

not proved.) 

I. Adjectives: (a) from appellatives: 

ftdultdrinus, spurious (adultdro-); agnlnns, of a lamb 
(agno) ; &n&tinus (Plant., Petr.), of a duck (ftnftt-) ; angvlnus, of a 
snake (angvi-); ansfirlnus (Plin., Col.), of a goose (anBfir-); ftprlnus, 
of a (wild boar (ftpro-) ; ftzlStinus (Plin.), of a ram (toiSt-) ; aus- 
trinus, southern (austro-) ; c&ninus, of a dog (cftn-) ; c&prinus, of a 
goat (capro-); cenrinus, of a deer (cerro-); coUinus, of a hill (colli-); 
cdlumbinuB, of a dove (cOltunbo-); cOqvlnus, of a cook (cdqTO-); 
conrinns, of a raven (corvo-) ; dlyinus, of a god (divo-) ; 6qvlnu8, 
of a horse (dqvo-); femlnlnus, of a <woman (fSmlna-); festinus, 
hasty (comp. con-fes-tim) ; fOrlnua (Plaut. onCe), #/* a thief (fClr-); 
tftoulnus, of a jaw (comp. y€ws)\ native (gl-gn^ro); hlrclnus, of 
a goat (hirco-) ; In6plnus, unexpected (comp. opinftri) ; le5nlnus, of 
a lion (leSn-); lSp6rlnuft, of a hare (l«p6s-); ItlplnuB, of a wolf 
(Idpo-) ; m&rlnns, of the sea (mftri-) ; masdil-inus, of a male (mas- 
clUo-); mllnlnus, of a kite (mllao-); pdrdgrlnus, of abroad (pdrdgre); 
pordnus, of a pig (poroo-) ; sOridnns (Plaut. once), of a shrew 

3IO - Word-Formation. \Book III. 

mouse (85rSc-) ; sftplnus, <u)ith face upnuard; tanrlnus, of a bull; 
uninus, of a bear (ttrso-) ; verrinus, of a boar pig (verrl-) ; Tdttol- 
nus, of beasts of burden (comp. vdlidre); ylcinus, of the street, neigb- 
bour Qi^co-); vittUinus, of a calf (vittllo-); yolpinus, of a fox 
(volpl-) ; and others. 

(b) From proper names of places: Albinns, a cognomen of the 
Postumian clan (Alba?); Alpinus (Alpes, pi.); Arlcinus (Arida); 
C&pItOlliius (C&plt01iiim) ; Caudlnus (Caudlum); Collfttiniis (Ck>lla- 
tia); Esqivllliius (Esqvlliae); Fdrentinus (perhaps for Ferentiiiiiius 
from Ferentinum) ; L&ntLvinus (Lanuyium) ; L&tlnus (Latlum) ; Me- 
duUInus (MeduUia) ; P&l&tinus, but in Martial Pfil&tiiius (Palatium) ; 
PrsBiiestliius (FrsBiieste) ; Re&tinus (Reate); Rheglnus (BbeglTmi); 
T&rentinas (Tarentnm) ; ventisinuB ( Venusla) ; and others. 

Aventiiius, Qvlrlnus, Sabinus, are of uncertain origin. 

(c) From pixjper names of persons; chiefly from such as were 
originally appellatives: 

They are used as substantives, being surnames: 

Alblnus (Albiis); AntOnlnus (Antflnlus); AqvUinas (Aqnlla?); 
Atra,tinu8 (AtratuB?); AugtlrinuB (Augur); Augnstlnus (Augustus); 
CsBsoninus (Csbso); CalvlnuB (Calvus); Clctlrlnus (CIcur); Corvinus 
(Carvus); Crlsplnus (Crlspus) ; FLSmlninuB (FlaniinlUB or fldmen ?) ; 
Frontiiius (Fronto?); JusHnus (Justus); LactHcinus (Lactuca); Lae- 
vinus (Lsavus); Longlnus (Longus); Luscinus (Luscus); Bl&cerlnus 
and Macrinus (Macer); Mamercinus (Mamercus); Mancinus (Man- 
cus) ; Marcelllnus (Maroellus) ; MessaUinus (Messalla) ; MdtelUnus 
(Metellus) ; Psetinus (Patus) ; Plautinus (Plautus) ; RfUlnus (Ruftis) ; 
SatuminuB (Sfttumus); Sextinus (Seztus or Sestus); Tricipitlnus 
(triceps) ; and some others. 

Compare orcinus, of Orcus or death (Orcus); Plautinus, of 
Plautus (Plautus). 

2. Substantives: 8^^ 

(«) Masculine: concflblTTUs (concublna), a concubine (com, ciih- 
ftre); InqvU-lnus, a lodger (in c61-ere); lUpinus, a lupine; pulvinus, 
a cushion; sobrinus (sobrina f.), a second cousin, sister's cbiid} 

Cadna (Csscus); Oanina (canls?); Pordna (porca?). 

(b) Feminine: carpinus (-Inus?), the hornbeam; pinus Ccf. 


§ 398), a pine tree (for pic-nus? cf . § no, i; and comp. Tr/rvy); 
(-Inus?), a kind of pine tree; sinus (slnum), a tankard. 

arvlna (Verg.), grease; caeplna (Col.), an onion bed (oapa-) ; 
c&rlna, a keel; camlfidna, place of torture, torture (carnlfex) • fari- 
na, meal (comp. farr-); fddln» (pi.), mines (fdd6-re); gallina,' a hen 
(gaUo-); l&plcldlna (pi.), stqne quarries (Upld-, caed-ere); nftpiaa 

Chap, VI.] Dental Noun-Stems: -ino, -tino, -trino; -nl 311 

(Col.), a col%a or coleseed bed (n&po-) ; dpiflcina (Plaut.), ofllclna, 
a ^workshop (officio-, § 929 /z); p&ridtlnsd? (paxietlnsd?), ruins (p&- 
ri6t-) ; piscina, a fah-pond (pisci-) ; pdpina, a cookshop (cf. cdqvo-. 
§ 118. 2); porrina (Cato), a leek bed (porro-); pniina, hoarfrost 
(comp. pro, prsB, Trpwt) ; r&pina, pillage (rftp6-re) ; r&pina, turnip 
(rftpo-); rSgina, a queen (rSg-); rSsina, resin (^prjTivr}); mina, a fall 
(ru-*re); sSgina, stuffing, food (comp. <rarr«i'); s&Unsd, pi. (also 
sdJinum), saltpits (s&l-, sdlire) ; scobina, a rasp (sc&b-ere) ; spina, 
a thorn (for splclna, from splca-); v&glna, a sheath; Mrina., urine 
(comp. oupov)i 

Agrippina (Agrippa) ; Faustina (Faustns) ; Flancina (Plancus). 

(f) Neuter: c&tinum (also catiniu, m.), a dish; Hnum, ^ax; 
vlnum, ^ine (comp. vi-tis, viere, to twine), 

-c-ino Clo&cina, goddess of servers (do&ca) ; medl-c-ina, medical 840 
art (medico-, mfidere) ; morti-cinus (adj.), f/zrr/o« (morti-). 

-t-Ino I. Adjectives: clandestlnnB, secret (comp. clam); intes- 

tinuB, internal (intus); Ubertinus, of the class oi freed- 
men (liberto-); ma.t1it-inus', in the morning (m&tflta, the dafwn)\ 
mddi-ast-inus, from the middle of the city, hence a drudge (medio-, 
a<TTv)\ pauper-tinus (Varr., Gell.), poor (paupdr-); rdp-ent-inus, 
sudden (repenti-) ; vesper-tinus, of the evening (yespfir-). 

For proper names see § 838 ^. f. 

2. Substantives: cortina, a boiling pot; UbXtina^ goddess' of 
funerals; sentina, bilge-fwater. 

-lino ctUina, a kitchen (for coc-lina? coqvo-); disclplina, train- 841 

ing (disc-Ip-tilo-, discdre); sterqyl-linum (Pha:dr.), a 
dungheap (for stercdrlnom? stercOs-); tablinom,^ registry 

-tr-ino From stems in -tor. (For the omission of compare 842 
the ending -trie, § 782.) 

doc-tr-ina, learning (ddcSre) ; l&-tr-ina (l&v&trlna), a privy 
(l&y&re); pls-tr-inum, a mill; pls-tr-ina, a bakehouse 
(pls-6re, to pound)', sli-tr-ina, a cobbler'' s shop or trade 
(su-fire); tez-tr-iniim, (weaving (tez-«re); tons-tr-ina, a 
barber^s shop (tondSre). 

vii. Stemj ending in -nl, -n. 843 

-ni I. Adjectives: imm&nls, (u;/7</ (in, mftno-; **in carmine 

Saliari Gems manus intelligitur creator bonus," Festus, 
p. T22, Mull.); Xnfinis, empty; milnis (rare), obliging (comp. mH- 
nos); omnis, all; segnls, lazy; soUemnis, customary. 

3 1 2 Word-Formation. ^ [Book III. 

2. Substantives: amnls (m.), a river; dtinls (m. f.), a bauncb; 
crinls (m.), hair; finia (m. f.), a boundary (for fld-nis, find-ere); 
fflnis (m.), a rope; ignis (m.), Jire; m&ae (n.), the morning; mftnes 
(m. pi.), the spirits heJo<w; moenia (n. pi.), cwalls; mfbiia (n. pi.), 
duties (same as znoenia) ; pftnis (m.), a loaf of bread; pSnis (m. for 
pes-nis ; comp. 7r€df , iroa-'Onj) ; rfines (m. pi.), kidneys. 

On c&nis (m. f.), a dog, see § 448. 

-6n(-!n) Substantives: cfiro (f.), flesh (comp. Kpeai); hOmo (m. 844 

also hSmo, § 449, and with old stem in -On), a man 
(htimo-, ground)'^ nSmo, no one (ne, lidmo); turbo (m.), a <u)birl 
(comp. tiirba-). 

•gOn (-gin) Substantives: aspergo (f.), a sprinkUng (adsparg-ere) ; 84s 

margo (m.), a brink (ctMnp. merg-^e, to dip)\ vtrigo 
(f.), a girl (viro, a man\ or vlr-5re, to be fresh. Curtius and Gors- 
sen connect it with the root of o/)y-aa>). 

-Sg-6n (-&gln) All feminine: ambago (only abl. s., Manil.), circuit 

(amb, ks-^kre ?) ; compftgo, a fastening (com, pa;7g^ 
ere); c6ri-ago (Col.), a skin disease (ctoio-); farr-^ago, a masb 
(farr-); Im&go, a likeness (comp. im-it&ri; perhaps for mimi-tari; 
comp. fiiu€i-(r6ai) ; indago, an encircling (indo, &g-«re I) ; liunb-a^ 
(Fest.), loin disease (lumbo-); pliun1>-ago, blacklead (plam}}0-); prd- 
pSgo, a slip of a plant, offspring (pro, pang-ere) ; sartago, a frying' 
pan; sufiCr&go, the pastern, as if broken and bent up (sub, £rang-^re); 
virago, a bold girl (viro-); vdrago, a gulf (v6ra-re). 

>Il-ag-6n (-gin) All feminine : cartilago, gristle (comp. icpcas) ; salal- 

lago (Plin.), saltness (salso-); similago (Plin.), j&w 
flour (simila-). 

-lig-On (-Hgin) All feminine: sar-ngo, hronze-rust, jealousy (»s-); 

alb-ugo, a disease of the eye (albo-) ; ferr-ugo, iron- 
rust (ferro-) ; 19ji-ugo, donuny hair (Iftna-) ; sals-ngo, saltness (salso-) ; 
Ydsper-ngo (Plaut.), the evening star (vespfiro-). 

-Ig-6n (-igin) All feminine: cSIigo, mist (comp. clam, c§l&-re); de- 
pStigO, impdtigo, a scabby eruption; fiUigo, soot; in- 
tertrigo, a galling (inter, tri-, tfirfire) ; lent-igo,/r^^^/«?j (lenti-, linseed y 
which freckles resemble); lOlllgo, a cuttle fish; meUigo, bee-glue 
(mell-) ; 6rigo, a source (6riri) ; porrigo, scurf (porro-, leek ?) ; prtt- 
rigo, itching (prdrire) ; rdbigo (rllbigo), rust (riib-ro-, red) ; scatur- 
igines (pi.), springs (sc&turire); slligo, fwhite nuheat; tentigo, tension 
(tento-); veiWo, a turn (vertfire); vitiligo, a tetter; fOigo, wet 

-d-6n (-din) cardo (m.)» ^ kinge (comp. Kpabav, to brandish) ; grando 846 
(f.), hail (comp. ^aka^a, § 126); b&nmdo (f.), a reed; 
hlrundo (f.), a smjallow (comp. ;;^€XtSa)v, § 134); ordo 
(m.), a row. 

Chap. V/.] Dental Noun-Stems: -6n, -g6n, -ddn, -to. 313 

-M-dn (-Hdln) Mrudo (f.), a leech ; testudo (f.), a tortoise (testa-, 


-tfld6n (-tildin) Feminine abstract substantives. All have (appa- 847 

rently) a short i before the suffix, except the deri- 
vatives from Bueto- (in which a syllable has dropped 
out) and valStudo. 

8Bgri-tudo, sickness^ sorronu (segro-); altl-tudo, height (alto-); 
axnSxi-tudo (Plin. maj. and min.), bitterness (&ni&ro-); axnpll-tudo, 
nuide extent (amplo-) ; asperl-tudo (Gels.), roughness (aspdro-) ; as- 
syS-tudo (for assuetitudo), habit (ad-svSto-) : so .also consvetudo, 
desvatudo, mansvetado ; celsi-tudo (Veil.), highness; so as a title 
(God. Theod.), e.g. your Highness (celao-); dftri-tudo (clyefly Tac), 
renown (claro-) ; crassl-tudo, thickness (crasso-) ; dissimiU-tudo, un' 
likeness (dls imili-); flrml-tudo, ^rww^jj (firmo-); fortl-tudo, courage 
(fortl-) ; h&bi-tudo, habit (for habititudo, from li&blto-) ; hll&ri-tudo 
(Plaut.), merriment (lill&ro-); lassi-tudo, nvcariness (lasso-); Ifttl- 
tudo, breadth (l&to-); ISnl-tudo (rare), leniency (ISnl-); lentl-tudo, 
sluggishness (lento-); lippi-tudo, injlammation in tBe eyes (llppo-); 
longl-tudo, length (longo-) ; znagnX-tudo, greatness (magno-) ; moUi- 
tudo, softness (znolll-) ; multi-tudo, great number (multo-) ; nficessl- 
tudo, necessity^ close bond (ndcesse); partl-tudo (Plaut. twice), a 
giving birth (partu-) ; plngvl-tudo, fatness (pingvl-) ; pulcbrl-tudo, 
beauty (pulcliro-); sanctl-tudo (prae-Gic), sacredness (sancto-); 
sXmlil-tudo, likeness (slmlU*); sOU-tttdo, loneliness (s61o-); sollici- 
^udo, anxiety (soUicito-) ; svAYl-tudo (prae-Gic), sweetness (svavl-) ; 
t^nfirl-tudo (Varr., Suet.), softness^ tender years (t6n6ro-); turpi-tudo, 
ugliness^ disgrace (turpi-); vfile-tttdo, health (vftlSre); vastl-tudo 
(old prayer in Cato), wasting (vasto-) ; Yldssi-tudo, change (comp. 
Yiclsslm) : and many others, chiefly words quoted by Nonius from 
the early dramatists. 

-fid-6n (-Sdln) All feminine: absflmSdo (Plaut. Copt. 901), consump- 848 

tion (absilmdre, with pun on sumen) ; alcedo, kingfisher 
(comp. aXxvcDi/); c&pedo, a sacrificial bowl (c&pire; comp. c&pid-); 
cuppSdo {Lncv.)^ desire (comp.cappedia,^/(f//V/zr/>j,c1ipd-re); dulcedo, 
sweetness (dulci-); gr&yedo, a heavy cold (gr&Yi-); Interc&pedo, an 
interval (inter, c&pdre) ; tdredo, a worm, or moth (tdr-6re ; comp. 
reprjdc^v) ; torpedo, numbness (torpSre) ; llredo, blight (ilr-6re). 

-Id-dn (-Xdin) All feminine: crSpIdo, an edge (from icpj^Trtd- ?) ; 
cUpido (f. except as a god), desire (clipd-re) ; formldo, 
dread (fornui-, making shines to oneself 1) ; libido, lust 

-to JUvdnis (m.), a youth; sto-ex (the nom. sing, has a fiir- 849 

ther suffix), an old man. 

314 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

— - I I ■ - - - * 1 

-6n(-In) glflten (n.), glue (comp. |;lllto-, adj.); inirven (n.), the 
groin; pecten (m.), a comb (pect-6re); pollls (m. no nom. 
sin^.\ ^ne^our (comp. TraX?/) ; sangvis (m.) and Bangren (n. § 449), 
6/ood; ungven (n.), ointment (img-Sre). 

-men (-min) All neuter substantives, chiefly derived from verbs. 850 
Comp. the suffixes, -mino, § 825, -inento, § 792. 

(a) From vowel-verbs with stems ending in -ft, -d, or -L 

ftcfl-znen, a point (&cu-6re) ; calceft-znen (Plin.), a shoe (calceft- 
re) ; cantft-men (Prop, once), a spell (cantSrre) ; certft-men, a contest 
(certa-re); cOnftmen (Lucr., Ov.), an effort (cOnft-ri); curvft-meii 
(Ov.), a bend (curvft-re) ; durft-znen (Lucr.), hardening (dilrft-re) ; 
flftmen, a hlast (flft-re); also (m.) a priest; flii-znen, a stream (flu- 
toe); fOrft-men, a hole (fdrft-re, to bore)\ firndft-men (Verg., Ov.), a 
foundation (fondft-re); gestft-xnen, a rwearing article^ a conveyance 
(gest&-re); gldzndrft-znen, a round ball (glOxnerft-re) ; ISnl-men 
(Hon, Ov.), a solace (l§nl-re); ISyft-xnaa, an alleviation (16vft-re); 
mdU-men, an effort (znOU-ri); nil-men, a nod, the divine nvill (nu- 
Sre); niltri-men (Ov. once), nourishment (nutri-re); pl&cft-men, 
a means of pacifying (plftcft-re); ptitft-men, a clippings sh^ll, &c. 
(ptita-re) ; sdlft-men, a comfort (sOlft-ri) ; stft-men, the warp thread 
(st&re); st&tH-men, a stay, prop (st&tu-Sre); strft-men a straw 
(stra-, Btemdre); suffl-men (Ov. once), incense (suffX-re); sufOft- 
men, a drag (sufflftre?); tentft-men (Ov.), an attempt (tenure) \ 
▼6ca-men (Lucr.), a name (v6ca-re) ; and others. 

(^) From other verbs, or of uncertain derivation : 

abdSmen, the belly; agmen, a train (ftg-6re); albflmen (Plin.), 
the nvhite of an egg (albo-); alumen, alum; augmen, a gronvth 
(ang-Sre); bitilmen, bitumen; cactUnen, a summit; carmen, a song^ 
a charm (comp. cftm6na, § 836. 2); cdltUnen, a top, support (comp. 
cel-sus); cri-men, a charge (comp. ere-, cemfire, jcpiVfti/); culmen 
(contr. for columen; rare before Augustan age); discrlmen, a dis- 
tinction (comp. discer«-6re); ddctlmen (Lucr. once), a lesson (d6c-§re); 
exftmen, a s^uarm, the tongue of a balance (ex-ftg-fire) ; fSmen-, a 
thigh; ferrymen, solder (ferro-); fl8-mlna (pl.)» bloody s<iveHings 
(comp. (jAeyeiv) ; firag-men, a fragment (frang-ere) ; germen, a 
bud; grftmen, grass (comp. grandis, grftnum); IdgOmen, j^z//j^; limen, 
a lintel, a threshold; Ill-men, a light (lilc-6re) ; mO-men (for m6- 
Tlmen), movement (mdvSre); ndmen, a name, esp. of the clan; 
e.g. Cornelius; so also agndmen, an additional surname; e.g. Aftl- 
canus; cogndmen, the name of the family; e.g. Sdpio; prsenomen, 
the individual name; e.g. Lucius (no-sc-ere); 6men, an omen; rfig- 
Imen, guidance (r6g-6re) ; rUmen (rare), the gullet (comp. rH-mln- 
ftre, to chew the cud); sagmen, a tuft of sacred loerbs; sarmen 

Chap, V7.] Dental Noun-Stems: -€n, -mfin, -5n. 315 

(Plaut. once), brushwood (sarp-fire); segmen (rare), a cutting 
(sdcfixe); semen, seed (sfi-rfire); specimen, a pattern (spdcfi-re); 
subte-men, the woof (subtex-ere) ; sd-men, an udder (sftg-fire); 
Wg-Imen (teg-men), a co-verin^ (t6g-«re); tor-mina (pi.), gripes 
(torqv-6re); vermlna, gripes (for venni-min-? venni-, a worm); 
vi-men, a withe (viere). 

-6n All masculine (except Juno): many are personal names: 851 

(a) Appellatives: »ro (Vitr., Plin.), a basket; &g94io, a 
groom; Sleo (rare), a gamester (Slea-); &qvllo, the northwind (comp. 
ftqvUo-, dark-coloured) \ bdl&tro, a jester; b&ro, a dolt; bUbo, an owl 
(comp. ^uttff); bucco, a babbler (bucca-, a cheek) '^ bilfo, a toad; 
buteo, a hawk; calcitro, a kicker (calci-); cSlo, a soldier'' s servant; 
c&pito, a big-headed man (cftpiit-); capo, a capon (comp. capo-); 
carbo, a coal; caupo, a tayern-keeper (comp. KOTT-iyXof); cento, a 
patchwork; cerdo, an artisan (from jcep^os?); cilo (Fest.), having 
a long narrow head; cInIflo(Hor.), an assistant at the toilet (cf.§997'> ; 
comblb-o (rare), a boon companion (com, blb-^re); cdmdd-^ (Lucil., 
Van*.), a glutton (com6d-6re); commQIt-o, a fellow-soldier (com, 
miiet-); congerr-o (Plaut.), a playfellow (com, gerra-); crabro. a 
hornet; ctldo (abl. only; Sil.), a skin helmet; d61o, a staff with 
a sharp point ; 6piU-o, a feaster (fipftla-) ; fiqvlso (Van*.), a groom 
(6qvo-); erro, a runaway (erra-re); flronto, with a lai^e fore- 
head (front!-); folio, a fuller; ganeo, debauchee (ganea^); gerr-o, 
a trifler (gerra-); ligluo, a glutton; l&beo, \2s%^-lipped (l&bio-); 
latro, a mercenary soldier; hence a brigand (comp. \arp€v€iv); 
leno, a pander; leo, a lion (comp. \ifov<, Acoi/r-); llgo, a hoe; lurco, 
a glutton; mango, a dealer; ment-o, Xong-chinned (mento«); mir- 
miilo, a gladiator^ who wore a fish (fiopfj-vpos^) on his helmet; 
mtlcro, a sharp point; mVLto (i.q. pSnis); nas-o, with a big nose 
(naso-) ; ndbtUo, a worthless fellow (nfibtUa-) ; palp-o, a flatterer 
(palpo-); pavo, a peacock; p8ro, a rawhide boot; pdtaso, a leg 
of pork ; petro, a hardy rustic (Trtrpa) ; ponto, a punt, pontoon 
(ponti-?); pdpln-o, a frequenter of eating-houses (pttplna-); prseco, 
a crier (prsa, v6c-are ?) ; prsed-o, a robber (prseda-) ; pulmo, a lung 
(comp. n\€vfi(pv) ; r§no, a reindeer (Keltic) ; sabulo. ^r^i;^/(8abulo-); 
sermo, conversation (sfir-fire, tojoin^ sdr-ies); silo, snub-nosed (sUo-); 
spftdo, a eunuch; st61o, a useless sucker; strabo, a squinter; subulo, 
a flute player (Etruscan); tgmo, a carriage pole; tiro, a recruit; 
trico (Lucil.), a trickster (trica-); udo, a felt shoe; vespillo, a corpse- 
bearer at night (vespdra-); umbo, a boss (comp. umbilicus, afi^cov); 
vdldnes (pi.), volunteer soldiers (yel-le?); unedo (Plin.), the arbutus. 

JOno (fem.); comp. also §§ 481, 505. 

(b) Many are used chiefly or exclusively as cognomma. (In 
this list the name of the clan is added) : 

Bucco, of the Pompeian clan (vid. supr.); Buteo, Fabian (vid. supr.); 
caplto, Fonteian, &c. (vid. supr.); Carbo, Papiriau(v^d,%>\Yt.S^^^^^^^^ 

3 1 6 WoRD-FoftM ATiON. [Book II L 

Porcian (C&to-?)? Cerco, Lutatian (tailed^ K€pk6-); C!c6ro, .nxtcb 
man, TuUian (Ciodr-); CorbtUo, bajket man^ Domitian (corbtUa-); 
Culleo, bagman, Terentian (oulleo-); Dorso, iongback] Fabian 
(dorso-); Fronto, a surname in several clans (vid. supr.); Ksdso, 
Fabian, **a caeso matris utero dictus" (Plin. 7. 9. 7); L&beo, in 
several clans (vid. supr.) ; Latro, Porcian (vid. supr.) ; Llbo, Marian 
and Scribonian; Luroo, Aufidian (vid. supr.); Mento, Julian (vid. 
supr.) ; N&so, in several clans (n&so-) ; Nfiro, Claudian (Sabine for 
** fords ac strenuus"); P6do, splay ftot\, rare (pfid-); Hso, pease, 
Calpumian (piso) ; SImo, flat nosed (sXmo-) ; Stdlo, Licinian (vid. 
supr.); Str&bo, in several clans (vid. supr.); Tappo, Villian; Tilbdro, 
humpback}, Caclian (ttlb&r-, a boil, lump, &c.); Varro, bofwlegged, 
Terentian (vftro-); V61$ro, Publilian^ Yulso, with smooth face}, 
Manlian (vulso-, plucked}) ; and some others (besides those in -idn). 

-iOn (i) Masculine: (a) appellatives: 85a 

ardU-io, a trifler; blnlo, a dsuce (bino-) ; centililOk a cap- 
tain (centtirla-) ; cure&lio, a tweevil; cfUlo, the head of a curia; 
decorio, a commander of ten (decurla-); dUplio (old), the double; 
Sstlrio (Plant, punning; Petr.)^ a hungry man (Sstlr-Ire); gurgtUio, 
the windpipe (comp. Engl gargle) \ Ustrio, an actor (Etruscan); 
libell-io, a bookseller (iXbello-) ; Ifld-io, a stage player (lildo-) ; ma- 
tell-io, a pot (m&tella-) ; mOrio, a fool (jKopo-) ; mtU-lo, a muleteer 
(mulo-) ; Opillo, a shepherd (comp. 6vi-, and cf. § 94. ib); pftpUld^ 
a butterfly; pellio, a currier (pelll-); pernio (Plin.), a chilblain 
(pema-?) ; pugio, a dagger (pu«g-6re) ; ptlinllio, a dwarf (vfanUlo-) ; 
pilsio, a little boy (pUso-, comp. pufiro*-) ; quinio, a cinq (qulno-) ; 
restio, a ropemaker (reatl-) ; sannio, a gHmacer (sanna-) ; sclplo, a 
staff (comp. cr/ci/Trrpoi/) ; Bcopio, tf grape stalk; s6n6c-io, an old man 
(ccmp. 86zi-ec-); senlo, a seize (sex, seno>); septentrlo, the north 
(septem, trio, a star) M. Muller's Lectures, II. p. 365); stelio, a 
gecko, a kind of spotted lizard (stella-) ; T&lassio, a cry addressed 
to a bride; tdnebrlo (Varr.), a swindler (tdn^bra-); vespertilio, a 
bat (as if from vespertilis, of the evening) ; flnio, a pearl (iiiio-?). 

(b) Proper names : Csepio, Servilian (csepa-, onion) ; CHrio, Scri- 
bonian (vid. supr.); Gl&brio, Acilian (glftbro-, smooth, hairless); 
Pollio, Asinian (pauUo-); Sclpio, Cornelian (vid. supr.); Sfinficio, 
Claudian (vid. supr.). 

(2) Feminine : abstract substantives (a) derived from verbs: 

alltiylo, inundation (ad lay&re); c&pio, an acquisition; colltLvlo 
(Liv.), sweepings (com, l&v-are) ; condlcio, terms of agreement (con- 
dlcere, comp. maledlc-us); cont&glo, contagion (com, ta»g6re); dicio 
(no nom. s.), rule (comp. die-, dic6re?); interhecio, destruction (in- 
ter, ndc-are) ; Idglo, a body of soldiers (Idg-ere, to pick up)-; obllylo^ 
forgetfulness (obllvl-sc-i) ; obsldio, a blockade (obsIdSri); occldlo, 
massacre (occld-dre); optic, a choice; hence (m.?), an adjutant 

Chap, VJ.] Dental Noun- Stems : AJ^TL.'tii^VL^-'Vi^Ti, 317 

(opt-Sre); dpinio, opinion (dpinarl); rdglo, a district (rdg-dre, to 
mark out boundaries) \ rellXgio, a scruple (r6.6gere) ; suspXcio, suspicion 
(susplcd-re) ; usuc&pio, acquisition by enjoyment (upu, c&p6-re). 

(b) Derived from noun stem^ in -1: 

COznxnlUiio, sharing in common (comxnfUii-) ; co^sortio, fellowship 
(Qonsorti-); portio, a share (comp. parti-); p^rduelllo, treason 
(p^rdueUi-) ; rfibelliQ, revolt (rQOelll-) ; t&llo, retaliation (tail-). 

-ci6n hdmiin-cio, a mannikin (Ii6m6n-) ; (:omp. sendcioix- 853 

(§ 85a fl). 

-tion Abstract feminine substantives formed from supine stems. 854 

Some are used in concrete sense: 

{a) From supine stems of vowel verbs with long vowel pre- 
ceding the suffix (the verbs themselves are omitted 2^ self-evident) ; 

acctls-atfio, an accusation; ady6o-atio, legal assistance; SBstlxn- 
atlo, a valuation; ftgit-at-io, movement; alterc>at-io, dispute; &m- 
at-io (Plaut.), caressing; ambtU-at-io, a promenade; appell-at-io, 
an appeal^ a name; &qy-at-io, fuoater-^supply ; &r-at-io, ploughing; 
assent-at4o, flattery; attrib-Ut-lo, assignment; aud-It-Io, hearings 
hearsay; capt-at-io, catching; c&vlll-at-lo, raillery; cdlfibr-at-io, an 
assemblage; dftrig-at-Io, a solemn declaration of (ivar; cOgit-at-io, 
thought; cogn-at-io, relationship by blood (com, na-BCi); coU-at-iQ, 
a contribution, comparison; coxnp&r-at-io, comparison; concert-at-io, 
dispute; conclt-at-io, excitement; concurs- at-io, running together; 
CDnfarre-atio, religious marriage (com-, farreo-, i.e. eating together 
the bridal cake); constit-lit-io, disposition; contempl-at-io, contempla- 
tion; contest-atio, joining issue^ calling <ivitnesses (com, test&ri); cr3- 
tio, acceptance of an inlxritance (cemere); conct-atio, delay; cilx-atio, 
management; damn-atio, condemnation; declln-atio, turning aside; 
defin-It-io, marking off; dS16g-atio, assignment of debt, &c.; demXn- 
Ht-io, decrease; denunti-atio, announcement; dSspdr-atlo, despair; 
discept-at-io, discussion; dissOl-Htio, dissolution; ddmXn-atio, lord-' 
ship; dUblt-atlo, doubt; 6dtic-atio, bringing up; Sr&d-Itio, instruction; 
exlstim-atio, judgement, reputation; exste-Utio (post- Aug.), accom- 
plishment; fesUn-atio, hastening; fimstr-atio, deceiving; gr&d-&tio, 
gradation (as if from grftdftrl); gr&tnl-atlo, congratulation; Imit- 
atlo, imiiation; inquis-Itio, legal inquiry ; laxg-'ltLo, bestotwalj bribery; 
leg-atLo, the office of an ambassador; llbdr-atio, a release; m&clila- 
atio, contrivance; mult-atlo, amercement; mtln-Itio, a fortification; 
mUt-atio, change; nft-tlo,a breed (na-sci); ndt-atio, marking, noticing; 
nO-tio, taking cognisance (no-BC-dre); oUIg-atio, engagement ; occHp-atlo, - 
seizing, business; Gr-atlo, speech; part-Itio, division; permHt-atlo, an 
exchange; pfit-Itio, aiming, candidates hip, claim; post&l-atio, demand; 
pd-tio, drinking (comp. poto-, pO-tare); prost-atio (post-Aug.), 

3i8 Word-Formation. [Book IIL 

guaranty^ payment; prd1>-atio, testing; prOvdc^atio, a challenge^ op- 
peal; ptit-atio, pruning; rdcord-atio, remembrance; recils-atio, refu-' 
sal; rtauntl-atio, a public announcement of a result; reprsasent-atio, 
cash payment; respir-atio, taking breath; restlt-fLtlo, restoration; 
rOg-atio, a legislative proposal^ a bill; s&lfLt-atio, greeting; fllmtU- 
atio, pretence; sdl-Utio, discharge of debt, &c.; sort-Itio, lot-draw- 
mg; Btlp-aUo, crowding; stlptUl-atlo, a bargain; BuppUc-atio, ^2^//V 
prayer; .Xi^itl-dXio (CiES.), a flooring (t&biUa-, a plank) \ test-atlo 
(testXfic-atio, Cic), giving evidence; tr&l-atio, transfer; v&c-aUo, 
exemption; v6n-atio, hunting; and many others. 

(Jf) From supine stems, with short vowel preceding suffix: 

&d-Itio, entry on an inheritance (&d!-re) ; adxii5n-Itio, reminding 
(admOnere) ; amb-Itio, canvassing (ambl-re) ; appSr-lLio, attendance 
(appfixere) ; cognitlo, knowledge^ judicial inquiry (cogno-sc-ere) ; dft- 
tio, giving (^Te)\ edltio, publishing (§d6-re); ezlilb-ltio (Ulp.&c), 
maintenance; It-io, going (i-re); mdn-itio, warning (m6n6re); pds- 
itio, placing^ posture (p6n-dre) ; r&-tio, account^ reason (rSri) ; 8&-tio, 
sowing (yA'T^-te) ; sed-Itio, a sedition (sed, Ire) ; sorb-itio, a supping 
up^ a draught (sorb&e) ; Bt&-tio, a station^ a post (stare) ; stlperBtl-tio, 
superstition (standing over in awe; BUper-st&re) ; vendl-tio, sale 
(yendfire) ; and others. 

(f) Either from consonant stems, or contracted: 

ac-tio, action (&g-€re) ; adJec>tio, addition (adjlc-€re) ; adop-tio, 
adoption (comp. adopt&-re) ; affec-tlo, relation^ disposition of mind 
(aff ic6-re) ; auc-tlo, a sale (augere) ; aversio, turning away (vert- 
fire) ; in law phrase, per averslonem fimdre, to buy as a whole (verr- 
ere) ; cap-tio, a tricky sophis7n (cap6-re) ; cau-tio, a caution^ a legal 
security (cftvSre); cen-sio, an assessing (censSre); circiiinscrip-tio, 
a contour,, cheating (circmuscilb-fire) ; coxnmiB-slo, a contest (commit- 
t-fire) ; comprfilien-sio, laying hold of (compr6hend-6re) ; concep-tio, 
drafting of law formulae (concip6-re) ; conces-slo, grant (concSd-dre) ; 
conclfl-sio, shutting in,, a peroration (concllid-6re) ; consen-sio, agree- 
ment (consentire) ; construc-tio, construction (constru-6re) ; con-tio, 
an assembly,, an address to such (conv6n-ire) ; contrac-tlo, dranv- 
ing together (contrSli-fire) ; defec-tio, revolt,, failure (dSf Icfi-re) ; devC- 
tio, devotion (devdvere) ; dic-tio, saying (dic-6re) ; digres-sio, digres- 
sion (dlgr6d-i); diBtixic-tio,<//J//wf//o«(di8tiiigv-6re); %mj^-tio,, purchase 
(6xn-6re) ; flc-tio, fashioning,, fiction (fl«g-6re) ; flexio, a turn (fleet- 
fire); Impres-sio, an impress,, attack (imprim-ere) ; induc-tio, a 
bringing in,, drawing one's pen through (indtlc-fire) ; Inven-tio, dis- 
' covery (invfinire) ; Iti-sio, playing (Ittd-fire) ; man-Bio, staying,, lodging- 
place (mftnere); mis-sio, a discharge (mitt-fire); md-tio, moving 
(xndvfire) ; oflfen-sio, stumbling,, offence (oflfend-fire) ; pas-tio, pastur- 
ing (paBC-fire) ; pen-Bio, payment (pend-fire) ; percep-tio, gathering 


Chap. VZ] Dental Noun-Stems: -tl6n or -slOn. 3T9 

(perclp$-re) ; perpes-sio, endurance (perp6t-l) ; prsdBump-tlo, anticipa- 
tion (prasflm-dre) ; quas-tio, an inquiry (quar-€re) ; rftfec-tlo (post- 
Aug.), restoration, refreshment (r6flc6-re;; scrlp-tio, writing (acrlb- 
6re); s6ceB-slo, a withdratwal (aecSd'^re); sec-tio, cutting, sale of 
a bankrupt estate (sdcftre); ses-slo, a sitting (sfidSre); 8pon-«lo, an 
agreement, a <wager (spondSre) ; tac-tlo, touching (ta«g-6re) ; travec- 
tlo, {1) carrying across ; (a) riding pest (Xxz31S7IS}1'^q)\ ul-tlo, r^- 
venge (ulc-Iscl) ; Yl-slo, sight (videre); and others. 

Compound stem-endings: -Inqyo, § 77a; -ento, -mento, -lento 
(-glnta, -gento), §§ 791—795; -0^^, § 807; -ensl, -iensl, § 815; 
-undo, -bundo, -cundo, §§ 817 — 8ao; -Infir, § 905; -nds, -ntis, 
§§ 911, 913; -neo, -gneo, -i-ftneo, -Gneo, §§ 92a, 923; -ontla, § 933; 
-nlo, -mnlo, -mOnlo, -diiio, §§ 934 — 936. 


i. Stems ending in -lo. 

-lo c61UB (f.), a distaff; d61us, craft; f&la (pi.), a scaffold- 855 

172^; gdlum, frost; m&lus (adj.), bad; mdla, a mill (mOl- 
6re) ; plla, a ball; pUus, a hair; B&lum, the sea (comp. B&1-, (roKos) ; 
sdlum, the ground; vdla, hollonv of hand or foot, (For some with 
diminutive suffix, e.g. templom, see under -ulo.) 

-6-I0 This older form of the vowel before 1 is retained only 856 

after e, 1, or v (cf. § a 13. a ^). The 6 is often the final 
stem vowel of the word to which the suffix is added: 

1. Adjectives: anred-los, golden (aureo-); Sbrio-lus (Plant.), 
somewhat drunken (ebriO-) ; frlvOlus, trifling (for fklqyoluB ? rubbed 
or brittle; comp. firlc-&re, fii-&re); helvO-luB (helyeoluB), yellowish 
(helvo-) ; parvdlus, very small (parvo-). 

2. Substantives (chiefly in Cicero), mostly diminutives of sub- 
stantives in -0: 

320 Word-Formation. [Book III, 

(a) Masculine: alveo-ltts, a small trough; calceo-lus (rare), 
a small shoe; cftseo-liu, a small cheese; ctkneo-lns, a small <u)edge; 
flUo-lQS, a little son; li&rlo-lus, a soothsayer; UbrSrlo-lns, a bit of a 
copyist; malleo-lUB, a small hammer^ a slip for planting; pasceolus, 
a leathern hag (for <^ao-ica>Aor?); pllleo-lus, a small cap; umio-liis, 
a little ape; senro-liu, a little slave; urceo-lus, a little pitcher. 


Puteoll, Little-Dwells; Tiberlo^ns (Tac. A, 6. 5), darling Tiberius; 
ScsYdla (m.), (scaya^, left-hand), 

(b) Feminine; all (except viola) diminutives of subst. in -a. 

aotnarld-la (or -mn?), a small boat; &rfineo-la, a small spider; 
ardeo-la, a heron; &reo-la, a small open place; bestio-la^ an insect; 
ol&vd-la, a scion; cOpio-l» (pi.)? a fi^ troops; deUcio^ls (pl.)» « 
little darling; fasdo-la, a sr^iall bandage; fllio-la, a little daughter; 
gl6rio-la, a bit of distinction; lL6rio-la, a skiff; laureo-la, a laurel 
branchlet; lU8c|nio-la, a little nightingale; zndmOrio-la, a poor 
memory; aauseo-la, a slight squeamishness ; seujbentio^la, an apho^ 
rism; 8dpio-la, a little cuttle fish; valyo-l» (pi.), double shells of a 
pod; Ylctdrio-la, a small statue of Victory; yindSmio-la, a little 'vin- 
tage; vlo-la, a violet (comp. toi/); and others. 

(c) Neuter: all diminutives of neuter substantives in -0: 

atrio-lum, a small entrance^hall ; armftrlo-luin, a cabinet; t>al- 
neo-lum, a small bath; brftcUo-lom (Catull.), a slender arm; com- 
xnentftrlo-lum, a short essay; deversOrlo-lum, a small lodging; 
ddlio-lum, a small cask; flammeo-lum, a small bridal veil; linteo- 
lum, a small cloth; n6gdtio-lum, a bit of business; Otio-lum, a bit of 
leisure; p6ctllio-liun« a small private property; prsBdlo-luxn, a small 
landed estate; sOl&cio-luin (Gatull.), a bit of comfort; sva.Yio-lum 
(GatulL), a soft kiss; tect5rlo-la (^X.^y plaster casts, 

-tQo I. Adjectives 1: 857 

(a) Diminutival: all (except yetulus) from adjectives 
with -o stems: &ctltu-lu8, somenvhat pointed; albu-lus, (ivhitish; ftll- 
qvanttt-lus, somewhat; argnitu-lus, somewhat subtle; Sridu-lus 
(CatuU.), a little dry; barbfttu-lUB, with a bit of a beard; bimu-lus 
(Gatull., Suet.), two years old; can(Udu-lus, fairly white; contortu- 
lus, a bit twisted; ftlgldu-lus, rather cold; hll&ru-lus, merry and 
little; horridu-lus, roughish; Imu-lus (Gatull.), lowest; lassu-lus 
(GatulL), a little tired; lentti-lus, rather slow; limfttu-lus, delicately 
fine; Umu-luB (Plant.), somewhat askance; longu-lus, longish; psBtu- 

^ Comp. the lines made by Hadrian on his death-bed (Hist. Aug. 
Hadr. 25): . Animula valuta blandula, 

hospes comesque coqDoris, 
quae nunc abibis in loca, 
pcUlidtda rigida nudula, 
n,ec, ut soles, dabis jocos? 

Chap, VII.'] Lingual Noun-Siems: -Olo, -tUo. 321 

Ilia, <with a slight squint; pallldu-liid, growing pale; paucu-lus, -very 
* fr^; primu-lus (Plaut.), frst; qvadiimu-lus (Plaut.), little four- 
year s-old; quant-iilus, how small}] rtlldcuiid-iiliis, rather red; scitu- 
lus (Plaut.), stylish; simu-lus (Lucr.), Jlattish-nosed; Bordldu-lus, 
dirtyish; t&bidu-lus, slowly consitming ; tantu-lus, so little; Hvldu-lus 
(Catulh), somewhat wet; y6nu8tu-lU8, charmingly pretty; vdt-uliis, 
little and old (for vetfir-ulus) ; and others, 

(b) Not (apparently) diminutival; chiefly from verbs: ssm-nlus, 
emulous; amp-lU8, large (on both sides ^ around; axnb-, cf. § 70); Mb- 
ulus, thirsty (bib-fire); btlb-ulus, of oxen (b6v-, § 76); cser-idus, 
dark blue (cf. cssnileus) ; crSd-ulus, credulous (crSd-6re) ; Sdent- 
ulus (Plaut.), toothless (e denti-); garru-lus, prattling (garrire); 
p&tu-luB, wide-spreading (p&tSre); pend-ulus, banging (pendSre); 
qu6r-idU8, complaining (qu6r-i); BSdulus (cf. § 990)1 Blng-tilus, one 
each, single; strag-ulus, /or covering (strfigi-, cf. § 784); Btrldu-lus, 
whistling (stridSre); trfizn-ulus, quivering (trSmSre). 

a. Substantives: (a) diminutival: 858 

Masculine: mostly from stems in -0: ftddlescentu-lus, a young 
man (adolescent!-) ; amicu-lua, a darling friend ; &ziimu-lus, darling ; 
azmu-lus, a ring; calcu-lus, a pebble (cald-, chalk); circu-lus, a cir^ 
cle; c61umbti-lus, a little dove; 6qvu-lU8 (dcilleas), a colt; fdcu-lus, 
a chafing dish (fdco-, hearth) ; fOrft-li (pi.), pigeon holes (fdms, a 
row); gl6bu-lU8, a little ball; bortu-lus, a small garden; J6cu-lus, 
a little Joke; lectu-lus, a couch; Idcil-las, a compartment; znddu-lus, 
a small measure; n6pdtu-lus (Plaut.), a little grandson (nSpdt-); 
iddu-lus, a little nest; nmumu-U (pL), small coins; porcu-lus, a young 
pig; pttfim-lus, a little boy; r&mu-los, a sprig; r3g-iilus, a chieftain 
(rSg-); saccu-lus, a small bag; scrtLpu-lUB, a small stone, a difficulty; 
ventu-lus, a bree-ze; -^cu-lus, a hamlet, 

vemula, a little slave (vema-). 

Proper names : LentulUB (see § 85 7 «) ; Prdculus (prdcus, a 
suitor) J Regulus (vid. supr.). Also Barbula (barba, a beard). 

Feminine: mostly from stems in -a: 89t&ta-la, youth (»tftt-); 
&mlcu-la, a darling mistress; &nlmu-la, dear life; &qYU-la, a little 
water; arcu-la, a casket; capBU-la, a bandbox; c&stl-la, a small 
cottage; caup5nu-Ia, a small tavern; caiiBtt-la, a petty lawsuit: 
cSnu-la, a light dinner; cervicu-la, a small neck (cervlc-); clausu-la, 
a conclusion (as if from dauBa-); co&clliatrlc-ula, a soft match- 
maker (conciliatric-) ; f&o-ula, a little torch (fftc-); fUcu-la, a small 
billhook (falci-) ; flammu-la, a little flame; formu-la, a (short) legal 
form; glandu-lss (pl.)» glands (glandl-, acorn) \ guttu-la, a little 
drop; herbu-la, a little herb; l&crlnm-la, a tiny tear; lectlcu-la, a 
small sedan; mensu-la, a small table; mercSd-ula, small wages 
(merc6d-) ; mfirgtrlc-iila, a gi^-l prostitute (meretrlc-) ; nUc-Tila, a 


322 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

small nut (nilc-); nUtric-ula, a nurse (xmtric-); paUu-la, a little 
cloak; plSini-la) a bed curtain (pl&ga-, a net) ; porttt-la, a small gate, 
plipu-la, the pupil of the eye {image on retina ? pilpa-, a girl) ; 
quadrlgn-ltB (pl.)f ^ ^^^^^^ four^borse team; r34Ic-ula, a small root 
(r94Ic-); ilpu-la, a little bank; rOtu-la, a little wheel; sardnu-la, 
a little bundle; 8ctitii-la, a square dish (scilt-; comp. scutra, scateUa, 
and for H BcHUca); serru-la, a small sa^w; seztu-la, the sixth of an 
uncia; Bportu-*la, a little basket; t6£ra-la, a little gown; tonstric-nla, 
a small hairdresser; Tlllu-la, a little country-house; virsa-la, a small 
rod; vOcu-rla, a <weak voice; and others. 

Neuter: c&pltn-liun, a small head (c&ptit-); craBta-lum, pastry; 
muscipulum, a mouse-trap (mtlsl-. c&pdre, § 992); oppldu-lum, a 
small town; postlcu-lum, a small back building; pr&ta-lum, a small 
meadow; r&pu-lum, a little turnip; saxnluin, a small rock; scriptu- 
lom (sdlpiilum, Bcrupulum, scxiplum), ^^oz. (a trans], of ypa/i/ia?); 
splcu-lum, a sharp point (spXco-, a point; comp. splca) ; scutu-lnxn, 
a small shield. 

(b) Not (apparently) diminutival, or not diminutives of exist- 855 
ing nouns : 

Masculine: sbscuIus, the Italian oak; angulns, a comer (comp. 
ayKvkoi^ uncus, un^vls, &c.); b9Julus, a porter; "bOtulus, a sausage; 
c&pulus, (1) a hilt, (a) a coffin (c&p8-re) ; c&ttilus, a whelp; ciixuiilus, 
a heap (comp. kvcZi/, /cOfta); f&mulus (also adj. in Aug. and post- 
Aug. poetry), a servant; figulus, a potter (fi;zg-erd); gfirulus, a 
porter (g6r-6re) ; ISgulus, a picker (16g-6re) ; Scillus, an eye (§ 107) ; 
dptilus, a kind of maple; pesstUus, a bolt (from Tracro-aXoff ?) ; p6pu- 
lus, a people (comp. plS-nus, ttA^^os, TroXt?, &c.); pOpulus (f.\ a 
poplar; Bc6pulus, a rock (from (r/coTTfXoff ?) ; sltulua (also ^Itula), a 
bucket; stimulus, a prick (comp. o-rty/x?/, § 129. c); tltiilUB, a title; 
ttimulus, a hill (ttim-gre); ttitiilus, a conical head-dress; Tidulus, a 
portmanteau; vitulus, a calf (§91). 

asseda, a follower (ad sfiqv-i) ; rab-ula, a brawler (ral)€re). 

Proper names: BIbulus (§ 857^); Catillus (vid. supr.); Figulus 
(vid. supr.); Slciilus, a Sicilian; Tappulus ; Trgmtllus (§ 857 bj\ 
Vitulus (vid. supr.). Also Decula ; Scftpula (vid. infr.). 

Feminine: assula, a splinter; c&cula (m.), a servant; c5pula, a 
tie (com, ip-isci) ; 6piilSB (pi.), a banquet; ffiriila, (i) fennel giant, 
(z) a rod; fistula, a pipe; giUa, the throat (from the sound); in- 
f&la, a band or filet; insula, an island, a separate block of buildings; 
Inula, elecampane; Jugulse (pi.), collar-stars in Orion's belt; m&tula, 
a pot; mentula, for mejentula (from mejere) ; mfirula, a blackbird; 
nSbilla, a cloud (comp. nfLbes, vi(f)os)\ psenula, a cloak; p&pida, a 
pimple; pergula, a stall or booth; plisula, a blister (from 0v(ra, 
(fivcraWls', the rarer form pustula is probably from pas); radula 
(Col.), a scraper (rftd-Sre); rSgula, a rule (r6g-6re); scandula, 
a w^ooden shingle; sc&pulae (pi.), the shoulder-blades; spficula, a 
ivatcbtower (sp6c6-re)*, stlptUa, a stalk; tegiila, a fat tile (t6g-6re): 

Chap. V/I,'] Lingual Noun-Siems: -tao, -ptao, -btilo, -ctao. 323 

trftgula, a javelin^ a net (comp. trfthere?); ftltUa, a screeckhonul ^ 
nngtUa, a boof (Txajgyi-, m.). 

Neuter: clngtUum (also cingtilas, dngula), a belt (clng-fire); 
coagulum, rennet (com, &g-Sre, to make to curdle) \ ezexnp-lum, a 
sample (e:dm-dre; cf. § 70); J&culiim, a dart (J&c6re); Jtlgulum, 
the collar-bone (Jiigo-, JiU2g-dre) ; pipnlum, chirping (plpfire) ; rdpa- 
gula (pi.), bolts (pa«g-6re); spSciUiun, a mirror (spfic^re); tem- 
p-lum, a temple (for tem-ulum ; comp. reficvos and § 70) ; torc-ulum, 
a (winepress (torqvSre). 

-piilo (i) Adjectives (comp. the Greek termination -TrXoof, 860 

e.g. dirXovsi Sec): simplus (only used as subst., so also 
cimpla, slmplum), single (comp. slm-plez, seinel); dtlplus, double 
(duo); triplus, triple; qvadrtiplns, fourfold; octuplns, eightfold. 
These words are generally used^ only in neuter as substantives. 

(2) Substantives: discI-ptUus, a learner (di£C-^re); m&nlpnlus 
(manlplus), a handful^ a company of soldiers (m&nu-; comp. pie*, 
plenus ?) ; simpiUiim, a ladle. 

For templum, &c. see § 859 ; for others, where p is apparently 
radical, see § 858. 

-biilo {a) Feminine: fSlbula, a narrative (fari); fibula, a clasp 86t 

(f Ig-ere) ; sUbula, an anvl (su-dre) ; t&bula, a planks 

{b) Neuter: ac8t9,bulum, a cup {Jbr 'vinegar} &c8to-); concIll&- 
bulum, a place for assembly (concmsre) ; Incf&nSrbula (pi.), cradle 
(in cfLna-); Infund-ibulum, a funnel (infimd-dre) ; l&t-IbuluxD, a 
hiding-place (l&tdre); mendlca-bulom (Plaut. once), a beggar (men- 
dic^e) ; ntlcifrangi-bula (pi.), nutcrackers (nUc-, trang-Sre) ; p&-btb- 
luin,ybif^^r (pascdre); p&ti-bulum, a cross (p&tSre); prostl-bulum, 
a prostitute (prostftre); xutabnlum, a poker or spoon (rti-«re?); sabn- 
lum, gravel; stS.-baluin, a stall (stftre) ; suffl-bnlam, a square white 
veily worn by the Vestal Virgins at a sacrifice (sub figdre ?) ; tin- 
tinnft-bulum, a bell (tintixmSxe) ; trl-bxQum, a thrashing sledge (tri-, 
tfirCre); trientabulum (Liv. 31. 14), land assigned in payment of a 
third of a debt (trlentl-) ; tilr-ibuluin, a censer (ttls-) ; YSnA-bulnxn, 
a hunting-spear (vSnSil) ; vestibulum, a forecourt (origin uncertain) ; 
ydc&-bulum, a name (vOcSxe). 

-clilo(clo) I. Adjectives, chiefly diminutival, and firom i stems; 862 

{a) From nouns: acrX-culus, testy; aonX-culus, a year old (anno-); 
dnlci-culus, s<u)eetish; fortl-culus, some<what bold; grandI*cnluB 
(Plaut.), rather large; Idvl-culus, some^uhat vain; mas-culus, male 
(m&sl-); molU-ouliis, tender; pauper-culos, poor (pauper-); t6nul- 
culns, rather slight; tristl-ciilnB, somenvhat sorro<vjful; turpl-culus, 
ugly; Temft-culus, (i) of slaves^ (a) native (vema-). 

(b) From verbs: ridl-culus (derldicnlus), laughable (ridSre); 
reiculns (Cato, Sen.), refuse (rtJIcCre). 

(r) clanctdmn (adv.) is adverbial accus. (clam). 

324 Word-Formation. [Book IIL 

a. Substantives: 

{a) Masculine: almost all diminutival : 

ftm&tor-culus (Plaut.), a lover dear; dml-culus, a dear friend; 
amni-culuB, a streamlet; angvi-ciilUB, a small snake; anser-culus 
(Col.), a gosling; axtt-cnlus, a joints knuckle (artu-); asser-culus, 
a small pole; cinctl-culus (Plaut.), a belt (cinctu-); ctinlcalus, a 
mine; hence, a burro<wer^ viz. a rabbit (ciLneo-); enBl-culus (Plaut.), 
a small s<word; fascl-culufl, a packet; fios-culus, a Jlowret; follX- 
colUB, a small bag^ pod; fontl-cnlus, a little spring; frftter-culus, a 
little brother; fCLnX-KmliiS, a thin cord; grft-qulus, ajackdanu (perhaps 
the c is radical) ; Ignl-oulus, a spark; l&cus-culus (Col.), a small 
lake (lacu-); l&ter-ciUus, a small brick; Idpus-culus, a leveret 

gBp68->; Untrl-cnlos, a wherry; xnar-culus (marttUus, Plin. ed. 
etlef.), a >&«w»2^r; mua-culus, a little mouse ^ a muscle (mUsl-); 
orbl-culos, a small dish or roller; pannl-^culus, a rag (panno-); 
passer-culus, a little sparrofw; Piter-culus, a surname of Velleian 
clan; pSnl-culus, a brush; pisci-culus, a little fsh; pontl-culus, a 
little bridge; pulTis-culus, a little dust; puti-cull (pi., Varr., Fest.), 
gravepits (ptlteo-) ; qusestl-ciilus, a small profit (qusestu-) ; rOznus- 
colus, gossip (rilmOB-) ; sensl-culus (Quint), a clause (sensu-, sen- 
SUB, a sentence^ Quint.); Bcr6bi-culus, a little trench; sirpl-culus 
(Burp-, Bdrp-), a rush basket (sirpo-) ; siur-cnlus, a shoot (said to be 
from Bilro-, a shoot); testl-culus; ventrl-cnlus, the stomach; verml- 
culus, a grub; verBi-culUB, a short verse (versu-); utri-culud, a little 
bag; vultl-culuB, a mien (vultu-). 

(b) Feminine: diminutives of feminine nouns : 

sedl-cula, a chapel; &iid,ti-^ula, a duckling (&nS,t-) ; dul-cula, an 
old eujoman (ftnu-); &pi<^cula, a little bee; arbus-cula, a shrub (ar- 
bds-); aurl-cula, the external ear; ba-cula, a heifer (bdvl-); c&nl- 
cula, a bitchy the dog star (o&xi-, § 448); cicer-cula (clcfir-, n., but 
also cicSra-, f.); claasi-cula, a flotilla; cohorti-cula, a small troop; 
crftl^-cula, a gridiron; ditH-cula, the skin; die-cula, a brief day; 
febri-cula, a feverish attack; fidl-culsa (pi.), a lute^ a rack; ISbe- 
cula, a slight stain (l&bi-, 13.beB); lenti-cula, a lentil; m&nl-cula, 
a little hand (mdJlu-); m&ter-cula, a mother dear; mtUler-cnla, 
a girl; n3.Yi-cula» a skiff; ndviUcula, a razor (ndvare, to rene<w ?) ; 
nUbe-cula, a little cloud (ntlbi-, nllbSs); panl-cula, a tuft (pftno-, 
m.); parti-cula, a little bit; pelll-cula, a small skiv; plSbS-cula, th:: 
populace (pl6be-); resti-cula, a small rope; rftdi-cula, a mull; 
sdcdrl-cula, a little axe; Bede-cula, a little seat (s§di-, sedeB); Biclli- 
cula, a small sickle; spS-cula, a slight hope; silbtl-cula, a shirt (from 
sub? comp. ex-u-6re); sft-cula, a little pig^ a (winch (sui-, bu-, 
§ 39a; also the Hyades from a confusion of v€iv vrith uy); tfigfit-I- 
cula, a little mat (Wgfit-) ; vfipre-cula, a small briar (cf. § 430^ ; 
vlU-cula, a little vine; Yulpe-cula, a little fox (vulpi-, vulpSs); 
uzor-cula, a darling nvtfe. 

Chap, VII.] Lingual Noun-Stems: -ctilo, -imcttlo. 325 

{c) Neuter: (i) diminutives from nouns: 

conyentl-cnlum, an assembly (conventn-) ; cor-cnlum, little 
heart; also a surname of Scipio Nasica for his good sense (cordl-); 
coml-culum^ a little horn (comu-) ; corpus-culum, a particle (corpSs-) ; 
crgpus-culiim, twilight (^comp. crGpfiro-, Kvi^ai)\ fSnus-culnm, 
a little interest (fonfis-) ; g&l§ri-cnliim (Suet.), a small cap (gSISro) ; 
gdni-culmn, a little knee (gfinu-) ; hOlus-culnm, a bit of 'vegetable; 
Jdcus-culum, a small liver (J6c6s-) ; l&ter-culiim, a list (later-, masc. 
a brick) \ l&tus-culum, a small side; mflniU'-ciilimi, a small present; 
dpus-cnlum, a small fwork; os^culuxn, a pretty mouthy a kiss; ossi- 
culum, a small bone; raudus^culum, a bit of metal; rStl-culuzn, a 
small net; tutoer-culum, a small bump; tus-culum, a bit of incense; 
vas-culom, a small vessel; ulcus-culum, a small sore. 

(2) from verbs (chiefly) : 

admlnlculum, a prop (comp. ad mftnum) ; &mlc-nlum, a mantle 
(where c is radical ; ftmldre) ; l)&-ciaum, a staff (comp. fiattrpop, ^al- 
v(o) ; c6n&-culum, a dining-room, an tipper room (cenftre), Cr6plt9,-culiim, 
a rattle (crfipltaxe) ; ciibi-ctilum, a chamber Tctlbft-, cUbare) ; curri- 
culum a course (curr-6re); ddvert-iculum, a bypath, an inn ^(deYert- 
6re) ; dniic-ulum, daybreak (dllil<Se-sc-6re) ; Svenvlculum, a drag-net 
(Sverr&re) ; fer-culum a bier, a tray (fer-re) ; gilbemSUculum (gu- 
bemadum), a helm (gubem&re); lilbemft-tiulum, a winter lodging 
(Mbemare); Incem-Iculum, a sieve (incetnere); Irridl-culum, a 
laughing-stock (irrldere); Jent&-cUlum, breakfast (Jent9re); mlrft- 
culum, a ivonder (mirSjl) ; Oper-culum, a lid (dpdrire) ; OrS^ulum 
(dr&dum), a divine utterance (Orft-re); pfiri-culum (pfiridum), a 
trial, risk (comp. pfiri-tus); perpend-iculum, a plumb line (as if 
from perpendere) ; pia.-culum, an expiation (pifixe) ; pO-culum (pO- 
clum), a cup (comp. pC-tus), prOpugnft-culum, a bulwark (pr6- 
pugn&-re); r6cept9.>culum« a magazine, a retreat (receptS,-re) ; 
rfidimi-culum, a necklace (r6dlml-re) ; rdtln&-cula (pi.)} reins (rgtl- 
nSre); ssa-culum (ssaclum), a generation (a sowing? sa-, sdrSre); 
sar-culum, a hoe (s&rire) ; sen&-culum ( Varr.) a senate hall (comp. 
sfin&tus) ; spectft-culum, a sight (spectflre) ; splra-culum, a breathing- 
hole (splrft-re) ; subUg§.-culum, a waistband (subUgft-re) ; Bustentft- 
culum (Tac), a support (sustentft-re) ; tabemft-culum, a tent (t&- 
bema-); terrl-cula (pi.)? bugbears (Wr6re); tdm&-culum (t0ma- 
clum), a sausage (comp. ro/zi}); torc-ulum, a press (torqvBre); 
veii-i-cillum, a carriage (v61i-ire); Tln-culum (vlndum), a bond 
(vinclre); umbrft-culum, a shady place, a parasol (umbrft-re). 

-un-ctilo i.e. -ciilo suff xed to stems (real or presumed) in -fin. 863 

(a) Masculine: &y-imculiu, a mother^ s brother (ftyo-, a grand' 
father); carb-un-culus, a small coal (carbOn-); cent-nn-culos, a 

326 Word-Formation. [Book III. 

small patchfivork (cent5ii-); fGLr-un-culUB, a petty thief (fOr-); bOm- 
mirculiis, a poor fellow (hdmfiii-); l&tr-im-culus, a footpad, a pa^wn ' 
in draughts (IfttartJn-); ISn-im-culus, {}) a young pander; (a) a 
skiff; pect-im-culus, a small scallop (pectdn-); p6t&s-im-«iiliis 
( Juv.), a small leg of pork (pdt-ft-sSn-) ; pugi-un-culus, a small 
dagger (pugiOn-); rftn-im-culiui, a tadpole (r&na-); serm-iui-culiis, 
tittle-tattle (sermOn-); tir-im-culus, a young beginner (UrOn-). 

(h) Feminine: chiefly diminutives of substantives in -tiOn 
(-eiOn); frequent in Cicero: 

SBdincSrtlUA-cnla, a small building; ambtUft-tluii-ciila, a short 
tmalk; asaentSrtiim-ciila, a bit of flattery; can-tiun-cula, a s<weet 
song; cap-edun-cula, a small bowl (capCddn-); cap-tlim-cula, a 
qmbble; c&r-im-cula, a ^/^r^ o/[/^ji6 (cardn- nom. c&ro) ; cfinft-tlim-ciila 
(Plin. Ep^y^ a small dining-room; commO-tiuiL-ci]la, a slight disturb- 
ance; con-tlim-cula, a short harangue; oonelfL-siun-ciila, a quibbling 
argument; contrac-tiim-cnla, a slight expression; ddm-im-cula (Val. 
Max.)^ a small house (ddmu-); IcHn-cula (Suet.), a little image 
{•Ikov^I lm-a«ran-cula (Suet cf. Cic. Att, 6. i. §. 25), a little like- 
ness (Ixnflgdn-) ; Interroga-tlim-cula, a short question; lec-tlnn-cula, 
a little reading; Idg-iun-cula, a small legion (leglSn-) ; mor-siun-ciila 
(Plant.), a s^t bite (xnorsu-); occ&-siun^ula (Plaut.), a neat oppor- 
tunity; offen-siun-cnla, a slight offence; SrA-tiim-oula, a little speech; 
posseB-slim-cula, a small possession; auaes-tlim-cula, a trifling 
question; r&-tlun-cula, a little account; r6gS>-tiim-ci]la, a little ques- 
tion; ses-Blim-cula, a little sitting; vlr-gun-cula, a little girl 
(vliioxi-) ; and others. 

(f) Neuter: mendad-uncnlixm (only abl. plur.), afb, 

-us-cftlo i.e. ctUo- suffixed to the stem of the comparative degree: 864 

alti-U8-culU8 (Suet.), somewhat high; oompl-us-cull (pi.), 
pretty many; durl-ns-culus (Plin.), somewhat harsh; grandi-us-eula 
(f., Ter. Andr, %i$), pretty well grown-up ; Uqvldi-ns-culiis (Plaut.), 
softer; longt-us-culns, rather long; maJ-us-culus, somewhat greater; 
meli-U8-culU8, somewhat better; mln-us-culus, rather less; nitldl- 
ns-culus (Plaut.), somewhat shiny; plus-culns, somewhat more, 
several; patIdi-U8-culii8, somenvhat more ^disagreeable ; tardl-us- 
cuius, somewhat slow; uncti-as-calus (Plaut.), somewhat unctuous. 
So the adverb c616ri-uB-oule (Com.), somewhat more quickly, 

-6d-iUo- mOxi-§di2la, a jackda^w; nltedula, a dormouse; qyer- 86< 
Qvedula, a kind of duck, 

-ull-iUo paulliUas, very little, also as surname. 86( 

-ell-ftio i.e. tUo added to diminutives in ello (fbrSrttlo); agel- 
IUI118 (Catul.), a little field (fi«eUo-); beUulus (Plaut), 

Chap, V/I.] Lingual Noun- Stems: -uaciilo, -elltllo, -Ua 327 

pretty (bello-); cist-ellula, a little box (dsteUar-) ;